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研究生:蔡佳芳
研究生(外文):Jia-Fang Tsay
論文名稱:土壤溫度對三種根瘤線蟲侵入和生長的影響
論文名稱(外文):The impact of soil temperature on invading and growth of three Meloidogyne species
指導教授:蔡東纂
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:植物病理學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:植物保護學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:25
中文關鍵詞:土壤溫度南方根瘤線蟲爪哇根瘤線蟲北方根瘤線蟲
外文關鍵詞:soil temperatureM. incognitaM. javanicaM. hapla
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植物寄生性線蟲容易透過商業貿易行為進行遠距離傳播,若因此適應新環境的氣候而成功繁殖將會對當地農業造成嚴重影響。本論文包含二部份實驗,A試驗於不同土溫處理下培養空心菜寄主並接種線蟲Meloidogyne incognita、M. javanica和M. hapla;B試驗則於接種15天後再以不同土溫處理,藉此探討土溫對三種根瘤線蟲在侵入寄主作物、生長速度及繁殖能力的影響。M. incognita和M. javanica的土溫處理為10 ~ 40 ℃共7個溫度;M. hapla則為10、20、30與40 ℃。由實驗結果得知M. incognita、M. javanica在25、30 ℃土溫最適合侵入、發育及卵塊孵化。M. hapla最適侵入根系溫度為20 ℃,30 ℃發育速度最快。由實驗可知常發現於低溫地區的M. hapla可能已逐漸適應較溫暖的氣候。M. incognita和M. hapla在土溫40 ℃,與M. javanica在15和40 ℃土溫時生長緩慢未產生卵塊。由根系染色結果發現M. incognita、M. hapla在10 ℃土溫中無法發育。比較A與B試驗發現:M. incognita在10、15、40 ℃;M. javanica在10、35、40 ℃;M. hapla在10、30 ℃土溫B試驗根瘤指數顯著大於A試驗,表示土溫為影響線蟲侵入的主要原因之一;而線蟲發育速度也是B試驗顯著大於A試驗,顯示線蟲侵入根系內後受根系保護,土溫的影響便下降。M. incognita在15和35 ℃,M. javanica在35 ℃土溫的A試驗卵塊孵化率顯著大於B試驗,推測在非最適生長溫度下還能成功侵染的線蟲,也許具備適應不良環境的性狀,故子代的孵化率反而較高。三種根瘤線蟲的A、B試驗土中蟲數無顯著差異,推測線蟲的生長週期及殘存能力受土溫的影響較小。在室溫下混接二種根瘤線蟲,比較侵入量的比例,M. incognita大於M. javanica和M. hapla,而M. hapla又大於M. javanica。由本實驗推測線蟲可發展出逐漸適應逆境的潛力,且臺灣地型的海拔高落差大,提供了不同的溫度範圍,故若由熱帶或溫帶引入病原線蟲仍有風險存在。
Transportation makes long - distance dispersal of plant - parasitic nematode possible. If plant - parasitic nematode adapted the new environment and built a large population it would make sever damage on the local agriculture. This thesis includes two experiments: Experiment A cultured the nematodes & host at different soil temperature for 45 days. In experiment B, after inoculate nematodes on the hosts, the plants were maintained in the GH for 15 days the proceeded to be treated & at different soil temperature. The experiments would clarify the impact of soil temperature on invading, growth and reproduce of three Meloidogyne species. Seven soil temperature treatment of M. incognita and M. javanica was studied between 10 ~ 40 ℃; M. hapla was treated with 10, 20, 30, 40 ℃. The results indicated, the optimum temperatures for invasion, growth, egg - hatching of M. incognita, M. javanica were 25, 30 ℃ respectively. The optimum temperature of M. hapla for invasion was 20 ℃, for growth was 30 ℃. M. hapla occurs more frequently in cooler climates, but they were also found in warmer climates. M. incognita, M. hapla at 40 ℃; M. javanica at 15、40 ℃ soil temperature developed slowly and did not have egg-masses. The results of staining experiment are that M. incognita, M. hapla could not grow at 10 ℃ soil temperature. The data of galling index in experiment B of M. incognita treated with 10, 15, 40 ℃; M. javanica 10, 35, 40 ℃; M. hapla 10, 30 ℃ soil temperature were significantly higher than those in experiment A. The phenomena indicated that soil temperature was one of the major factors to influence nematode invading. Exp. B nematodes also had significant higher growth rate than experiment A, indicated that nematodes were protected by host after invading into root, and the influence of soil temperature were less. The egg hatching rates of M. incognita in experiment A at 15, 35℃; M. javanica at 35℃ soil temperature were significantly higher than experiment B. The results implied, nematodes, which could invade at adverse temperature, might have tolerance traits thus the offspring had higher hatching rate. The data of J2 in the soil of three Meloidogyne sp. in Exp. A & B were not significantly different, this indicated soil temperature was not the major factor to influence on nematode life cycle and surviving ability. Two Meloidogyne species are mixed inoculated to study their competition in one host. The rate of invasion of M. incognita was higher than M. hapla and M. hapla was higher than M. javanica. The geography in Taiwan had low plain and high mountains provided great range of altitude & temperature. Plant parasitic nematodes from tropics or temperate zone had great risk to establish in our country, this study showed that 100% mortality with heat treatment in quarantine was necessary.
前言.......................................................1
材料與方法.................................................5
一、蟲源和寄主植物的預備..................................5
二、土溫對根根瘤線蟲生長、繁殖的影響......................5
三、土溫對根瘤線蟲生活史的影響............................6
四、兩種根瘤線蟲混合接種後的侵入比例之比較................7
結果.......................................................8
一、土壤溫度對根瘤線蟲生長的影響..........................8
(一)A試驗:植株接種根瘤線蟲後,同時進行不同土溫處理....8
(二)B試驗:植株先行接種根瘤線蟲15天後,再進行不同土壤溫 度處理.....................................................9
二、土壤溫度對根瘤線蟲生活史的影響.......................10
(一)對M. incognita之影響..............................10
(二)對M. javanica之影響...............................10
(三)對M. hapla之影響..................................11
三、兩種根瘤線蟲混合接種後的侵入比例之比較...............11
討論......................................................12
引用文獻..................................................22
表........................................................26
圖........................................................32
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