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研究生:馮煜鈞
研究生(外文):Yu-Chun Feng
論文名稱:四全向輪平台導覽型機器人之運動控制、導航與任務執行
論文名稱(外文):Motion Control, Navigation and Mission Execution of aTour-Guided Robot with Four-Wheeled Omnidirectional Platform
指導教授:蔡清池
指導教授(外文):Ching-Chih Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:四全向輪導航平台控制導覽型機器人
外文關鍵詞:Tour-Guided RobotMotion ControlFour-Wheeled Omnidirectional Platform
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本論文之研究目的在於發展四全方位移動型導覽機器人平台控制、自主導航與任務執行的方法與技術。在四個全方位輪呈現九十度的排列方式下,利用非線性正規劃運動學控制方法實踐全方位移動機器人點穩定度分析、軌跡追蹤實驗。為了達到導覽機器人的自主導航,文中提出混合導航技術包含了點對點軌跡追蹤與障礙物閃避。避障的法則使用環境偵測距離直方圖,找出最佳的閃避路徑避開在博物館的各種不同障礙。在人機互動設計上,機器人具有多樣化的表情示意系統以及豐富有趣的聲光語音效果,因此機器人更容易引起參訪遊客的注意與興趣。文中也提出許多的實驗結果將此機器人的優點加以分析討論,確保以及驗證所提出方法的有效性,以期在不久的將來,將此導覽型機器人技術加以發展實踐應用。
This thesis develops methodologies and techniques for motion control, autonomous navigation and mission execution of a tour-guide robot with a four-wheeled omnidirectional mobile platform. A nonlinear unified kinematical control method is presented for point stabilization and trajectory tracking of an omnidirectional wheeled mobile robot with four independent driving omnidirectional wheels equally spaced at 90 degrees from one to another. A hybrid navigation method is proposed to achieve safely autonomous navigation of the tour-guide robot; this approach includes two schemes: one is the point-to-point trajectory tracking, and the other is the obstacle avoidance function using the traversability distance histogram (TDH) method to escape the barrier in museums. A simple but interesting human-robot interactive system with the operation scenario is presented. The effectiveness and merit of the proposed techniques are exemplified by conducting several experiments on an experimental four-wheeled omnidirectional tour-guide robot.
Contents
Acknowledgements i
Chinese Abstract ii
English Abstract iii
Contents iv
List of Figures vii
List of Tables x
Nomenclature xi

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Literature Review 3
1.3 Motivation and Objective 8
1.4 Contributions of the Thesis 8
1.5 Organization of the Thesis 9

Chapter 2 System Structure and Control Architecture 10
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 System Description of the Tour-guide Robot 14
2.2.1 Description of the Laser Scanning Module Subsystem 16
2.2.2Communication Protocol and Interfacing Setup of the Laser Scanner 17
2.2.3 Description of the ultrasonic Subsystem 20
2.2.4 Voltage Indicator Circuitry 23
2.3 Basic Structure of the Four-Wheeled Omnidirectional Mobile Platform 25
2.3.1 DC Servomotor Drive 27
2.3.2 Odometer Development 28
2.3.3 DAC Card 31
2.4 Description of the Suspension Structure for the Mobile Platform 34
2.5 Remote Control 38
2.5.1 Remote Robot Control 39
2.6 Concluding Remarks 40

Chapter 3 Kinematic Control of the Four-Wheeled Omnidirectional Mobile Platform 42
3.1 Introduction 42
3.2Kinematic Model and Dead-Reckoning 44
3.2.1 Kinematic Model 45
3.2.2 Dead-Reckoning 56
3.3 Nonlinear Kinematic Controller Design 57
3.3.1 Point Stabilization 57
3.3.2 Trajectory Tracking 60
3.4 Experimental Results and Discussion 62
3.4.1 Point-to-Point Stabilization 63
3.4.2 Line Path Experiment 64
3.4.3 The Circle Trajectory Tracking 67
3.4.4 Random Trajectory Tracking 71
3.5 Concluding Remarks 75

Chapter 4 Autonomous Navigation 76
4.1 Introduction 76
4.2 Obstacle Avoidance Behavior Using Laser Scanner and Sonar 77
4.3 Hybrid Navigation Design 82
4.4 Experimental Results and Discussion 84
4.5 Concluding Remarks 87

Chapter 5 Human-Robot Interaction and Tour-guide Mode Execution 88
5.1 Introduction 88
5.2 Welcome/Reception Mode 89
5.3 Facial Expression and Dual-Arm Swing 89
5.3.1 Facial Expressions 90
5.3.1.1 Design and Experimentation 90
5.3.2 Dual-Arm Swing 92
5.3.2.1 Experiment Results of Dual-Arm Swing 94
5.4 Exploration Mode 94
5.5 Tour-Guide Mode 95
5.6 The Experimental Result and Discussion 95
5.7 Concluding Remarks 97

Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work 98
6.1 Conclusions 98
6.2 Future Work 99

