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研究生:鄭月雁
研究生(外文):Yueh-Yen Cheng
論文名稱:普丁時期俄羅斯對歐盟能源外交政策之研究
論文名稱(外文):Russia’s Energy Diplomacy toward European Union in the Putin Era
指導教授:蔡明彥蔡明彥引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:國際政治研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:161
中文關鍵詞:俄羅斯普丁歐盟能源外交政策
外文關鍵詞:RussiaPutinthe EuropeanEnergy diplomacy
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
本文旨在探討於全球能源需求日漸增加的情況下,俄羅斯政府如何以能源作為一個重要的外交工具,達到有利於國家發展之目的,並將範圍限定於俄羅斯對於歐盟的能源外交政策之分析,希望以更為聚焦的方式來觀察俄羅斯對外的能源政策,以及俄-歐之間的能源外交關係。本文以David Easton 的政治系統模型做為主要的分析架構,試圖對於影響政策形成的內外部環境因素、決策制定的過程、實際政策的內容、以及政策所帶來的影響,作多方面的評估與理解,試圖藉此對俄羅斯對歐盟的能源外交政策有更全面性的了解。
研究發現,內外部環境因素的輸入強化了俄羅斯對歐盟能源外交政策之制定。除此之外,從主要的決策行為者之認知觀察也可以看出,俄羅斯官方對於能源工具運用的重視。而能源外交之執行結果不僅為俄羅斯國內政治經濟與國際地位的提升帶來許多正面影響,俄-歐能源合作與經貿關係也因此更加密切。然而,俄-歐能源關係仍有其潛在挑戰,主要是歐盟對於俄羅斯能源安全供應的質疑,這都成為影響未來俄-歐關係發展的重要變數。
The objective of this thesis is to investigate how the Russian government used energy as an important diplomatic tool to benefit Russia’s development during the global boom of energy demand. This thesis focuses on the analyses of Russian energy diplomatic policies toward European Union. Therefore, the Russia’s energy diplomacy and the Russia- EU energy relationship can be observed to the details. This thesis adopts David Easton’s political system model as the main analysis method and is attempt to evaluate and understand the internal/external factors that can influence Russia’s energy diplomacy, the decision making processes, the contents of policies, and the impacts of the policies. As a result, all of the above are expected to contribute to a comprehensive understanding on Russia’s energy diplomacy toward European Union.
This research found that many of internal and eaternal factors influence Russia’s energy diplomacy toward European Union. In addition, by observing the main decision makers’ behaviors, it is found that Russian government views the energy as an important tool. The executions of Russia’s energy diplomacy not only promote Russia’s international political status, but also positively influence the political and economic development in Russia. The energy relationship between Russia and EU also comes to close because of the Russia’s energy diplomacy. However, the problems on the stability of Russia’s energy supply might challenges the Russia-EU relationship in the future.
第一章 緒論.............................. 1
第一節 研究動機與目的............ 1
壹、研究動機................................. 1
貳、研究目的................................. 4
第二節 文獻探討.............................5
壹、俄羅斯對歐洲外交政策之探討...... 6
貳、俄羅斯能源議題的相關討論............. 7
參、上述文獻不足之處........................... 11
第三節 研究途徑、架構與方法............... 13
壹、研究途徑...................................... 13
貳、研究架構............................................ 15
參、研究方法........................................... 17
第四節 研究範圍與限制........................... 19
壹、研究範圍......................................... 19
貳、研究限制.......................................... 20
第五節 章節安排................................... 21
第二章 俄羅斯能源外交政策形成之因素...... 23
第一節 內部環境因素─政治層面..................... 24
壹、人民對於俄羅斯國家地地位的期待............. 24
貳、利益團體的壓力..........................27
第二節 內部環境因素─經濟層面.................... 30
壹、俄羅斯的經濟問題............................30
貳、俄羅斯能源部門在經濟中的角色................... 34
第三節 外部環境因素─歐洲能源需求問題............. 36
壹、世界能源供需狀況與俄羅斯的能源角色............. 36
貳、歐洲能源供需問題與俄-歐能源關係................. 42
第四節 外部環境因素─俄-歐整體發展關係........ 45
壹、經濟層面...................................46
貳、政治層面.......................................... 47
參、安全層面.................................. 48
第五節 小結..................................50
第三章 俄羅斯對歐盟能源外交政策制定過程.......... 51
第一節 能源外交決策機制........................ 51
壹、總統..........................................52
貳、外交部...................................... 59
参、工業能源部................................61
第二節 能源外交決策行為者對輸入項之認知........63
壹、對於內部環境因素之認知........................... 64
貳、對整體俄-歐能源關係的認知........................ 68
第三節 小結.................................74
第四章 俄羅斯對歐盟能源外交政策之內容.............. 75
第一節 俄羅斯2020能源戰略......................... 75
壹、能源戰略制訂背景.................................75
貳、能源戰略主要內容..................................78
參、能源戰略對俄-歐合作的意義........................ 83
第二節 俄-歐能源對話..................................85
壹、俄-歐能源對話制定之背景............................85
貳、俄-歐能源對話的執行架構與主要內容................ 87
參、俄-歐能源對話之意涵............................... 94
第三節 俄羅斯與歐盟四國的雙邊能源合作.................95
壹、英國....................................... 96
