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研究生:宋孟桓
研究生(外文):Meng-Huan Sung
論文名稱:鋯鈦酸鉛薄膜之性質量測及其在發電裝置應用之研究
論文名稱(外文):Characterization of Thin-Film PZT and The Application of Micro Power Generator Using PZT Film
指導教授:吳嘉哲
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:鋯鈦酸鉛薄膜微發電機溶膠凝膠技術模態量測壓電常數量測發電功率發電裝置內阻值
外文關鍵詞:Zirconate Titanate Oxide (PZT) thin filmmicro power generatorsol-gel techniquemode shape measurementpiezoelectric coefficient measurementpower outputthe intrinsic resistance of thin-film generator
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發展從周遭環境獲得能量的微型發電機近年來受到各國研究單位的重視。在各種微發電裝置中,壓電式發電裝置為最具潛力的一種。壓電發電裝置是利用壓電材料的特性將裝置的變形轉換成電能。欲發展高效率壓電發電裝置就必須加大發電裝置的變形量或是提高壓電材料的壓電效應,因此發展質量輕、變形量大、壓電效率佳的鋯鈦酸鉛(PZT)薄膜為其中一重要關鍵技術。
本論文分為兩個部份,第一部分為利用溶膠-凝膠技術(sol-gel technique)並以白金基板退火與未退火二種不同製程沉積高壓電特性的PZT薄膜,經由極化測試後將選定白金基板未退火製程來製作PZT薄膜。成功的沉積於基板後再利用XRD、電滯曲線分析、電容阻抗量測以及壓電常數量測作定量分析。由XRD實驗結果得知第一層燒結後的薄膜其相位峰值均相同,因此成分為鈣鈦礦結構,即為最佳之PZT組成而越多層結晶性越強。在PZT薄膜厚度為1.5μm時,由電滯曲線分析得知承受最大電場為450(kV/cm),其中:殘留極化量Pr為 、自發極化量Ps為 、矯頑電場Ec為100(kV/cm)。電容阻抗分析中證明PZT薄膜趨近電容的特性,測得電容值為29.4nF且漏電流值僅0.025。壓電常數量測中,測得e31=0.267C/m2 。
第二部份為利用PZT薄膜發展微型發電裝置。首先建立發電元件電轉換模式,並利用有限元素法分析微發電機的模態。本論文將發電元件製作成懸臂樑型式,利用激振器激發懸臂樑的第一共振模態產生最大振幅。接著利用實驗量測發電元件的模態並與有限元素分析結果做比對。最後探討發電元件在共振下應變與發電量之關並量測發電功率。在結構模態與自然頻率中,將實驗結果與有限元素分析比較,結果相當接近。與彭泰龍[16]實驗中相比,在相同條件下壓電薄膜發電量優於塊材PZT,且使用壓電薄膜形式發電裝置可降低其內阻值。
Micro power generators which harvest energy from ubiquitous environmental excitation have gained immense attention in the last decade. Among several micro harvesting devices, one of the most potential is piezoelectric power generator. Piezoelectric harvesting devices convert ambient vibration energy to electrical power via piezoelectric effect. To achieve high efficiency of power generator, either larger vibration of piezoelectric device or higher piezoelectric effect of piezoelectric material is desired. One of the most importance techniques is to develop Lead Zirconate Titanate Oxide (PZT) thin film. In this thesis, sol-gel process is used to fabricate high performance PZT thin film on silicon wafer. PZT film is fabricated on annealed and non-annealed Pt/Ti/SiNx/SiO2/Si substrate. Thin film on non-annealed Pt/Ti/SiNx/SiO2/Si substrate is preferred because it could be poled at higher electric field in polarization test. The resulting thickness reaches 1.5μm in three coatings for annealed with crack-free areas as large as 4mm×4mm. In the P-E hysteresis measurement, the testing electrode is 3mm×3mm. Saturation poling field is 450kV/cm and coercive field is 100kV/cm. Remnant and Saturation polarization is 12.2μC/cm2 and 33.2μC/cm2. In the LCR measurement, the capacitance of PZT film is 29.4nF and dielectric loss is just 0.025. Dielectric constant, 553, can be determined by the capacitance, thickness and surface area of film. In the piezoelectric coefficient measurement, e31 is 0.267C/m2.
Fabricated PZT thin films then are implemented into micro power generator application. In the thesis, the energy conversion model and mode shape of power generator are also determined by analytic and finite element analysis. The power generator is designed in the form of cantilever beam and excited at first resonance mode to generator maximum vibration amplitude. The applied strain and induced charges are compared. Finally, the power output has been determined. Experimental results show that mode shapes of power generator by experiment are similar as ANSYS model. Compared to the result in TAI-LUNG PENG thesis [16], thin film power generator could harvest more energy than bulky one under the same condition. The intrinsic resistance of thin-film generator also could be reduced at four times.
致謝 I
摘要 II
Abstract IV
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 XIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2文獻回顧 3
1.3研究動機與目的 7
1.4章節大綱 8
第二章 相關理論 9
2.1 鐵電材料與特性 9
2.2壓電材料 11
2.3壓電效應 12
2.4 鋯鈦酸鉛結構 14
2.5壓電材料組成方程式(constitutive equation)[35] 16
2.6振動理論 18
2.7懸臂樑振動理論[16] 19
2.8 MCK機械振動系統與RLC電路系統轉換理論[15] 20
2.9壓電元件發電原理[15] 24
第三章 壓電薄膜發電元件製作 28
3.1溶膠-凝膠法(Sol-gel)簡介 28
3.2鋯鈦酸鉛溶液製備 28
3.3白金矽基板製作 29
3.4壓電薄膜製作流程 31
3.5壓電薄膜白金未退火製作流程 37
3.6 壓電元件上電極與結構製作 39
3.7 極化電極 42
第四章 壓電薄膜性質分析 44
4.1 X光繞射儀(X-Ray Diffractometer) 44
4.2電滯曲線(P-E CURVE)量測 46
4.3 PZT電容與阻抗 47
4.4阻抗-相位量測 48
4.5電容-漏電流量測 49
4.6相對介電常數(Relative permittivity) 51
第五章 壓電薄膜發電元件模擬與發電性能量測 52
5.1實驗流程 52
5.2 ANSYS模態分析 53
5.3 ANSYS模態分析結果 54
5.4 設備介紹 56
5.5 壓電發電元件自然頻率量測 58
5.6 壓電發電元件第一模態量測 61
5.7共振電壓與應變量測 63
5.8共振功率量測 69
第六章 結果討論與未來方向 72
6.1結果討論 72
6.2未來方向 74
參考文獻 75
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