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研究生:馮啟文
研究生(外文):Chi-Wen Fong
論文名稱:單獨使用Tiletamine-Zolazepam和與Medetomidine或Xylazine併用於斑龜之麻醉作用和Atipamezole對Medetomidine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam麻醉之翻轉效果
論文名稱(外文):The Anesthetic Effect of Tiletamine-Zolazepam Alone and Combined with Medetomidine or Xylazine and the Reverse Effect of Atipamezole on Medetomidine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam Anesthesia in Chinese Stripe-Necked Turtles (Ocadia sinensis)
指導教授:楊志寰
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:獸醫學系暨研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:斑龜麻醉
外文關鍵詞:Zoletilmedetomidinexylazineatipamezoleturtles
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本研究目的為評估單獨使用 Zoletil 50(ZOL),和與 medetomidine(MED)或 xylazine(XYL)併用於斑龜(Chinese necked turtles,Ocadia sinensis)的麻醉作用。ZOL 為 tiletamine 和 zolazepam 以 1:1 等重混合的非嗎啡類、非巴比妥鹽類注射性麻醉劑。增加 zolazepam 會改善 tiletamine 的麻醉作用使肌肉鬆弛度更良好。但是爬蟲類對 ZOL 的反應多變,在龜無法誘導出足夠的止痛效果達到外科麻醉期。Alpha-2型腎上腺素性受體致效劑有減少 ZOL 使用劑量和增進麻醉深度的潛力。目前只有 MED 和 XYL 於爬蟲類醫療使用。Atipamezole(ATZ)則為 MED 之特異性拮抗劑。測驗劑量組包括 ZOL(20 mg/kg)、ZOL-MED(20-0.025、20-0.05 和 20-0.1 mg/kg)和 ZOL-XYL(20-2 和 20-4 mg/kg)。本實驗亦評估 ATZ(0.125 mg/kg)翻轉 ZOL-MED(20-0.05 mg/kg)麻醉作用的拮抗效能。每組各使用 6 隻斑龜,藥物注射於前肢肌肉內。由頭頸部和四肢對碰觸和夾捏的回縮反射判定麻醉深度。導入時間定義為四肢和頭頸部皆失去對碰觸之回縮性反射的時間,外科麻醉期定義為四肢和頭頸部皆失去對夾捏之回縮性反射。ZOL 組的麻醉作用不可靠且有明顯的個體差異,6 隻龜僅有 2 隻短暫達到麻醉期(3 至 7 分鐘)。相反的,除 ZOL-MED(20-0.025 mg/kg)組有一隻龜未失去對後肢的夾捏反射外,在 ZOL-MED實驗組其餘 17 隻龜皆可進入外科麻醉期,且三組之間無顯著性差異(P>0.05)。此外,在低劑量組和中劑量組於麻醉期(分別為 97 ± 26 和 151 ± 29 分鐘)之間存有顯著性差異。ZOL-XYL組的二個劑量組(20-2 和 20-4 mg/kg)皆可導入達到麻醉期,分別維持 51 ± 10 和 62 ± 10 分鐘。然而此二組皆無法進入外科麻醉期,沒有任何一隻龜失去對四肢的夾捏反射。所有劑量組皆會顯著抑制斑龜的心搏速率(p<0.05)。ZOL 組的龜心搏速率會先升後降。ZOL-MED 組有 6 隻龜出現心律不整的現象。於 ZOL 組和 ZOL-XYL(20-4 mg/kg)劑量組的呼吸速率會顯著下降(p<0.05)。其它 4 組的呼吸速率亦會下降但不顯著(p>0.05),但皆可於龜完全回復前自行回升至接近基礎值。肌肉內注射 ATZ(0.125 mg/kg)可在 1 至 3分鐘內有效翻轉 ZOL-MED(20-0.05 mg/kg)的麻醉作用,回復期明顯較對照組縮短(33 ± 5 與131 ± 39 分鐘,p<0.05)。心搏速率和呼吸速率均於 18 分鐘內回到基礎值。實驗結果指出,ZOL-MED(20-0.05 mg/kg)組誘導斑龜產生的外科麻醉期(121.3 ± 7.1 分鐘)最為穩定,且麻醉作用可安全有效地被 ATZ(0.125 mg/kg)拮抗。ZOL(20 mg/kg)併用 XYL(2-4 mg/kg)都可增加麻醉的穩定性,但皆無法達到外科麻醉期。所有實驗龜麻醉後皆存活且未觀察到不良副作用,證明以上藥物組合使用於斑龜是安全的。
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic effect of Zoletil 50 (ZOL) alone and combined with medetomidine (MED) or xylazine (XYL) in Chinese stripe-necked turtles (Ocadia sinensis). ZOL, a non-opioid, non-barbiturate injectable anesthetic, is composed of two ingredients, tiletamine and zolazepam, in equal amounts by weight (1:1). In fact, zolazepzm can improve the anesthetic effects of tiletamine and results in better muscle relaxation. However, ZOL can cause different anesthetic effects in reptiles, and it could not induce enough analgesia to reach surgical aneathetic in turtles. Alpha-2 adrenergic agonist has potent effect to reduce the required volume of ZOL and enhance the depth of anesthesia. Among these alpha-2 agonists, only MED and XYL are currently used in reptile anesthesia. Atipamezole(ATZ)is the specific antagonist of MED. In this study, we tested various regimens, including ZOL (20 mg/kg), ZOL-MED (20-0.025, 20-0.05 and 20-0.1 mg/kg) and ZOL-XYL (20-2 and 20-4 mg/kg). The experiments also assessed the ability of ATZ (0.125 mg/kg) to reverse the effect of ZOL-MED (20-0.05 mg/kg). Six turtles were used in each regimen, and drugs were injected into the muscle of forelimbs. The depth of anesthetic was evaluated by withdrawal reflexes of the limbs and neck when touched or pinched the limbs and neck. The induction time was defined as the time of loss all withdrawal reflexes of limbs and neck responding to touch. Surgical anesthesia was defined as loss of withdrawal reflexes of all limbs responding to pinch. Significant individual variability and no reliable anesthesia were noted while ZOL was used alone. Two out of six turtles reached anesthesia for a very short duration (3 to 7 min). In contrast, except for one turtle of the ZOL-MED 20-0.025 mg/kg group did not lose withdrawal reflexes of hind limbs responding to pinch, other 17 turtles in ZOL-MED experiments could reach surgical anesthesia, but there was no significant difference statistically among 3 groups (P>0.05). Moreover, the turtles of the least and the largest dosages had greater variability in anesthetic duration (97±26 min and 151 ± 29 min), compared to the medium dosage (121 ± 7 min). In ZOL-XYL experiments, both regimens (20-2 and 20-4 mg/kg) could reach to the induction of anesthesia and maintain for the duration of 51±10 min and 62±10 min, respectively. However, neither group attained surgical anesthesia in which the turtles lost withdrawal reflex to pinch for all four limbs. Significant heart rates depression after all of regimens administration was observed (p<0.05). ZOL induced a brief period of heart rat raised and then decreased gradually. Arrhythmia was occurred in 6 turtles of ZOL-MED regimens. The respiratory rates dropped significantly in ZOL and ZOL-XYL (20-4 mg/kg) groups (p<0.05). In other 4 groups, the respiratory rates also decreased but did not show significantly (p>0.05). All regimens of turtles could voluntarily increased respiratory rates and returned to the baseline nearby before completely recovery. ATZ (0.125 mg/kg, IM) effectively reverse the effect of ZOL-MED (20-0.05 mg/kg) anesthesia in 1 to 3 min. The recovery time was much shorter than that of the control group (33 ± 5 min vs. 131 ± 39 min, p<0.05). Heart and respiratory rates returned to the baseline within 18 min. The results indicated that ZOL-MED at 20-0.05 mg/kg could induce most stable surgical anesthesia (121.3 ± 7.1 min) among these regimens. The anesthetic effect of ZOL-MED could be effectively and safely antagonized by 0.125 mg/kg atipamazole in Chinese stripe-necked turtles. ZOL (20 mg/kg) combined with XYL (2-4 mg/kg) could enhance anesthetic effect stably, but all of these combinations could not reach surgical anesthesia in Chinese stripe-necked turtles. All turtles in this study no side effects been recorded and survived after anesthesia demonstrating the safety of these anesthetic regimens in Chinese stripe-necked turtles.