貳、德國....................................... 98
參、義大利..................................... 99
肆、法國.......................................... 101
第四節 小結.................................... 102
第五章 俄羅斯對歐盟能源外交政策之影響.................105
第一節 對俄羅斯國內發展之影響..................... 105
壹、政治領域...........................................105
貳、經濟領域................................... 107
第二節 對俄-歐關係之影響........................ 113
壹、國際地位之提升............................ 113
貳、俄歐關係之日漸密切................................ 115
第三節 俄歐能源合作關係之挑戰...................... 118
壹、俄-歐能源合作的挑戰............................. 118
貳、俄-歐能源關係之未來發展....................... 121
第四節 小結................................... 123
第六章 結論.................................. 125
第一節 研究發現.................................... 125
壹、俄羅斯能源外交政策形成之因素...................... 125
貳、俄羅斯對歐盟能源外交之決策過程................. 127
參、俄羅斯對歐盟能源外交之政策產出.................. 128
肆、俄羅斯對歐盟能源外交政策之影響與挑戰 .........129
第二節 未來發展................................ 131
壹、歐盟對於可替代性能源之研發....................... 131
貳、俄-歐政治經濟關係的未來發展..................... 132
參、《能源憲章》未來簽訂的可能性................ 133
參考文獻........................................ 135
參考文獻
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貳、外文部份
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“Address at a Meeting with French Politicians, Businessmen and Intellectuals,” The Kremlin, October 31, 2000, cited from http://www.kremlin.ru/eng/text/speeches/2000/10/31/0000_type82914type84779_134307.shtml (July 7,2007)
“Address by Russian President Vladimir Putin to visitors to the official site of Russia’s G8 Presidency in 2006,” 15 January, 2008, cited from http://en.g8russia.ru/agenda/ (October 8,2007)
“Answers to Questions during a Joint Interview with German Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder to Russian and German TV channels,” The Kremlin, April 09, 2001, cited from http://www.kremlin.ru/eng/speeches/2001/04/09/0002_type82916_138060.shtml (July 7,2007)
EIA,“Crude Oil Prices by Selected Type, 1970-2006,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/txt/ptb1107.html(July 8, 2007)
EIA,“EIA Russia ‘s Background,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Russia/Background.html (October 8,2007)
EIA,“EIA Russia ‘s Background,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Russia/Background.html (March 8,2007)
European Commission, “EU-Russia Summit ─ Joint Declaration,” October 30, 2000, cited from http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/russia/summit_30_10_00/statement_en.htm(July 30, 2007)
“Events Files─Visit to Great Britain,” The Kremlin, April 12, 2000, cited from http://www.kremlin.ru/eng/events/chronicle/2000/04/128922.shtml (July 7,2007)
“Excerpts from the Transcript of a Joint News Conference of President Vladimir Putin and British Prime Minister Tony Blair,” The Kremlin, March 11, 2000, cited from http://www.kremlin.ru/eng/text/speeches/2000/03/11/0000_type82914type82915_134545.shtml (July 7,2007)
“Excerpts from the Transcript of a Joint News Conference of President Vladimir Putin and British Prime Minister Tony Blair,” The Kremlin, March 11, 2000, cited from http://www.kremlin.ru/eng/text/speeches/2000/03/11/0000_type82914type82915_134545.shtml (March 11, 2007)
“Excerpts from the Transcript of the Meeting on Deliveries of Russian Gas to Ukraine,” The Kremlin, December 29, 2005, cited from http://president.kremlin.ru/eng/speeches/2005/12/29/1114_type82913type82914type82917_99746.shtml (October 15,2007)
“France/Russia - Seventh session of the Franco-Russian Bilateral Cooperation Commission at the level of heads of government - Summary of conclusions,” October 22, 2001, cited from http://www.ambafrance-uk.org/France-Russia-Seventh-session-of.html (September 20, 2007)
European Commission, “GALILEO European Satellite Navigation System” http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/energy_transport/galileo/index_en.htm (July 30,2007)
UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, “Joint Russian – UK Communiqué on Energy Cooperation,” http://www.fco.gov.uk/Files/kfile/uk_russia_communique,0.pdf (July 11, 2007)
“Opening Address at the Meeting with Representatives from the Bavaria Business Community,” The Kremlin, October 11, 2006, cited from http://www.kremlin.ru/eng/speeches/2006/10/11/2230_112436.shtml (September 13, 2007)
“Russia’s Cutoff of Natural Gas to Ukraine: Context and Implications,” CRS Report for Congress, Order Code: RS22378.
