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研究生:羅惠萍
研究生(外文):Hui-Peen Lo
論文名稱:蓮霧果實發育及裂果之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Fruit Development and Splitting of Waxapple(Syzygium samarangenes Merr. et Perry)
指導教授:楊耀祥楊耀祥引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:園藝學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:148
中文關鍵詞:蓮霧果實生長裂果
外文關鍵詞:waxapplefruit developmentsplitting
相關次數:
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''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧果實細胞分裂於滿花前皆已完成。其春果及冬果的果重、體積、果長、果寬、海綿組織之長度與寬度、空腔之長度及寬度等之生長曲線皆為單S型。春果的發育時期僅需9週而比冬果短。''粉紅種''與''大果種''其春果果實硬度比冬果低。冬果的形狀為長形,春果形狀為胖圓形。''大果種''較''粉紅種''蓮霧果肉細胞層數多,且其細胞大小亦較大。
產地調查結果發現''大果種''裂果率較''粉紅種''為高,而裂果率以夏果最高,其次為春果和秋果,冬果為最低。植株樹勢強者其裂果率亦較高。草生栽培者裂果率較低。種植於石礫地者其裂果率較其他土壤質地高。土壤水分灌溉量高者其裂果率亦較高。在催花前經適當的修剪、浸水及遮光處裡,可以維持樹勢的穩定,裂果率會較低。果實成熟時大量抽新梢,其裂果率明顯較高,以手摘除新梢較其他抑制抽新梢的方法裂果率低。
春果較冬果裂果率高,且又以''大果種''較''粉紅種''高。冬果的正常果硬度較裂果者高。春果的裂果者果實體積、果寬、海綿組織之寬度及果實硬度較正常果高。至於''粉紅種''春果果實開裂的部位於維管束附近,該部位細胞間排列不整齊,且細胞有破裂現象。
不同品種比較,''Dang Indo''、''Vietnam Pink''及''Idonesia Big Fruit''三品種果實硬度較高,果實細胞層數較多,細胞排列緊密整齊,裂果率相對較低;而''Phet Sam Phram''、''粉紅種''、''大果種''果實硬度較低,果實細胞層數較少,細胞排列鬆散,其裂果率較高。
控制土壤溼度於0至 -80 centibar之間,''粉紅種''蓮霧裂果率為87 %。而控制土壤溼度於'' 0至 -80 centabar 之間及 0至 -40 centabar 之間,''大果種''蓮霧之裂果率皆達100%。''大果種''以紙袋、紙網帶、塑膠袋、藍色不織布袋、白色不織布袋、塑膠網袋及泰維克袋材質套袋後,其裂果率分別為48.9%、37.9%、94.7%、61.1%、40.1%及70.3%及40.2%。若以低土壤水分處理並配合透氣性佳的紙網袋材質處理,可降低裂果率。
鈣噴施處理方面,以50 mM乳酸鈣或84 mM氯化鈣同時噴施葉片及果實其裂果率最低。滿花前噴施可降低''粉紅種''蓮霧之裂果率,於滿花前23天噴施10 ppm SNA或25 ppm GA4+7皆可以降低裂果率,但噴施多次者則裂果率增加。
The cell division of ''Pink'' and ''Big-fruit'' waxapple fruit had almost finished before full bloom. The growth curves of fruit weight、fruit volume、fruit length、fruit width、length of sponge tissue、width of sponge tissue、length of cavity、width of cavity and all were sigmoid in spring and winter fruit of ''Pink'' and ''Big-Fruit'' waxapples. It took 9 weeks to grow for/spring fruit , which was significantly shorter than winter fruit. The firmness of ''Pink'' and ''Big-fruit'' spring fruit were lower than winter fruit. The fruit of ''Pink'' and ''Big-fruit'' waxapples were bell long shape and wide bell shape in winter fruit and spring fruit, respectively. The cell arrangement of winter fruit was more dense than spring fruit. The number of cell layer in ''Big-fruit'' waxapple was more than ''Pink'' waxapple and cell size was also larger than ''Pink'' waxapple.
A survey conducted in the production area indicated that the fruit splitting percentage higher in ''Big-Fruit'' waxapple than in ''Pink'' waxapple. The splitting percentage was highest in summer fruit, spring fruit, autumn fruit and winter fruit. The fruit splitting percentage in strong vigor tree was higher than in weaken trees, and was also higher in the gravel soil orchard than in other soil textures. Orchard soil with grass-cover had lower fruit splitting percentage. Higher irrigation level had higher fruit splitting percentage. Mild pruning, flooding and shading before flower forcing had lower fruit splitting percentage. High shoot flush during fruit mature stage had significantly higher fruit splitting percentage, and the new shoot removal lowered it.
The fruit splitting percentage in spring fruit was higher than in winter fruit and ''Big-fruit'' showed a higher level of fruit splitting percentage than ''Pink'' waxapple. The fruit firmness of normal fruit in winter was significantly higher than splitted fruit. The fruit volume, fruit width, fruit sponge tissue and fruit firmness of spllitted fruit in spring was significantly higher than normal fruit. The pulp cells in the splitting area in ''Pink'' spring fruit had loose arrangement and some of the cells were broken, which was near the vascular bundle.
The firmness of ''Dang Indo'', ''Vietnam Pink'' and ''Idonesia Big-Fruit'' were higher than other varieties and three varieties had more cell layers, more douse cell arrangement and lower.
In ''Pink'' waxapples, the treatment of 0~-80 centibar soil water content had a 87% fruit splitting. In ''Big-fruit'' waxapple, the treatment of 0~-80 centibar and 0~-40 centibar both had 100% fruit splitting. ''Big-fruit'' waxapple from paper, paper net, plastic, blue non-woven-fabaric, white non-woven-fabaric, plastic net and tyvek bagging treatments had 48.9%, 37.9%, 94.7%, 61.1%, 40.1%, 70.3% and 40.2%of fruit splitting, respectively. ''Big-fruit'' waxapple from low soil water content with paper net bagging treatment had reduced fruit splitting percentage.
Spraying leaves and fruits and fruit with 50 mM calcium lactate or 30 mM calcium chloride, its reduced fruit splitting percentage. Spraying 5ppm BA before full bloom reduced fruit splitting percentage in ''Pink'' waxapple in spring. Spray 10ppm SNA or 25ppm GA4 +7 23 days before full bloom, also reduced fruit splitting percentage, however splitting percentage was increased when the plant were spraied more than once .
目 次

