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研究生:李珊珊
研究生(外文):Shan- Shan Lee
論文名稱:Tiletamine-zolazepam與Tiletamine-Zolazepam-Medetomidine於保定黃鼠狼(Mustelasibirica davidiana)之應用研究
論文名稱(外文):Use of Tiletamine- Zolazepam and Tiletamine- Zolazepam- Medetomedine to Immobilize Formosan Weasel Martens (Mustela sibirica davidiana)
指導教授:鄭豐邦
指導教授(外文):Feng-Pang Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:獸醫學系暨研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:黃鼠狼麻醉保定液體麻醉
外文關鍵詞:Formosan Weasel Martensanesthsiatiletaminezolazepammedetomidine
相關次數:
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Zoletil®為tiletamine與zolazepam(TZ)以1: 1的比例混和而成的肌肉注射麻醉藥劑,其另一商品名為Telazol®。與過去最常用來保定野生動物的ketamine併用xylazine相較,TZ達到更短的誘導時間以及更長的麻醉時間。Medetomedine為α2腎上腺素接受器致效劑,若以TZ併用medetomidine(TZM)使用於野生動物,可達到更好的肌肉鬆弛度及止痛效果。然而,無論是TZ或TZM,都會造成一些副作用,包括呼吸次數下降、暫時的低血氧、呼吸性酸血症,和體溫控制能力低下。TZ和TZM現今雖均已廣泛地應用於保定各種野生動物,但國內尚無針對黃鼠狼(Mustela sibirica davidian)之麻醉相關報告,因此本實驗目的為評估TZ與TZM應用於保定黃鼠狼之效果及安全性。共有8隻黃鼠狼參與本實驗, TZ劑量分別為7.5 mg/kg、10 mg/kg、12.5 mg/kg、15 mg/kg,和20 kg/mg五種劑量;TZM則分為TZ 5 mg/kg+medetomidine 15 μg/kg以及TZ 5+medetomidine 30 μg/kg兩種劑量。於注射後分別記錄其誘導時間、麻醉時間與恢復時間。另外,也記錄在麻醉期間幾種保護性反射的存留與否,包括眼瞼反射、角膜反射、顎張力、肌肉鬆弛度、趾間疼痛反射和咽喉氣管反射。
結果顯示,隨著TZ劑量的增加,誘導時間會縮短;而麻醉及恢復時間會延長;而在以TZM麻醉下,恢復時間則明顯比單獨使用TZ短。在以TZ麻醉的過程中,所有黃鼠狼均保持睜眼,且眼瞼反射、角膜反射、顎張力和咽喉氣管反射測試均為陽性;而TZM則可使以上反射皆消失,且達到較佳的止痛效果及肌肉鬆弛效果。然而,TZM卻會導致心跳次數、呼吸次數以及體溫明顯地下降,顯示此併用medetomidine之藥物組合會造成心血管和呼吸系統的抑制的副作用,但α2腎上腺素接受器拮抗劑(atipamazole)可以有效地拮抗medetomidine所引起的副作用。
結論,TZ和TZM均可達到迅速的誘導時間和長的麻醉時間。在為黃鼠狼進行理學檢查或小手術時,可使用TZ之較低劑量(7.5 mg/kg和10 mg/kg);若為耗時較長之手術或實驗需要,則可使用TZ之較高劑量(12.5 mg/kg、15 mg/kg和20 mg/kg);TZM有較好的肌肉鬆弛度和止痛效果,因此較適用於骨科手術或較疼痛的手術。但由於TZM所造成的心呼吸抑制較TZ強烈,所以使用TZM保定動物時,必須更密切地監控其生理狀態,且必須備妥拮抗劑atipamazole。
Zoletil®, also named Telazol®, is a proprietary combination of tiletamine with zolazepam in a 1: 1 ratio which can be injected intramuscularly. It was established that the effective intramuscular injection dosage of tiletamine-zolazepam combination (TZ) produced shorter induction time and longer anesthesia time than did the effective dosage of a mixture of ketamine and xylazine. By adding medetomidine, a potent α2-adrenoreceptor agonist, tiletamine-zolazepam-medetomidine (TZM) combination could result in better analgesia effects and muscle relaxation. However, both TZ and TZM produced some adverse effects, including decreased ventilation, transient hypoxemia, respiratory acidosis, and minor loss of thermoregulatory control. TZ and TZM are now widely used to immobilize wild animals. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness and safety of TZ and TZM applied on Formosan weasel martens (Mustela sibirica davidiana) that have not been previously reported. Eight martens received TZ (7.5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 12.5 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg, and 20 kg/mg) and TZM (TZ 5 mg/kg+medetomidine 15 μg/kg and TZ 5+medetomidine 30 μg/kg) treatments, respectively. Induction time, immobilizing time and recovery time of each treatment were recorded. Besides, some protective reflexes (corneal, palpebral, pedal, and pharyngeal- tracheal), jaw tone and muscle relaxation were also evaluated during immobilizing time.