“Russian Space Agency : The Information-Analytical Center,” http://www.glonass-ianc.rsa.ru/pls/htmldb/f?p=202:1:1749171883250562277 (July 30,2007)
“Speech at a Meeting with Leading Italian Entrepreneurs,” The Kremlin, November 06, 2003, cited from http://www.kremlin.ru/eng/text/speeches/2003/11/06/1856_55215.shtml (September 11, 2007)
“Speech in the Bundestag of the Federal Republic of Germany,” The Kremlin, September 25, 2001, cited from http://www.kremlin.ru/eng/text/speeches/2001/09/25/0001_type82914_138535.shtml (July 7,2007)
“Statement for the Media in the Wake of a Russian-Italian Summit,” The Kremlin, November 27, 2000, cited from http://www.kremlin.ru/eng/text/speeches/2000/11/27/0000_type82914type82915_133337.shtml (July 7,2007)
“Statement on the expansion of business ties between the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany in the energy sphere,” The Kremlin, July 7, 2004, cited from http://www.kremlin.ru/eng/text/docs/2004/07/74244.shtml (September 11, 2007)
“Statement to the Press and Answers to Questions Following Russian-German Inter-Governmental Talks,” The Kremlin, April 10, 2001, cited from http://www.kremlin.ru/eng/speeches/2001/04/10/0000_type82914type82915_137883.shtml (July 7,2007)
European Commission, “The EU’s relations with Eastern Europe & Central Asia ─ Tacis,” http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/ceeca/tacis/index.htm#Tacis%20legal%20basis (July 30, 2007)
“The German Economy House, Berlin. President Vladimir Putin Met Representatives of German Political and Business Circles.” The Kremlin, June 12, 2000, cited from http://www.kremlin.ru/eng/text/news/2000/06/129066.shtml (September 11, 2007)
“Visit to Great Britain,” The Kremlin, April 17, 2000, cited from http://president.kremlin.ru/eng/events/details/2000/04/17_128774.shtml (April 17,2006)
Energy Information Administration (EIA) , “International Petroleum (Oil) Prices and Crude Oil Import Costs,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/oilprice.html . (July 8, 2007)
EIA, “France—Natural Gas,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/France/NaturalGas.html (September 20, 2007)
EIA, “France—Oil,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/France/Oil.html (September 20, 2007)
EIA, “Italy—Natural Gas,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Italy/NaturalGas.html (September 11, 2007)
EIA, “Italy—Oil,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Italy/Oil.html (September 11, 2007)
EIA, “Top 15 World Oil Producers, 2000 and 2004-2006,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/oilproduction.html (July 8, 2007)
EIA, “Germany—Natural Gas,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Germany/NaturalGas.html (September 11, 2007)
EIA, “Dry Natural Gas Consumption, All Countries, Most Recent Annual Estimates, 1980-2006,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/gasconsumption.html (March 8,2007)
EIA, “World Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec11_12.pdf
EIA, “World Petroleum Consumption,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec11_20.pdf
Eni, “Blue Stream,” http://www.eni.it/eni/internal.do?contestualize=false&mnselected=russia_blue_stream&channelId=-1073762254&menu=false&mncommand=openById&mnparam=russia_blue_stream (September 20, 2007)
Eurostat, “Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products,” http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pageid=1996,39140985&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&screen=detailref&language=en&product=Yearlies_new_environment_energy&root=Yearlies_new_environment_energy/H/H2/H22/ebc14096 (September 11, 2007)
Eurostat, “Net Imports of Natural Gas,” http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pageid=1996,39140985&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&screen=detailref&language=en&product=Yearlies_new_environment_energy&root=Yearlies_new_environment_energy/H/H2/H22/ebc14608 (September 11, 2007)
Gazprom , “Gazprom Partners ENI (ITALY),” http://www.gazprom.ru/eng/articles/article8922.shtml (September 20, 2007)