中文摘要…........................................................................................ i
英文摘要............................................................................................ ii
目錄.................................................................................................... iv
緒言.................................................................................................... 01
前人研究............................................................................................ 03
第一章 蓮霧果實發育過程 ............................................................. 12
摘要........................... ................................................................. 12
前言............................................................................................. 13
材料與方法................................................................................. 14
結果.................................... ........................................................ 17
討論............................................................. ............................... 46
第二章 產地栽培管理措施與蓮霧裂果發生之調查分析............... 49
摘要............................................................................................. 49
前言............................................................................................. 50
材料與方法................................................................................. 51
結果............................................................................................. 53
討論............................................................................................. 68
第三章 不同生產季節與不同品種蓮霧裂果發生之比較............... 73
摘要............................................................................................. 73
前言............................................................................................. 74
材料與方法................................................................................. 75
結果............................................................................................. 79
討論............................................................................................. 94
第四章 栽培管理對蓮霧裂果發生之影響....................................... 98
摘要............................................................................................. 98
前言............................................................................................. 99
材料與方法................................................................................. 100
結果.............................................................................................. 107
討論.............................................................................................. 126
綜合討論............................................................................................. 130
參考文獻............................................................................................. 136
附錄1. ''粉紅種''蓮霧產地調查資料................................................... 145
附錄2. ''大果種''蓮霧產地調查資料................................................... 147



























表目次

表1. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧春果之花蕾發育期間花托細胞之變化............................................................................................... 37
表2. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧冬果果實發育期間之細胞變化......... 40
表3. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧春果果實發育期間細胞之變化......... 41
表4. 蓮霧果實之裂果指數............................................................... 78
表5. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧果實發育期間之裂果率..................... 81
表6. ''粉紅種''蓮霧正常果與裂果果實性狀之差異.......................... 82
表7. ''大果種''蓮霧正常果與裂果果實性狀之差異.......................... 83
表8. 不同品種蓮霧春果果實性狀之比較....................................... 86
表9. 不同品種蓮霧春果果實裂果之比較…................................... 89
表10. 不同蓮霧品種之春果果實細胞大小…................................. 90
表11. BA、GA3、GA4+7及SNA之處理時間................................. 106
表12. 土壤濕度對''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧春果果實性狀之影響... 108
表13. 土壤濕度對''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧春果裂果之影響............ 109
表14. 不同材質果袋套袋對''大果種''蓮霧春果果實性狀之影響...... 111
表15. 不同材質果袋套袋對''大果種''蓮霧春果裂果之影響............ 112
表16. 土壤溼度及套袋對''大果種''蓮霧春果果實性狀之影響....... 115
表17. 土壤溼度及套袋對''大果種''蓮霧春果果實裂果之影響....... 116
表18. 鈣噴施對''大果種''蓮霧春果果實性狀之影響....................... 117
表19. 鈣噴施對''大果種''蓮霧春果裂果之影響............................... 118
表20. 不同濃度GA 3處理花蕾對''粉紅種''蓮霧春果裂果之影響.. 120
表21. 不同濃度GA 4+7處理花蕾對''粉紅種''蓮霧春果裂果之影
響............................................................................................ 121
表22. SNA處理花蕾對''粉紅種''蓮霧春果裂果之影響................... 122
表23. GA 3處理花蕾對''粉紅種''蓮霧春果裂果之影響.................... 123
表24. GA 4+7處理花蕾對''粉紅種''蓮霧春果裂果之影響................ 124
表25. BA處理花蕾對''粉紅種''蓮霧春果裂果之影響...................... 125