目次

中文摘要…………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………ii
目次………………………………………………………………………iv
表次……………………………………………………………………vii
圖次……………………………………………………………………viii
第一章 緒言……………………………………………………………1
第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………………2
第一節 龜之分類學…………………………………………………2
ㄧ、爬蟲綱-龜目………………………………………………………2
二、各龜科動物的簡介…………………………………………………3
第二節 斑龜之介紹…………………………………………………4
一、 斑龜之簡介…………………………………………………4
二、 斑龜之外型特徵和習性……………………………………4
三、斑龜之生態…………………………………………………………5
第三節 龜之臨床醫療………………………………………………5
一、 飼養管理……………………………………………………5
(一) 飼養所………………………………………………………6
(二) 溫度…………………………………………………………6
(三) 濕度…………………………………………………………6
(四) 光源…………………………………………………………6
(五) 食物種類……………………………………………………6
(六) 飼養記錄……………………………………………………7
二、 常見疾病……………………………………………………7三、 龜之臨床麻醉………………………………………………8
(一)龜之特殊循環生理……………………………………………8
(二)吸入式麻醉劑…………………………………………………9
(三)注射式麻醉劑…………………………………………………10
四、 麻醉管理…………………………………………………10
(一) 麻醉前之考量………………………………………………10
(二) 正常生理數值與其監測…………………………………10
(三) 麻醉深度之判定…………………………………………12
(四) 麻醉後照顧………………………………………………13
第四節 Tilatamine-Zolazepam…………………………………13
ㄧ、簡介……………………………………………………………13
二、藥理作用………………………………………………………14
(一)對中樞神經系統的作用……………………………………14
(二)對心血管系統的作用………………………………………15
(三)對呼吸系統的作用…………………………………………16
(四)藥物動力學…………………………………………………17
第五節 Tilatamine-Zolazepam 在獸醫學之應用………………17
一、 哺乳類……………………………………………………………………17
二、 野生動物……………………………………………18
三、 實驗用動物……………………………………………19
四、 爬蟲類……………………………………………………21
第六節 Tiletamine-Zolazepame 與其他藥物之併用情形………22
一、α2型腎上腺素性受體致效劑…………………………………22
(一)簡介…………………………………………………………22
(二)Xylazine(XYL)……………………………………………23
(三)Medetomidine(MED)………………………………………24

(四)α2型腎上腺素性受體致效劑在爬蟲類醫學的應用…………25
(五)Tiletamine-Zolazepame 與 α2型腎上腺素性受體致效劑之併用情形…26
二、α2型腎上腺素性受體拮抗劑……………………………………31
三、精神安定劑………………………………………………………32
(一)強效精神安定劑(Major tranquilizers)………………32
(二)弱效精神安定劑(Minor tranquilizers)………………32
第三章 材料與方法………………………………………………34
ㄧ、實驗動物………………………………………………………34
二、飼養管理………………………………………………………34
三、使用之藥物……………………………………………………34
四、藥物之注射方式………………………………………………35
五、預備試驗………………………………………………………35
六、正式試驗………………………………………………………35
七、統計分析………………………………………………………38
第四章 結果………………………………………………………39
第一節 預備實驗………………………………………………39
第二節 正式實驗………………………………………………40
一、實驗一…………………………………………………………40
二、實驗二……………………………………………………………………48
第五章 討論……………………………………………………………………52
參考文獻……………………………………………………………58
附錄…………………………………………………………………65
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