http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/ceeca/tacis/index.htm#Tacis%20legal%20basis (July 30, 2007)
IMF, “RUSSIA International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity,” http://www.imf.org/external/np/sta/ir/rus/eng/currus.htm#I(October 8,2007)
Russian Federal State Statistics Service, “ Foreign Trade of the Russian Federation with Far Abroad Countries,” http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2007/b07_12/25-05.htm (September 20, 2007)
Russian Federal State Statistics Service, “ Foreign Trade of the Russian Federation with Far Abroad Countries,” http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2007/b07_12/25-05.htm (September 20, 2007)
Russian Federal State Statistics Service, “Commodity Structure of Export of the Russian Federation,” http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2007/b07_12/25-08.htm (September 20, 2007)
Russian Federal State Statistics Service, “Commodity Structure of Export of the Russian Federation,” http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2007/b07_12/25-08.htm (September 20, 2007)
Russian Federation State Statistics Service, “Resident population,” http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2007/b07_12/05-01.htm (October 8,2007)
The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Full documentation is available on the Internet at http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-01.htm (November 20,2007)
The Ministry of Industry and Energy of the Russian Federation. “Ministry and Agencies,” http://www.minprom.gov.ru/eng/ministry/about (July 5,2007)
United Nation Statistics Division, “GDP at Market Prices,” http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cdb/cdb_years_on_top.asp?srID=29918&Ct1ID=&crID=250%2C276%2C392%2C643%2C826%2C840&yrID=1999 (March 8, 2007)
United Nations Statistics Division, “Reserves, foreign exchange, $US,” http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cdb/cdb_years_on_top.asp?srID=6610&Ct1ID=&crID=643&yrID=1998%2C1999%2C2000%2C2001%2C2002%2C2003%2C2004%2C2005%2C2006(October 8,2007)
United Nations Statistics Division, “Estimates of Rates of Growth of GDP (in Percent),” http://unstats.un.org/unsd/snaama/resultsGDP.asp?Series=8&CCode=643&Year=2000%2C2001%2C2002%2C2003%2C2004%2C2005%2C2006&SLevel=0&Selection=basic (October 8, 2007)
United Nations Statistics Division, “Estimates of Per Capita GNI in US Dollars,” http://unstats.un.org/unsd/snaama/resultsGNI.asp?Series=33&CCode=643&Year=2000%2C2001%2C2002%2C2003%2C2004%2C2005%2C2006&SLevel=3&Selection=basic(October 8, 2007)
Vladimir Putin, “2000 Annual Address to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation,” The Kremlin, July 08, 2000, cited from http://president.kremlin.ru/eng/text/speeches/2000/07/08/0000_type70029type82912_70658.shtml (July 7,2007)
Vladimir Putin, “2001 Annual Address to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation,” The Kremlin, April 03, 2001, cited from http://president.kremlin.ru/eng/text/speeches/2001/04/03/0000_type70029type82912_70660.shtml (July 7,2007)
Vladimir Putin, “2002 Annual Address to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation,” The Kremlin, April 04, 2002, cited from http://president.kremlin.ru/eng/text/speeches/2002/04/18/0000_type70029type82912_70662.shtml (July 7,2007)
Vladimir Putin, “2003 Annual Address to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation,” The Kremlin, May 16, 2003, cited from http://president.kremlin.ru/eng/text/speeches/2003/05/16/0000_type70029type82912_44692.shtml (July 7,2007)
Vladimir Putin, “2004 Annual Address to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation,” The Kremlin, May 26, 2004, cited from http://president.kremlin.ru/eng/text/speeches/2004/05/26/2021_type70029type82912_64906.shtml (July 7,2007)
Vladimir Putin, “Annual Address to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation,” The Kremlin, July 08, 2000, cited from http://president.kremlin.ru/eng/speeches/2000/07/08/0000_type70029_70658.shtml (July 8, 2007)

五、民調數據