圖目次

圖1. 觀察花托及果肉組織的細胞位置........................................... 16
圖2. 蓮霧果實縱切面各部位標識圖............................................... 16
圖3. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧果實生長發育期間之鮮重變化......... 18
圖4. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧冬果果實之發育................................. 19
圖5. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧春果果實之發育................................. 20
圖6. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧果實發育期間之體積變化................. 22
圖7. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧果實發育期間之果長變化................. 23
圖8. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧果實發育期間之果寬變化................. 25
圖9. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧果實發育期間之果實海綿組織長度
變化........................................................................................... 26
圖10. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧果實發育期間之果實海綿組織寬度
變化........................................................................................... 28
圖11. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧果實發育期間之果實空腔長度變化
................................................................................................... 29
圖12. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''果實發育期間之果實空腔寬度變化....... 30
圖13. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧果實發育期間之果實硬度變化....... 32
圖14. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧果實發育期間之果實可溶性固形物
變化........................................................................................... 33
圖15. ''粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧果實發育期間之果實可滴定酸變化
................................................................................................... 34
圖16. ''大果種''及''粉紅種''蓮霧果實發育期間之果肉水分含量變化
................................................................................................... 36
圖17. '' 粉紅種''及''大果種''蓮霧春果之花蕾發育期間花托細胞之變
化............................................................................................... 38
圖18. ''粉紅種''蓮霧冬果果實生長發育期間果肉細胞之變化......... 42
圖19. ''大果種''蓮霧冬果果實生長發育期間果肉細胞之變化........ 43
圖20. ''粉紅種''蓮霧春果果實生長發育期間果肉細胞之變化........ 44
圖21. ''大果種''蓮霧春果果實生長發育期間果肉細胞之變化........ 45
圖22. 不同蓮霧品種之裂果發生率 .............................................. 55
圖23. 不同產期之蓮霧裂果發生率 ............................................... 55
圖24. 不同生產數之蓮霧裂果發生率............................................. 56
圖25. 不同樹齡之蓮霧裂果發生率................................................ 56
圖26. 不同樹勢之蓮霧裂果發生率............................................... 57
圖27. 不同植株來源之蓮霧裂果發生率....................................... 57
圖28. 不同栽種方式之蓮霧裂果………....................................... 58
圖29. 不同土壤質地之蓮霧裂果發生率....................................... 58
圖30. 不同土壤排水性之蓮霧裂果發生率................................... 59
圖31. 灌水程度對蓮霧裂果之影響............................................... 59
圖32. 催花前斷根處理之裂果發生率........................................... 60
圖33. 果實發育期間葉肥噴施對蓮霧裂果之影響....................... 60
圖34. 催花前枝梢修剪程度對蓮霧裂果之影響........................... 61
圖35. 催花前達抽梢次數對裂果之影響....................................... 61
圖36. 催花前環狀剝皮對蓮霧裂果之影響................................... 62
圖37. 催花前遮光對蓮霧裂果之影響........................................... 62
圖38. 催花前浸水處理對蓮霧裂果之影響................................... 63
圖39. 不同催花方法對裂果之影響............................................... 63
圖40. 不同抑制新梢處理對蓮霧裂果之影響............................... 64
圖41. 不同套袋時間對蓮霧裂果之影響....................................... 64
圖42. 不同留果數對裂果之影響................................................... 65
圖43. 不同留果串數對裂果之影響............................................... 65
圖44. 不同著果位置對裂果之影響............................................... 66
圖45. 蓮霧果實成熟時之抽梢量對裂果之影響........................... 66
圖46. 蓮霧之果重與裂果之關係................................................... 67
圖47. 蓮霧果實開裂之形態........................................................... 80
圖48. ''粉紅種''蓮霧正常果及裂果之果肉細胞............................... 84
圖49. 不同品種蓮霧春果果實之外觀........................................... 87
圖50. 不同品種蓮霧春果果實之縱切面....................................... 88
圖51. 不同品種蓮霧春果之果肉細胞............................................. 91
圖52. 不同蓮霧品種春果果皮之表皮細胞..................................... 92
圖53. 不同材質的果袋................................................................... 102
圖54. ''大果種''蓮霧春果果皮表面之氣孔分佈............................... 113
圖55. 不同材質果袋套袋對''大果種''蓮霧春果表皮細胞形態之
影響........................................................................................ 114
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