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研究生:黃政傑
研究生(外文):HUANG CHENG CHIEH
論文名稱:爪子引擎之性能分析研究
論文名稱(外文):Analysis of the Performance of the Claw Engine
指導教授:盧昭暉盧昭暉引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:爪子引擎引擎爪子
外文關鍵詞:claw emgineclawengine
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本研究主要是進行爪子引擎構想可行性的探討,執行的工作包括爪子引擎設計參數的性能分析,建立完整循環模式與完整循環模式的使用者介面,建立冷卻水套分析模式。
本文先以空氣標準循環(Air Standard Cycle)的分析方式,以空氣為系統工作流體,並將系統工作過程簡化,以得到系統的性能,再進一步建立完整的循環模式。完整的循環分析模式是將空氣標準循環模式修正,加入更多實際引擎運轉時會發生的過程,包括洩漏,燃燒,熱傳,暫態啟動,已完成的循環計算為洩漏與燃燒過程,計算範圍從壓縮腔進氣開始,壓縮腔排氣進入儲氣槽,再從儲氣槽排氣到燃燒腔,直到燃燒後的排氣完成。完整循環分析模式中包括洩漏量模式,充氣模式,燃燒模式,熱傳模式,能量平衡模式,以上模式皆已完備的建立在完整循環程式之中。建立完整循環分析模式,可以清楚得知整個爪子引擎在運作時,所有角度的性質,並減少在分析時所需要事先給定的假設值,能較準確的預測引擎性能,評估各設計參數對引擎性能的影響。建立完整循環分析模式後,本研究利用Visual Basic將完整循環分析模式,整合為容易使用的介面,讓所有設計者能夠輕易的選擇任何設計參數進行分析。
整個爪子引擎有兩類設計參數可供設計時的選擇。第一類為幾何設計參數,包括爪子數目,轉子數,轉子半徑,轉子形狀(α角與β角),壁面厚度等。這一類的設計參數會影響到引擎外觀,重量,尺寸,與性能。第二類為性能設計參數,共有五個,分別為壓縮腔與燃燒腔的相位差,掃氣埠打開角度,驅氣埠關閉角度,驅氣埠開啟角度,及儲氣槽體積。這一類的設計參數只會影響系統性能,不會影響引擎外觀尺寸。本研究中針對第一類與第二類性能設計參數做了詳細的分析,以掌握引擎的特性
爪子引擎散熱模式中,主要帶走熱量的方法有三種,由外殼的冷卻水路所帶走的熱量,由爪子內的油路所帶走的熱量,由腔壁的所散失的熱量,在之前的章節已針對於腔壁的所散失的熱量進行探討,本文探討爪子引擎冷卻水流道的散熱效率,以及冷卻水流道管路之間的壓力降。
This research is mainly for discussing the practicability of claw engine conception. It includes performance analysis for claw engine design parameter, establishing user interface as completed cycle mode and the completed cycle mode, and establishing cooling system analysis mode should be executed.
First, by Air Standard Cycle analysis, let air as system operating fluid and simplify system work process to get the system performance and establish the completed cycle mode.
The completed cycle analysis mode is to revise Air Standard Cycle mode and join more processes which will happen when engine’s in action, include leakage,combustion,heat transfer,Transition start . The completed cycle calculation as the process of leak and combustion, the calculated range starts from the air into compressor, the compressor exhaust and enter to the buffer then to the combustor, until the burning exhaust is completed.
Completed cycle analysis mode includes leakage model, induction model, combustion model, heat transfer model, and energy balance. Above modes are replete establishing in completed cycle mode.
Establish completed cycle analysis mode could clearly know the all angles characters when the entire claw engine operating, and reduce the assumption value need when analysis to increase the accuracy of forecast engine performance, then estimate the influences of each design parameter to the engine performance
After establishing completed cycle analysis mode, we uses Visual Basic to let the completed cycle analysis mode integrate to be a easy used interface, and all designer could easily choose any design parameter to do the analysis.
Entire claw engine has two kind of design parameter could be selected when design. First category is for geometric design parameter, includes number of claws, number of rotors, rotor diameter, rotor shape, and thickness of compressor and combustor etc. This kind of design parameters could affect the engine outside look, weight, size, and performance.
The other category is for performance design parameter. There are five parameters: phase angle( ),Scavenge air port opening angle( ),purging port closing angle( ),purging port opening angle ( ), and buffer volume( ). This kind of design parameters only could affect the system performance, not engine outside look size. In this research, we have the detailed analysis for these two categories of performance design parameter to grip the engine characters.