“In Your View, Has the Attitude Of Most European Nations Towards Russia Worsened, Improved, or Stayed the Same?” 19 April, 2000 , cited from http://bd.english.fom.ru/report/cat/frontier/rossiya_i_stran_mira/truck_West/russ_europe/et001531 (March 8,2007)
“Russians On Relations Between Russia And Europe,” 28 April, 2000 , cited from http://bd.english.fom.ru/report/cat/frontier/rossiya_i_stran_mira/truck_West/russ_europe/eof001704 (March 8,2007)
“Concerning the Level of Economic Development, What Place Do You Think Russia Occupies Among Other Countries in the World? It Is,” 26 January, 2000, cited from http://bd.english.fom.ru/report/cat/frontier/rossiya_i_stran_mira/mesto_v_mire/et000332 (March 8,2007)
“Will Russia Be a Competitive State?” 26 January, 2000, cited from http://bd.english.fom.ru/report/cat/frontier/rossiya_i_stran_mira/mesto_v_mire/eof003005 (March 8,2007)
“Russia''s Image in the World,” 26 January, 2000, cited from http://bd.english.fom.ru/report/cat/frontier/rossiya_i_stran_mira/mesto_v_mire/ed034512 (March 8,2007)
“Russia and Europe,” 22 March, 2001, cited from http://bd.english.fom.ru/report/cat/frontier/rossiya_i_stran_mira/truck_West/russ_europe/ed011010 (March 8,2007)
“Russia and the European Union,” May 16,2002, cited from
http://bd.english.fom.ru/report/cat/frontier/rossiya_i_stran_mira/truck_West/russ_europe/ed021909 (March 8,2007)
“Russia: Powerful or Weak?” June 08,2006, cited from http://bd.english.fom.ru/report/cat/frontier/rossiya_i_stran_mira/mesto_v_mire/ed062215 (October 8,2007)
“Russia''s Role in the World: Monitoring,” May 25, 2006, cited from http://bd.english.fom.ru/report/cat/frontier/rossiya_i_stran_mira/mesto_v_mire/ed062018 (October 8,2007)
“Indicators,” October 05,2007, cited from http://bd.english.fom.ru/report/cat/policy/rating/ross_politiki/rating_Putin/razgovor/talk_putin_2007/ed071901 (October 8,2007)
“Russia''s Foreign Policy,” October 05,2006, cited from http://bd.english.fom.ru/report/map/dominant/edominant2006/edomt0639_3/ed063923 (October 8,2007)

六、網路資源

“France wants to join Nabucco - Sarkozy-1,” RIA Novosti, September 14,2007, cited from http://en.rian.ru/russia/20070914/78806443.html (September 20, 2007)
“Italy''s Eni, Gazprom Sign Deal For Black Sea Gas Pipeline,” RFERL, June 23, 2007, cited from http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2007/06/BF61A51E-1351-4791-B754-C717FE8DF2FB.html (September 20, 2007)
“NATO: Russia may become ''OPEC for natural gas'',” News World Communications, November 15, 2006, cited from http://wpherald.com/articles/2152/1/NATO-Russia-may-become-OPEC-for-natural-gas/New-level-of-urgency-in-Europe.html (October 15,2007)
“Russia prepared to pay entire foreign debt to Paris Club ahead of schedule,” Pravda, September 29,2005, cited from http://english.pravda.ru/russia/economics/29-09-2005/8981-debt-0 (October 8,2007)
“Russia Warns Ukraine On Changing Terms For Naval Base,” RFERL, December 27, 2005, cited from http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2005/12/0edf9ebf-f867-4427-89a0-6f949d520251.html (October 15,2007)
“Russia-Belarus gas deal reached,” BBC NEWS, 31 December 2006, cited from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/6221835.stm (October 15,2007)
“Russia''s Duma approves Stabilization Fund Transformation,” RIA Novosti April 11,2007, cited from http://en.rian.ru/business/20070411/63487391.html (October 8,2007)
“Russia''s Foreign Debt Down 31.3% in Q3 - Finance Ministry,” RIA Novosti October 31, 2006, cited from http://en.rian.ru/russia/20061031/55272320.html (October 8,2007)
“Russia''s Foreign Debt Down 8.5% to $47.6 bln – 1,” RIA Novosti, September 28,2007, cited from http://en.rian.ru/russia/20070928/81528879.html (October 8,2007)
Balzer, Harley “Vladimir Putin on Russian Energy Policy,” In The National Interest, November 11, 2005, cited from http://www.inthenationalinterest.com/Articles/November2005/November2005Balzer.html (July 7,2007)
Bilefsky, Dan “Putin rejects EU demands that Russia ratify energy charter,” the International Herald Tribune, October 20, 2006, cited from http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/10/20/news/eu.php (July 30, 2007)
