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研究生:徐秉民
研究生(外文):Ping-Min Hsu
論文名稱:具有最佳路徑規劃功能的自走式除草機
論文名稱(外文):Design of an Autonomous Lawn Mower with Optimal Route Planning
指導教授:林俊良林俊良引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:35
中文關鍵詞:最佳路徑全球定位系統自走式除草機多工分配
外文關鍵詞:path planningglobal positioning systemlawnmowermulti-task planning
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  • 被引用被引用:1
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本論文主要目的在於研發一種自走式除草機,其可結合全球定位系統的功能,提高對於工作區域的操作效率。結合定位系統的自走式除草機可以適用於高爾夫球場等大範圍草地,取代人力,改善傳統除草之工作效率。
  本論文主要構想如下:首先建立所需的功能,包含全球定位系統的資料接收與記憶、最佳路徑規劃、障礙迴避、除草路徑導引、初始除草工作地圖設定及障礙位置識別、多工分配等功能。此自走式除草機一開始先以人工推行除草工作邊界和已知障礙邊界完成後,將初始設定結果傳回控制系統,使用者依需要選擇最佳工作路徑,控制系統計算所選之最佳路徑。將求得的除草工作路徑傳回控制面板,令其依路徑開始工作。導引工作期間中,自走式除草機隨時紀錄全球定位系統傳送之除草機位置,遇障礙時,傳回障礙位置座標,控制系統再依預設的方法導引除草機加以迴避。
  本論文亦提出一種除草區域多工分配的方法。利用此法,主控系統可以將最佳化工作分配區域傳送給多台自走式除草機,結合多部除草機同步工作的方式,大幅改善單機操作的除草效率。最後經由模擬實驗,證實此路徑規劃方法可以有效改善工作效率。
An optimal path planning scheme for autonomous lawnmowers to achieve minimum working time, minimum energy conservation and mixed operation mode, as well as high efficiency is developed in this thesis. For route planning, rough path planning and a geography method are adopted. A rough path planning is first considered with obstacles ignored. Then, a geography method is applied to enable the details of a real optimal path in accessing the easiest and safest condition. After taking the chosen mode, a distinct path planed on the basis of the obstacles coordinates are obtained. Additionally, a global positioning system (GPS) which provides real-time positioning of the lawnmower is equipped with the path planning system.
In addition to the path planning using single mower, an algorithm for multi-task operation as well as the partitioning method for working area is also developed. For this algorithm, we define an index of mowing easiness, with which the accomplishing level in mowing for any prairies can be derived. Based on the figure of mowing easiness, an objective function is proposed for optimization. With the optimization of this objective function, the control law for the optimal multi-task of mowing is developed. The optimal path planning has been tested under a variety of simulations and proven to be effective in enhancing the working efficiency.
誌謝 i
中文摘要 ii
Abstract iii
Contents iv
Nomenclature vi
Lists of Figures vii
Lists of Tables ix
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 System Description 3
2.1 Autonomous Mower 3
2.1.1 Embedded Board 3
2.1.2 GPS Receiver 3
2.2 Global Positioning System (GPS) 3
Chapter 3 Design of Optimal Path Planning and Control Law 5
3.1 Initialization and Map Building 5
3.1.1 Inserting Boundary Points 5
3.1.2 Modification of Working Area 6
3.1.3 Coordinates Transformation and Inverse Transformation 6
3.2 Path Planning 7
3.2.1 Rough Optimal Path Planning 9
3.2.1.1 Minimal Time Mode 9
3.2.1.2 Minimal Energy Mode 9
3.2.1.3 Mixed Mode 10
3.2.2 Geography Method in Path Planning and Obstacles Avoidance 11
3.2.2.1 Determination of Obstacle Coordinates and Mower’s Modified Coordinates 14
3.3 Navigation 16
3.4 Design of Controller 18
3.5 Multi-Task 20
3.5.1 Definition of Easiness 21
3.5.2 Optimal Partition Law 21
Chapter 4 Experimental Results 24
4.1 Optimal Path of Saving Time 24
4.2 Optimal Path of Saving Energy 25
4.3 Optimal Path of Mixed Mode 27
4.4 Comparison of the Time and Energy 29
4.4.1 Time Consumption 29
4.4.2 Energy Consumption 30
4.4.3 Indices of Dangerousness and Difficulty 30
Chapter 5 Conclusions 31
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