In the claw engine heat transfer mode, there are three mainly methods to take off thermal, by the cool waterway on the cover, by oil duct in the claw, or by the wall. In before chapter, we have discussed the heat flux which disappears by the wall. Now we will discuss the heat transfer efficiency by claw engine cool waterway and the pressure decreasing between cool water way.
目錄
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………....…. 1
1.1 基本構造介紹及運轉原理……………...………………… 1
1.2 研究方法………………………………...………………… 1
1.2.1 建立引擎系統運轉模式……………………………. 2
1.2.2 建立熱力學模式……………………………………. 2
1.2.3 建立循環分析模式…………………………………. 2
1.2.4 設計參數分析………………………………………. 2
1.2.5 與現有活塞引擎及轉子引擎的比較………………. 3
1.2.6 爪式轉子引擎動態特性探討………………………. 3
1.3 文獻回顧………………………………………...……….... 3
第二章 空氣標準循環模式................................................................. 6
2.1 系統規格..........................................................…................. 6
2.2 系統運轉方式...............................................….................... 8
2.2.1 上層壓縮段................................................................ 8
2.2.2 下層燃燒段...........................................…................. 8
2.2.3 系統設計參數............................................................ 8
2.3 計算模式............................................................................. 10
2.3.1 等容混合過程........................................................... 10
2.3.2 等熵過程................................................................... 10
2.3.3 等壓過程................................................................... 10
2.3.4 等容燃燒過程........................................................... 10
2.3.5 做功........................................................................... 11
2.4 循環計算............................................................................. 12
2.4.1 進氣過程,0° 322°........................................ 12
2.4.2 左側壓縮過程,322° 341°............................ 13
2.4.3 左右兩側相通, 341°....................................... 13
2.4.4 繼續壓縮,341°~360°............................................. 14
2.4.5 暫存區形成,360°................................................... 14
2.4.6 繼續壓縮, 360°~400°............................................ 15
2.4.7 逆流過程,400°........................................................ 15
2.4.8 壓縮與充氣過程....................................................... 16
2.4.8.1 排氣壓縮,400°~480°.................................... 16
2.4.8.2 排氣壓縮與充氣過程,° °,° °,(設計參數) ....................................................................... 16
2.4.8.3 充氣過程, 0° 40°............................... 16
2.4.9 中間儲氣槽壓力與溫度計算................................... 18
2.4.10 燃燒過程, 40°................................................ 19
2.4.11 第一階段膨脹過程,40° 120°...................... 19
2.4.12 暫存區等容混合, 120°.................................. 20
2.4.13 第二階段膨脹過程,120° 138°.................... 20
2.4.14 分成兩個系統, 138°....................................... 20
2.4.15 左側膨脹過程,138° 159°............................ 20
2.4.16 右側排氣過程, 322°....................................... 21
2.4.17 左側排氣過程, 342°...................................... 21
2.4.18 暫存區形成............................................................. 22
2.5 循環性能............................................................................. 23
2.5.1 汽缸體積、壓力與溫度變化................................... 23
2.5.2 循環做功................................................................... 23
2.5.2.1 進氣與壓縮過程所做的負功........................ 23
2.5.2.2 燃燒與膨脹過程所做的正功........................ 24
2.5.3 扭力........................................................................... 24
2.5.4 進氣量....................................................................... 25
2.5.5 壓縮比....................................................................... 25
第三章、爪子引擎完整循環分析模式................................................. 33
3.1 進氣與壓縮層詳細模式..................................................... 34
3.1.1 進氣過程,0° 165°….................................... 34
3.1.2 165° 180°...................................................... 34
3.1.3 180° 322°...................................................... 35
3.1.4 322° 341°...................................................... 36
3.1.5 341° 350°...................................................... 37
3.1.6 352°................................................................. 39
3.1.7 352° 360°...................................................... 39
3.1.8 360°................................................................. 39
3.1.9 360° ......................................................... 40
3.1.10 442°....................................................... 40
3.1.11 442° 480°.................................................... 42
3.2 燃燒與膨脹層詳細模式..................................................... 43
3.2.1 0° 9°............................................................... 43
3.2.2 9°..................................................................... 44
3.2.3 9° 38°............................................................. 45
3.2.4 38° 120°......................................................... 45
3.2.5 120° 129°....................................................... 46
3.2.6 129°................................................................. 46
3.2.7 129° 141°....................................................... 47
3.2.8 141°................................................................. 47
3.2.9 141° 158°....................................................... 47