Blagov, Sergei. “Russia Views N.A.T.O. Expansion as a Strategic Threat,” PINR, May 05, 2004, cited from http://www.pinr.com/report.php?ac=view_report&report_id=166&language_id=1 ( November 10,2006)
Dombey, Daniel. “NATO fears Russian plans for ‘gas OPEC’ ,” The Financial Times , November 13, 2006, cited from http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/af125540-7358-11db-9bac-0000779e2340.html (October 15,2007)
Feifer, Gregory. “Who Stands Behind Russia''s Foreign Policy?” St.Petersburg Times, April 9, 2002, cited from http://www.eng.yabloko.ru/Publ/2002/papers/spb-times-090402.html(July 5,2007)
Hoyos, Carola. “The hurdles for Moscow on path to ‘gas cartel’,” The Financial Times , November 13, 2006, cited from http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/054d0d62-7370-11db-9bac-0000779e2340.html (October 15,2007)
Janusz, Bugajski. “Energy Policies and Strategies : Russia Threat to Europe Energy Security,” CSIS, April 3, 2006, cited from http://www.csis.org/component/option,com_csis_press/task,view/id,1731/ ( November 10,2006)
Kupchinsky,Roman. “Russia/Belarus: Is A Gas War Brewing?” RFERL, April 3, 2006, cited from http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2006/04/04805ae4-dc2a-401c-83e2-d85524b4d90d.html (October 15,2007)
Saradzhyan,Simon. “Russia prepares for ''wars of the future''” ISN, February 12, 2007, cited from http://www.isn.ethz.ch/news/sw/details.cfm?id=17240 (October 15,2007)
Stern, Jonathan. “The Russian-Ukrainian gas crisis of January 2006,” January 5, 2006, cited from http://www.gasandoil.com/ogel/news/news_detail.htm?v0=5 (October 15,2007)
Tomberg, Igor. “Russia-Europe: energy dialogue or squabble?” RIA Novosti, May 04, 2006, cited from http://apostille.us/news/russiaeurope_energy_dialogue_or_squabble.shtml (October 15,2007)
Volkov,Vladimir. “Putin''s election as president signals authoritarian turn in Russia,” World Socialist Web Site, March 30, 2000, cited from http://www.wsws.org/articles/2000/mar2000/russ-m30.shtml ( March 30, 2007)
Whitmore, Brian “Russia: Controversy Mars G8 Presidency,” RFERL, December 29, 2006, cited from http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2006/12/9590bde1-2ff1-46b0-acfd-dd21d6965641.html (October 10,2007)

七、參考網站
(一)官方網站
Energy Information Administration (EIA) http://www.eia.doe.gov/
The Public Opinion Foundation(FOM) http://bd.english.fom.ru/
G8 RUSSIA http://en.g8russia.ru/
Gazprom http://www.gazprom.com/
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) http://www.opec.org/home/
Russian Federal State Statistics Service http://www.fsgs.ru/wps/portal/english
Statistical Office of the European Communities http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pageid=1090,30070682,1090_33076576&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL
The Public Opinion Foundation http://bd.english.fom.ru/
UCTE http://www.ucte.org /
UCTE IPSUPS Study http://www.ucte-ipsups.org/
UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office http://www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1007029390554
俄羅斯外交部網站 http://www.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/main_eng
俄羅斯總統網站 http://president.kremlin.ru/eng/
俄羅斯聯邦工業能源部 http://www.minprom.gov.ru/eng
歐盟網站 http://ec.europa.eu/index_en.htm

(二)新聞網站
BBC NEWS http://www.bbc.co.uk/
Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty(RFE/RL) http://www.rferl.org/
自由時報電子報 http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/

(三)學術網站
Carnegie Endowment http://www.carnegieendowment.org/
Center for Strategic and International Studies. http://www.csis.org/
Russia in Global Affairs http://eng.globalaffairs.ru/
Swedish Defence Research Agency(FOI) http://www.foi.se/FOI/templates/startpage____96.aspx
The Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/default.htm
The James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy of Rice University http://www.rice.edu/energy/publications/russianglobalstrategy.html
The Power and Interest News Report (PINR) http://www.pinr.com/index.php
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