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研究生:陳少鈞
研究生(外文):Shao-Chun Chen
論文名稱:服務失誤、服務補救、認知公平與服務失誤之嚴重性干擾─以台灣高速鐵路服務為例
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Service Failure, Service Recovery, Perceived Justice and Failure Severity─ High Speed Rail Service
指導教授:方世榮方世榮引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:高階經理人碩士在職專班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:服務失誤服務補救認知公平高鐵
外文關鍵詞:Service FailureService RecoveryPerceived JusticeHigh Speed Rail
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:18
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
台灣第一條高速鐵路正式於西元二零零七年一月五日早上七點整正式營運通車。由於台灣過去長途鐵路運輸服務屬寡占市場尚未有競爭者的進入,如今,高速鐵路的正式加入營運服務,也代表鐵路運輸有了新的經營者與競爭者,然而對於鐵路運輸的被服務者-乘客,是否真正感受到鐵路服務的提昇,是值得鐵路運輸服務經營者須進一步思考。

過去的研究資料顯示大部分對於服務業的探討大都屬於一般性的服務業如飯店服務、餐廳服務等,對於牽涉到公共利益與權益的服務業如大眾運輸業較少深入探討;以國內的鐵路運輸為例,2001年納利颱風造成台北捷運部分路線的停擺;2005年台鐵於中秋節因疑似號誌問題導致六十八列次列車誤點,退票賠償金額突破千萬,是歷來損失最慘重的一次;而且多半乘客對台鐵的脫班或誤點已經麻木甚至是視為常態,這也反映在逐年下滑的載客率。因此對於鐵路運輸的服務失誤,經營業者應該提供適當的補救措施,以補救可能流失的客源。然而,由以上案例得知,目前鐵路運輸服務失誤所採取的補救策略多半採取退票(退費)的做法,並未進一步對一般大眾的心理層面衝擊有任何的補救措施,往往忽略一般大眾的心理層面感受,更遑論是想利用後續補救來彌補顧客損失。

所謂服務失誤是指由於因有服務接觸的產生所以會造成服務失誤,一旦當顧客所要求的服務未達成、服務傳遞過程輕率或是所提供的核心服務低於顧客最小預期水準,服務失誤因而發生;所以,失誤的嚴重程度愈高,顧客感受到的損失就愈大且也是造成顧客轉換服務提供者的一個主要因素。服務補救是每一個企業在面對服務缺失或發生失誤時所必須採取的措施;倘若採取的是制式化或無有效的服務補救的策略即會造成顧客流失及企業利潤損失。因此,企業在面對服務失誤所採取的服務補救是要來解決服務失誤問題,並從中學習以贏得顧客信賴的策略而非僅是應付顧客。對於顧客如何評估服務補救策略,相關研究指出顧客會透過認知公平理論來權衡失(顧客的犧牲與投資)與得(報酬、顧客滿意等)之間的比重,並與過去相似的經驗比較,以衡量得失之間是否公平。

因此本研究從服務失誤、服務補救與認知公平三個構面進行更深入的探討,並以服務失誤之嚴重性做為干擾變數,探討對服務補救的影響;最後,進一步研究是否因為不同乘客搭乘的意向,對三構面與干擾變數是否有所不同。期望研究結果能對高速鐵路的運輸服務提供更適切的建議。
The Taiwan High Speed Rail was opened for revenue at 7:00 am, 5th January, 2007. There was only one rail association for operation in long-distance rail transportation market before the high speed rail revenue. Now, the high speed rail transportation has been opened for revenue and as one of long-distance rail transportation tool. It means that a new rail authority/competitor is appeared in rail transpiration service. However, the passenger – being served by the rail authority, whether is truly experienced with the service promotion in rail operation service, that is worthily for rail authorities to further deliberation.

According to the studies of service industry in the past, most of these studies were generally focused on the general service i.e. hotel service, restaurant service. There was rarely to deliberate in the filed of the public transportation service with the public benefits and rights involved. For example, the Tapei METRO system was partly closed for three months due to the serious typhoon – Nali Typhoon in 2001. And, there were totally 68 trains delayed in the moon holiday due to the Taiwan Rail Association (TRA) signaling system problem in 2005, which the case was totally lost more than NT$ 10 million including ticket returned and compensate to the passengers. It was the most critical lost for the Taiwan Rail Association (TRA). However, the passengers were already used to the train delayed or train missed for the TRA system, therefore, the passengers were refused to take the TRA system which was also shown in the result of the passenger numbers. Regarding the service failure for rail transportation, the rail authorities should provide the appropriate service recovery measures in order to retrieve the possible lost of the passengers. However, with referring to the service failure cases in rail transportation, most of the service recovery measures were “ticket returned” or “refunded”, therefore, it was neglected to recover the psychological influence of the passengers and rather to adopt the follow-up recovery measures to retrieve the other lost of the passenger.

The service failure occurred was due to the service encounter. Once the customer’s requirements were not achieved, the process of service encounter without concern or the core service provided was far low the customer’s expectation, the service failure was occurred. Therefore, the more serious of service failure and more lost of the passenger, so it was a major factor for the customer changing the service provider. The service recovery measure is required to provide for facing the service failure or service error in each company. If the adopted recovery measures were immobilized or ineffective, the customer and company profit could be lost. Therefore, the adopted service recovery measure for recovering the service failure was to resolve the service failure problem and learned from the failure, not just responded to the customer accordingly. Regarding the assessment of service recovery measure, relevant studies indicated the customer would assess the proportion of the lost and retrieve through the perceived justice theory, and compare the similar pervious experience for judging the justice.

This study will be deeply investigated in the three components: Service Failure, Service Recovery and Perceived Justice, besides one additional interference variance – the serious of service failure will be also considered for considering the impact of the service recovery. At the last part of the study, the passenger trip intended will be also considered for observing the differences between the three components and interference variance. With the result of the study, it is expected to provide the appropriate suggestion for high speed rail service.
目錄 i
圖目錄 iii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究對象與範圍 3
第四節 研究流程 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
第一節 服務失誤 5
第二節 服務補救 15
第三節 認知公平 20
第四節 服務失誤之嚴重性 24
第五節 消費者行為意向 27
第三章 研究方法 29
第一節 研究架構 29
第二節 研究假設 30
第三節 變數操作性定義與衡量問項 33
第四節 研究設計 41
第五節 資料分析方法 43
第四章 資料分析 45
第一節 信度分析 45
第二節 效度分析 46
第三節 敘述統計分析 47
第四節 因素分析 52
第五節 各構面變數間之相關分析 57
第六節 假設檢定 59
第七節 小結 77
第五章 研究結論與建議 79
第一節 研究結論 79
第二節 研究建議 82
參考文獻 84
附錄 研究問卷 95
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