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研究生:史意文
研究生(外文):Yi-Wen Shih
論文名稱:台灣民眾對天然災害造成健康損失之價值評估分析
論文名稱(外文):Valuation on health value from natural disaster in Taiwan
指導教授:鄭蕙燕鄭蕙燕引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huei-Yann Jeng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:應用經濟學系所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:條件評估法疾病成本法趨避行為法洪災疾病價值評估
外文關鍵詞:Willingness to pay methodCost of illnessAverting behavior methodflood-induced illnessvaluation.
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近年來,洪水對台灣的影響愈來愈大。洪災不僅使我們財產遭受損失,更對我們的生心理健康造成威脅。為了減輕洪災所產生的各種有形與無形的傷害,政府興建各種工程與非工程的防洪措施。然而在過去防洪措施的相關研究中,大多忽略了防洪措施對生心健康的效益。因此,本研究主要利用條件評估法、疾病成本法及趨避成本法評估防洪措施的健康效益值。並分析函數中的變數與各方法產生的結果之關係。
民眾對於防洪措施所產生之健康效益的平均每人願付價值為$3,613元,其中對心理健康的平均每人願付價值為$2,342元,生理健康的平均每人願付價值為$1,303元。此外,平均每人疾病總成本為$1,259元,其中醫療成本平均每人為NT$494元;生產力損失平均每人為NT$653元。平均每人的趨避成本為NT$307元。
本研究發現男性、家中有65歲以上老人的民眾、住在汐止或七堵之民眾、居住於透天樓房或二樓以下之民眾、因洪災而損失愈多之工作天數之民眾及有額外投保其他醫療保險之民眾較易遭受因洪災而產生的生心理疾病,因而願付較高的金額。然而,從事產品製造業之民眾對防洪措施所產生之健康效益的願付價值較低。此外,不論是否有因洪災而生病,民眾對心理健康的願付價值較高。就疾病成本法來看,家中有65歲以上老人的民眾及從事服務業之民眾為減輕洪災產生的疾病而花費較高。此外,本研究發現醫療成本與生產力損失並無顯著差異。至於趨避行為法,女性、住在汐止或內湖之民眾、從事服務業之民眾、已退休之民眾會花費較高的預防性支出。此外,我們發現民眾對防洪措施所產生之健康效益的願付價值(WTP)高於疾病成本(COI)。根據本研究之理論模型,我們更進一步地推知出總願付價值(WTP*)大於疾病成本(COI)與預防性支付之總和,此結果亦符合多數的實證結果。
Flood in Taiwan seems severer in these years. It damages not only properties but also physical and mental health. In order to prevent flood damages, government execute various structural and non-structural flood control measures. However, most of related studies neglect health benefits from flood control measures. In this study, we use contingent valuation method, cost of illness, and averting behavior method to estimate the health values from a flood control project. We also analyze the relationship of functional factors and health value arose by three methods. Moreover, relationships of these three methods are analyzed.
In this study, the mean of willingness to pay (WTP) for total health is NT$3,613 and the mean of WTP for mental health is NT$2,342 and mean of WTP for physical health is NT$1,303. Moreover, mean of costs of illness is NT$1259, where mean of medical costs and productivity losses are NT$494 and NT$653. Mean of averting expenditures is NT$307.
In this study, We find out that male, families with elders over 65 years old, people living in Sijhih or Cidu, people living in detached house or under than second floor, working days lost due to flood, and people with additional medical insurances are easily suffered from flood-induced diseases and willing to pay more. However, people working in goods-producing industries are willing to pay less. Besides, people are willing to pay more on mental health than on physical health whether they are infected by flood-induced diseases. On the part of cost of illness, people who have families over 65 years old and people working in service-producing industries spend more on mitigation flood-induced sickness. Beside, we find out that there are no significant difference between medical costs and productivity losses. With regard to averting behavior method, female, people living in Sijhih or Neihu, people working in service-producing industries, and the retired spend more money on averting expenditures. Moreover, we find out that WTP is larger than costs of illness in this study. Furthermore, according to methodology, we can derive that total willingness to pay (WTP*) is larger than the sum of costs of illness and averting expenditures, which is consistent with most empirical studies.
Chinese Summary i
Summary ii
Contents iv
List of Tables v
List of Figures vi
1. Introduction 1
1.1. Motivations and purposes 4
1.2. Research area and research process 8
2. Literature Review 12
2.1. Flood impacts on health 12
2.2. Methodology of valuing exogenous environment impacts on health 20
2.3. Biases from contingent valuation method results 27
3. Willingness to Pay for Health Risk Reduction 29
4. Data Collection and Analysis 33
4.1. Questionnaire design 33
4.2. Sampling 36
4.3. Descriptive statistics of survey 38
5. Empirical Analysis 52
5.1. Model construction and variable definition 52
5.2. Empirical results of willingness to pay 58
5.3. Empirical results of costs of flood-induced illnesses 76
5.4. Empirical results of averting behavior method 81
5.5. Analysis and discussion 86
5.6. Total benefits of health risk reduction from flood control projects 103
6. Conclusion and Recommendation 107
6.1. Conclusion 107
6.2. Recommendation 108
Reference 110
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