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研究生:王瑜婷
研究生(外文):Yu-Ting Wang
論文名稱:染料敏化太陽能電池材料之製備與元件之探討
論文名稱(外文):The Investigation of the Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Materials Preparation and Devices
指導教授:薛英家
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:精密工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:染料敏化太陽能電池溶膠-凝膠法紫質固態電解質
外文關鍵詞:dye-sensitized solar cellsol-gel methodporphyrinsolid state electrolyte
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本研究以兩大重點為主軸,第一是染料敏化太陽能電池(DSSC)之二氧化鈦(TiO2)薄膜特性分析,第二是染料敏化太陽能電池元件之I-V特性探討。研究以溶膠-凝膠(sol-gel)法製作TiO2,由於反應在室溫下即能進行,製得之材料純度高且均質性佳,塗佈後之薄膜呈現較高的光學透明性。探討TiO2薄膜特性,使用之分析儀器有:化學分析電子光譜儀(ESCA)、小角度X光繞射儀(SAXS)、掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)、紫外-可見光光譜分析儀(UV/Vis)。而製作的DSSC元件之I-V特性分析則使用電壓/電流源儀器與太陽光模擬器,透過電腦軟體連接來量測其電性曲線。
傳統液態電解質碘化物不僅電池不易密封,還存在著因有機溶劑易揮發和電解質易洩漏,而造成電池在長期工作過程中性能下降,縮短太陽能電池的使用壽命,因此本研究選擇以MEH-PPV取代液態電解質碘化物,作為DSSC元件固態電解質材料,解決因液態電解質引起的上述缺點。
染料是DSSC的光捕捉天線,亦是影響電池效率至關重要的一部分。目前效率最佳的釕錯合物染料(Ru-complex dye)含有稀有貴金屬,價格高昂,因此本研究採用自然、便宜的紫質衍生物-TCPP作為本研究之染料。
本研究最終目標是期望以sol-gel TiO2、便宜的紫質或葉綠素染料、固態電解質、及較鉑(Pt)便宜的金屬,製作出低成本、高效率之染料敏化太陽能電池。
This research has two major topics which are TiO2 thin film characteristic analyses and I-V characteristic of dye-sensitized solar cell devices. Sol-gel TiO2 solution, with high purity and homogenous, is reacted and proceed under room temperature. Its thin film shows the higher optics transparency by spin coating. To probe into the thin film characteristics of TiO2, analytic instruments are used as the following, ESCA, SAXS, SEM, UV/Vis spectrophotometer, and the I-V characteristics of devices is measured by the solar simulator system with Keithley source meter 2400 and incidence light source equipment. The I-V characteristic curve of solar cell is resulted by computer software.
The conventional liquid-electrolyte-dye-sensitized solar cell is difficult to seal, and also with both volatilization problem of organic solvent and leakage problem of electrolyte, which cause battery performance drop in the course of long-term work, and shorten the life time of dye-sensitized solar cell. Therefore, this research uses MEH-PPV, as the solid state electrolyte material for dye-sensitized solar cell, to replace liquid electrolyte iodide and also solve the above-mentioned disadvantages caused by liquid electrolyte.
Dye not only catches the light for dye-sensitized solar cell but also influence efficiency mainly. At present, the Ru-complex dye, containing the noble metal, is the most efficient in dye-sensitized solar cell application, but very expensive. In this research, TCPP is used for dye-sensitized solar cell because of both nature and cheap behavior.
The final goal in this research expects to manufacture low cost, high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cell with cheap sol-gel TiO2, porphyrin or chlorophyll dye, solid state electrolyte and metal of counter electrode.
誌謝................................................ii
摘要...............................................iii
Abstract............................................iv
目錄.................................................v
圖目錄............................................viii
表目錄...............................................x
第一章 緒論.........................................1
1.1 前言.........................................1
1.2 太陽能電池簡介...............................3
1.3 本文架構.....................................6
第二章 文獻回顧.....................................7
2.1 染料敏化太陽能電池之工作原理.................7
2.2 染料敏化太陽能電池的結構.....................8
2.2.1 工作電極.....................................9
2.2.2 染料........................................11
2.2.3 電解質......................................13
2.2.4 對電極......................................20
2.3 染料敏化太陽能電池之等效電路................22
2.4 染料敏化太陽能電池之光電轉換特性............23
2.4.1 短路電流....................................23
2.4.2 開路電壓....................................23
2.4.3 填充因子....................................24
2.4.4 能量轉換效率................................24
2.5 溶膠-凝膠法.................................26
2.5.1 溶膠-凝膠法簡介.............................26
2.5.2 溶膠-凝膠的製程原理與步驟...................26
2.5.3 溶膠-凝膠法之優點...........................29
2.5.4 溶膠-凝膠法的覆膜過程.......................29
第三章 實驗設備與方法..............................32
3.1 實驗系統規劃................................32
3.2 實驗藥品及材料..............................33
3.2.1 實驗氣體....................................33
3.2.2 實驗材料....................................33
3.2.3 實驗工具....................................34
3.3 實驗設備....................................35
3.4 量測儀器....................................36
3.4.1 TiO2薄膜特性量測............................36
3.4.1.1 膜厚測量儀..................................36
3.4.1.2 紫外-可見光光譜分析儀.......................36
3.4.1.3 掃描式電子顯微鏡............................36
3.4.1.4 小角度X光繞射儀.............................37
3.4.1.5 化學分析電子光譜儀..........................38
3.4.2 DSSC電壓-電流特性量測.......................39
3.5 實驗內容....................................39
3.5.1 各層材料製備................................39
3.5.1.1 染料配製....................................39
3.5.1.2 電解質配製..................................40
3.5.1.3 玻璃基板之清洗..............................40
3.5.1.4 TiO2製備....................................41
3.5.2 實驗流程....................................42
3.5.3 對電極製作..................................43
3.5.4 組裝........................................43
第四章 結果與討論..................................46
4.1 TiO2薄膜特性分析............................46
4.1.1 ESCA分析....................................46
4.1.2 XRD分析.....................................50
4.1.3 UV/Vis分析..................................51
4.1.4 SEM分析.....................................52
4.2 染料敏化太陽能電池電壓-電流特性分析.........54
第五章 結論.........................................58
第六章 未來展望與目標...............................59
參考文獻............................................60
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