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研究生:黃琇亭
研究生(外文):Shiou-Ting Huang
論文名稱:紅龍果果實生長期間果實和肉質莖組成份變化及對套袋、環剝和砷酸鉛之反應
論文名稱(外文):The Composition Change in Hylocereus undatus Fruit during Growth and Responses to Bagging, Girdling, and Arsenate Lead
指導教授:林慧玲林慧玲引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:園藝學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:紅龍果砷酸鉛套袋環剝蘋果酸
外文關鍵詞:Hylocereus undatuslead arsenatebagginggirdlingmalic acid
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紅龍果果肉、果皮與肉質莖在各個生長階段之成份變化顯示,果肉在轉色期間可溶性固形物、可溶性醣等成分隨果實生長逐漸增加,澱粉則逐漸減少,直至果實完全成熟。礦物元素在果實生長階段持續的減少,導因於果實生長所造成之稀釋作用,成熟時又以果皮含量大於果肉。果皮可溶性醣在果實生長期間含量維持穩定,然澱粉含量卻持續的減少,顯示水解的澱粉可能轉而貯存於果肉中。果肉可溶性醣主要成分為葡萄糖和果糖,另有少量蔗糖存在,其變化趨勢與可溶性醣相同。影響紅龍果果實糖類貯存的酵素包含酸性蔗糖轉化酶(AI)、中性蔗糖轉化酶(NI)和α-澱粉水解酶,AI活性的增加伴隨葡萄糖濃度的快速上升,為醣類累積的關鍵酵素。蘋果酸是果皮中主要的有機酸,果皮蘋果酸在果實生長期間緩慢的增加。果肉可滴定酸在轉色前出現短暫的起伏的現象,果肉有機酸以蘋果酸含量最多,其變化與可滴定酸變化相類似,有機酸中除蘋果酸外還有少量的檸檬酸、抗壞血酸和草酸。肉質莖各成分在果實生長期間維持穩定狀態。砷酸鉛噴施會對紅龍果造成傷害,使果皮表面出現褐化凹陷班點,且使用的濃度越高傷害越嚴重。使用砷酸鉛噴施紅龍果果實與肉質莖不僅不減少果實可滴定酸含量,反而會有些微增加的情形,蘋果酸、檸檬酸的變化與可滴定酸相同,但不影響果實中可溶性醣、澱粉、葡萄糖和果糖的濃度。此外,噴施砷酸鉛後蘋果酸去氫酶活性明顯的下降,然隨果實發育成熟酵素活性漸漸回復,而元素分析結果顯示,噴施砷酸鉛不增加果肉中砷元素含量,表示果肉可滴定酸和有機酸的增加並非來自於砷酸鉛直接的影響,可能為砷酸鉛傷害果實所造成之逆境之結果。砷酸鉛的施用除略為增加果肉K和Mg含量之外,不影響其他營養元素濃度。果實套袋除增加果皮L值之外對果實內部成份皆沒有影響。開花後16天進行肉質莖環剝處理會促進部分果實的後熟而提早果實轉色,此外環剝顯著減少果實大小、果肉可滴定酸、有機酸、可溶性醣、葡萄糖和果糖等成分,主要在於此階段為澱粉合成旺盛時期,進行環剝處理減少碳水化合物的供給所導致。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the composition changes in the pulp, peel and cladode of H. undatus at different gowth stages. After onset of peel color change, the concentration of total soluble solids and total soluble sugars in the pulp gradually increased, while starch concentration decreased until the fruit was fully ripened. Mineral nutrition content declined gradually due to dilution effects of fruit growth. Upon ripening, mineral nutrition content in the peel tended to be higher than in the pulp. Despite stable total soluble sugars content throughout fruit growth, starch concentration in the peel declined consistently, implying dehydrated starch might have been transferred to the pulp. Sugars in the pulp, mainly composed of glucose, fructose and a small amount of sucrose, showed the same tendency of variation as the total soluble sugars content. Acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI) and α-amylase are enzymes affecting the accumulation of soluble sugars in pulp. AI, as the key enzyme, was associated with a rapid accumulation of glucose. Malic acid as the predominant organic acid in the peel increased gradually during fruit growth. Titratable acidity of pulp showed a short-lived sugar at the start of color change. Malic acid, also the main organic acid in pulp, showed a similar pattern to its titratable acidity. Other organic acids in pulp were citric acid, ascorbic acid and oxalic acid, but all in small amount. Nutrition levels of cladode remained stable throughout fruit growth.
Spraying lead arsenate caused injury symptoms like brownish and hollowed bruises on the peel surface. The higher the concentration sprayed, the more serious the injury. The titratable acidity, malic and citric acid levels of fruit slightly increased after spraying, while the total soluble sugars, starch, glucose and fructose contents were not affected.
Malate dehydrognase (MDH) activity significantly declined after the spraying, but it gradually recovered and even overtook the control upon maturation of the fruit. Results of mineral analysis showed no increase of arsenic in pulp, therefore the possibility of direct lead arsenate pollution on pulp titratable acidity and organic acid levels had been excluded. Instead, the increment of acidity might be caused by stress injuty of lead arsenate toxicity on the fruit. K and Mg concentrations in pulp were slightly raised after the spraying, while other nutrition elements were not affected.
With fruit bagging treatment, none of the fruit compositions was affected except an increment of L value of peel. Girdling cladode at 16th day after flowering partly promoted fruit maturity and early onset of peel color change. Fruit size, pulp titratable acidity, organic acids, total soluble sugars, fructose and glucose levels significantly decreased mainly due to girdling cladode treatment reduce carbohydrate translocation during this active starch synthesis period in fruit.
中文摘要 i
Summary ii
表目次 v
圖目次 vi
壹、 前言 1
貳、 前人研究 2
一、 仙人掌果果實之生長及發育 2
二、 砷酸鉛與有機酸之降解關係 8
三、 環剝處理(Girdling) 9
四、 套袋 11
參、 材料與方法 14
一、 果實生長發育期間果實及肉質莖內礦物元素及品質之變化 14
二、 退酸劑對果實品質之影響 19
三、 套袋及環剝處理 22
肆、 結果 23
一、 果實生長發育期間果實及肉質莖內礦物元素及品質之變化 23
二、 退酸劑對果實品質之影響 38
三、 套袋及環剝處理 60
伍、 討論 73
一、 果實生長發育期間果實及肉質莖內礦物元素及品質之變化 73
二、 退酸劑對果實品質之影響 79
三、 套袋對紅龍果之影響 83
四、 環剝對紅龍果之影響 85
陸、 結論 88
柒、 參考文獻 89
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