Our results revealed that induction time decreased with TZ dosage increasing, while immobilizing time and recovery time increased. The recovery time of TZM was obviously shorter than TZ. During TZ 10 mg/kg and TZ 20 kg/mg anesthesia, all martens’ eyes remained open, and corneal, palpebral, pharyngeal- tracheal reflex, jaw tone were positive. TZM could produce better analgesia effects and muscle relaxation than TZ. However, TZM produced a remarkable decrease in heart rates, respiratory rates, and body temperature, revealing that this combination may cause some cardiovascular and respiratory inhibitory effects. Atipamazole could effectively antagonize the side effects caused by medetomedine.
In conclusion, both TZ and TZM could produce short induction time and long immobilizing time. The lower dose of TZ (7.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) may be suitable for progressing physical examinations or minor surgeries; while the higher dose (12.5 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg) could be applied for progressing intensive surgeries or experiments. TZM may be suitable for orthopedic surgeries because its good analgesia effects and muscle relaxation. TZM produced more serious cardiorespiratory effects than TZ did, so animal immobilized by TZM should be monitored carefully and atipamazole should be readily prepared.
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
目次…………………………………………………………………………………Ⅴ
表次…………………………………………………………………………………Ⅶ
圖次…………………………………………………………………………………Ⅷ
第一章 緒言………………………………………………………………………1
第二章 文獻探討…………………………………………………………………3
第一節黃鼠狼之介紹…………………………………………………………3
一、體型特徵…………………………………………………………3
二、食性………………………………………………………………3
三、棲地類型…………………………………………………………4
四、生態習性…………………………………………………………4
第二節野生動物之麻醉管理…………………………………………………4
一、麻醉前處理工作…………………………………………………5
二、麻醉期之監控……………………………………………………9
三、麻醉緊急狀況及麻醉後之照顧………………………………11
四、麻醉深度之判定………………………………………………12
第三節藥物介紹……………………………………………………………13
一、Tiletamine………………………………………………………13
(一)歷史與簡介……………………………………………………13
(二)作用機制………………………………………………………13
(三)藥理作用………………………………………………………14
二、Zolazepam………………………………………………………15
(一)歷史與簡介……………………………………………………15
(二)作用機制………………………………………………………16
(三)藥理作用………………………………………………………16
三、Tiletamine-zolazepam(TZ)……………………………………17
(一)歷史與簡介……………………………………………………17
(二)藥理作用………………………………………………………18
(三)野生動物臨床之應用…………………………………………20
四、Medetomidine…………………………………………………21
(一)歷史與簡介……………………………………………………21
(二)作用機制………………………………………………………21
(三)藥理作用………………………………………………………22
五、Atipamazole……………………………………………………23
(一)歷史與簡介……………………………………………………23
(二)作用機制………………………………………………………24
(三)藥理作用………………………………………………………24
第三章 實驗材料與方法………………………………………………………26
第四章 結果……………………………………………………………………34
第五章 討論……………………………………………………………………53
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………59
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