References 101

List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Photograph of the enon. 4
Figure 1.2 Photograph of mobile robot named SeQ-1. 6
Figure 1.3 Three entertainment robots developed by IPA 6
Figure 1.4 RoboX robot 7
Figure 1.5 Jinny robot 7
Figure 1.6 Aichi the reception-tour guide robots called Wakamaru 7
Figure 2.1 Tour-Guide Robot Generation 1. 12
Figure 2.2 Tour-Guide Robot Generation 2. 12
Figure 2.3 Improved Tour-Guide Robot Generation 2 13
Figure 2.4 Tour-Guide Robot Generation 3 13
Figure 2.5 Block diagram of the overall system structure. 14
Figure 2.6 The real physical structure of the tour-guide robot. 15
Figure 2.7 Picture of the laser scanner. 16
Figure 2.8 Measurement methods of LMS. 17
Figure 2.9 Direction of transmission for LMS 291-S05. 17
Figure 2.10 Flow chart of operating principle of the LMS 291-S05 20
Figure 2.11 SRF05 Ultrasonic Ranger modules 21
Figure 2.12 The connection methods of SRF05 21
Figure 2.13 SRF05 timing diagrams 22
Figure 2.14 Nios development board, Stratix II edition. 22
Figure 2.15 Diagram of the Nios development board. 23
Figure 2.16 (a) Photograph of physical battery indicator. 24
Figure 2.16 (b) Voltage detection circuit. 24
Figure 2.17 Bottom view of the four-wheeled omnidirectional motion base 26
Figure 2.18 The drive circuit of the DC brushless motor. 26
Figure 2.19 Block diagram of the motion control structure for the mobile base 27
Figure 2.20 Pictures of the DC brushless servomotor and its control kit. 28
Figure 2.21 Signal connection and speed control characteristics of the servomotor 28
Figure 2.22 Photograph of the odometer made by FPGA. 29
Figure 2.23 Circuit of the VHDL-based odometer. 29
Figure 2.24 The data connection of the FPGA MAX II development board 30
Figure 2.25 Photograph of the handmade D/A card. 32
Figure 2.26 The circuit inside the DAC0800 chip 33
Figure 2.27 Typical application of the DA chip 33
Figure 2.28 The wire connection schematics of DAC card. 34
Figure 2.29 Pictures of the all mobile platform components. 36
Figure 2.30 Photographs of ASUS wireless access point WL-330g and USB LAN adapter WL-167g. 39
Figure 2.31 Photograph of the control interface on the wireless control computer. 40
Figure 3.1 Commercial omnidirectional wheel 46
Figure 3.2 Structure and geometry of the omnidirectional driving configuration. 46
Figure 3.3 Schematics of the four-wheeled kinematic model. 47
Figure 3.4 Diagram of the velocity display. 48
Figure 3.5 Moving diagram of the first wheel. 49
Figure 3.6 Moving diagram of the second wheel. 50
Figure 3.7 Moving diagram of the third wheel. 51
Figure 3.8 Moving diagram of the fourth wheel. 52
Figure 3.9 Relationship between local coordinate and global coordinate 53
Figure 3.10 The moving structure of wheel 1, 2, 3 and 4. 54
Figure 3.11 Experiment trajectories of the proposed kinematic controller for achieving point-to-point stabilization. 64
Figure 3.12 (a) Experiment straight-line trajectory tracking start point 65
Figure 3.12 (b~e)The situation mobile robot toward the tracking line. 66
Figure 3.12 (f) The time history of the vehicle tracking result. 66
Figure 3.13 The time historical pictures of the straight line trajectory tracking. 67
Figure 3.14 (a) The mobile robot in the initial position. 68
Figure 3.14 (b~i)Experimental result of the circular trajectory tracking. 69
Figure 3.14 (j) The mobile robot in the end position. 70
Figure 3.15 The time historical pictures of the circular trajectory tracking. 71
Figure 3.16 (a) The mobile robot in the initial position. 72
Figure 3.16 (b~i)Experimental result of the random trajectory tracking. 73
Figure 3.16 (j) The mobile robot in the end position. 74
Figure 3.17 The time historical pictures of the random trajectory tracking. 75
Figure 4.1 The overall flow chart of the obstacle avoidance method. 79
Figure 4.2 The traversability map transformed by terrain map. 79
Figure 4.3 The rotation estimation of the mobile robot. 80
Figure 4.4 (a)The photograph of the environment detection 80
Figure 4.4 (b)The terrain traversability analysis histogram. 80
Figure 4.5 Block diagram of the tour-guide robot hybrid navigation 83
Figure 4.6 The method of two behaviors selection. 84
Figure 4.7 (a) The mobile robot stop at the initial point 85
Figure 4.7 (b) The mobile robot executed the autonomous navigation behavior 86
Figure 4.7 (c) The mobile robot moved to the destination and played sound thank for use. 86
Figure 5.1 Flow chart of the operation scenario with human-robot interactions. 89
Figure 5.2 Photograph of the facial expression system. 91
Figure 5.3 Four kinds of facial expressions 92
Figure 5.4 Control circuitry of arms swing angle and LED bar 93
Figure 5.5 Swing behavior of the dual arms 94
Figure 5.6 The experimental pictures of the tour-guided robot operation scenario. 97


List of Tables
Table 2.1 Commands and responses for initializing the LMS. 18
Table 2.1 Commands and responses for initializing the LMS(continued). 19
Table 3.1 Mean error and standard deviation of the point-to-point stabilization . 64
Table 3.2 Mean error and standard deviation of the line path experiment 65
Table 3.3 Mean error and standard deviation of the circle trajectory tracking experiment 68
Table 3.4 Mean error and standard deviation of the random trajectory tracking experiment. 72
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