3.2.10 158° 322°..................................................... 48
3.2.11 322° 342°..................................................... 49
3.2.12 342° 360°..................................................... 49
3.2.13 360°............................................................... 49
3.2.14 360°............................................................... 50
3.3 其他次模式......................................................................... 50
3.3.1 充氣模式................................................................... 50
3.3.2 燃燒模式................................................................... 51
3.3.3 熱傳模式................................................................... 52
3.3.4 能量平衡模式........................................................... 53
3.3.5 洩漏量模式............................................................... 54
3.4 壓縮腔與燃燒腔間相位角(ψ)的設定................................ 55
3.4.1 掃氣角度與驅氣角度完全重疊, ……………………………………….. 55
3.4.2 掃氣角度與驅氣角度部分重疊, ………………………………………..... 56
3.4.3 掃氣角度與驅氣角度沒有重疊, ………………………………………………….... 56
3.5 使用者介面……………………………………...……….. 56
3.6 使用者介面說明…………………………………...…….. 57
第四章、冷卻水流道熱傳分析.............................................................. 62
4.1 爪子引擎冷卻水流道說明................................................. 62
4.1.1 主要損失................................................................... 62
4.1.2 次要損失.................................................................. 63
4.2 管路模式............................................................................. 63
4.2.1 串聯管路.................................................................. 63
4.2.2 並聯管路.................................................................. 64
4.3 冷卻水流量......................................................................... 64
4.4 熱傳係數............................................................................. 64
4.4.1 圓管........................................................................... 65
4.4.2 方槽........................................................................... 66
4.5 能量平衡............................................................................. 66
4.5.1 冷卻水道熱傳量與水溫........................................... 66
4.5.2 腔體熱傳量與溫度................................................... 67
4.5.3 計算程序................................................................... 68
第五章、結果與討論............................................................................. 75
5.1 第一類設計參數................................................................. 75
5.1.1 燃燒腔與壓縮腔不同的厚度................................... 75
5.1.2 三爪與兩爪的比較................................................... 78
5.2 第二類設計參數................................................................. 78
5.2.1 空氣標準循環模式................................................... 79
5.2.1.1 的影響........................................................ 79
5.2.1.2 的影響........................................................ 79
5.2.1.3 的影響....................................................... 80
5.2.1.4 相位角的影響................................................ 82
5.2.1.5 下層進氣埠開口面積的影響........................ 82
5.2.2 完整循環模式........................................................... 82
5.2.2.1 掃氣角角度.................................................... 82
5.2.2.2 儲氣槽體積.................................................... 83
5.2.2.3 驅氣角角度.................................................... 84
5.2.2.4 壓縮腔與燃燒腔的相位差…........................ 84
5.2.2.5 止逆閥............................................................ 86
5.2.2.6 起動過程模擬................................................ 86
5.2.2.7 空燃比............................................................ 86
5.2.2.8 燃燒速度........................................................ 87
5.3 轉速的影響......................................................................... 88
第六章、結論與未來工作......................................................................124
6.1 結論................................................................................... 124
6.2 未來工作........................................................................... 125
6.2.1 程式的升級與整合................................................. 125
6.2.2 爪式轉子引擎熱傳分析......................................... 125
6.2.3 實驗量測................................................................. 125
參考文獻............................................................................................... 126
參考文獻
[1]. Hakchul Kong, Robert L. Woods “A Variable-Resonance Vortex Amplifier for Use In Intake Manifold Tuning”, FLUCOME 91 ASME, 1991.
[2]. Laurent-Charles Valdes, Renaud Theis, Benoit Barthod, and Bernard Desmet, “Calculating transient flows through ducts of non-constant
rectangular shape” Vacuum/volume 48/number 10/pages 839-843/1997.
[3]. Laurent-Charles Valdes, Benoit Barthod, Yves Le Perron, “Accurate prediction of internal leaks in stationary dry Roots vacuum pumps” Vacuum 52 (1999)451-459.
[4]. 施尚融,「葉頂間隙對壓縮機性能之影響」,碩士論文,國立成功大學。
[5]. Jehad A.A. Yamin, Mohammad H. Dado, “Performance simulation of a four-stroke engine with variable stroke-length and compression ratio”, Applied Energy 77 (2004) 447–463.
[6]. Dr. Philip Rubini, ” Numerical Modelling and Simulation of Rotary Engine”, Cranfield University, 2003.
[7]. 左承基,压缩空气发动机的设计及初步试验,合肥工业大学学报,第28卷第6期2005年6月。
[8]. 许 宏,压缩空气动力汽车的可行性研究,中国机械工程第13 卷第17期2002年9月上半月。
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