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研究生:廖志偉
研究生(外文):Chih-Wei Liao
論文名稱:臺灣中部地區流浪犬及家犬沙門氏菌感染之研究
論文名稱(外文):Investigation of Salmonella Infection in household and stray dogs of central Taiwan
指導教授:陳德勛
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:獸醫公共衛生學研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:沙門氏菌流浪犬家犬
外文關鍵詞:salmonellastray dogshousedhold dogs
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沙門氏菌(Salmonella)感染目前仍然是世界上人類最主要的藉由食物來源的人畜共通傳染病病原,然而環境中的其他來源的機會仍可偶然的使人類感染沙門氏菌,而近年來有越來越多人飼養犬隻,犬隻也慢慢的由室外走入室內,與人類的生活有緊密的接觸。在臺灣地區,此菌過去曾有從犬隻分離到的紀錄,因此為了探討臺灣中部地區犬隻沙門氏菌感染的情形,本研究於2005年11月至2007年3月針對中部地區5個縣市的收容所犬隻及家犬進行調查,共採集樣本1091個樣本,分離出168株沙門氏菌,收容所犬隻之總分離率為15.98%(160/1001),各地區收容所的分離率分別為:苗栗縣2.44%(1/41),臺中縣15.53%(75/483),臺中市12.63%(38/301),彰化縣28%(35/125),南投縣21.57%(11/51);此外,在家犬部分分離率為7.14%(8/108)。血清群部分以B(serogroup B)佔最多,為30.36%(51/168),其次為C群28.57%(48/168),E群22.02%(37/168)及D群16.67%(28/168)。血清型以Salmonella Newport(16.67%)、Salmonella Enteritidis(10.30%)及Salmonella Senftenberg(4.17%)為主。在抗藥性方面,99.41%(167/168)的分離株對一種或一種以上的抗菌劑有抗藥性,單一抗菌劑抗藥性比例最高為Colistin(98.81%),次為Tetracycline(38.1%)及 Nalidixic acid(27.98%);此外,針對動物醫院使用抗菌劑的問卷調查結果顯示,以Cephalexin(18.5%)、Gentamicin(13.8%)、Tetracycline(8.3%)及Ampicillin(8.3%)為最常使用的抗菌劑,顯示犬隻抗藥性的產生不全然是由動物醫院所致,可能還有其他的途徑造成犬隻感染具抗藥性的沙門氏菌。
Salmonella spp infection is an most important zoonosis worldwide by contamination of food. However, the salmonellae infect to human that the chance of other sources in the environment. In recent years, the dog which are closely related with human living and the Salmonella spp. were isolated form dog in Taiwan previously, so the aim of this study is to investigate the current status of the Salmonella infection in household and stray dogs in central Taiwan. In this study, samples were taken during the period November 2005 to March 2007. Rectal swabs from stray dogs were collected at five municipal animal shelters located in central Taiwan. For the household dogs, swabs were collected form veterinary establishments in Taichung city and county. Of total of 1001 dogs sampled, 168 Salmonella spp. were isolated, 15.98%(160/1001) were positive for Salmonella spp. of stray dogs:Miaoli county 2.44%(1/41), Taichung county 15.53%(75/483), Taichung city 12.63%(38/301), Changhua county 28%(35/125) and Nantou county 21.57%(11/51). Additionally, 7.14%(8/108) of household dogs were positive for salmonellae. The most frequently isolated serotypes were serogroup B(30.36%), secondly was 28.57% of C group, 22.02% of E group, and 16.67% of D group. Salmonella Newport was the most prevalent serotype(16.67%), followed by Salmonella Enteritids (10.30%), and Salmonella Senftenberg (4.17%). The susceptibility of Salmonella isolates to fourteen antimicrobials, 99.41% (167/168) were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Regardless of source, antimicrobial resistance was highest to Colistin(98.81%), secondly was 28.57% of Tetracycline, and 27.98% of Nalidixic acid. The result of questionnaire survey, Cephalexin(18.5%), Gentamicin(13.8%), Tetracycline(8.3%), and Ampicillin(8.3%) was used usually in veterinary clinics, it was significant that Salmonella isolates exhibited resistance to antimicrobial agents in this study not only form animal hospital, it would cause by other ways.
目 次
頁次
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要………………………………………………………………ii
目次……………………………………………………………………iv
表目次…………………………………………………………………vi
圖目次………………………………………………………………viii
第一章 前言………………………………………………………1
第二章 文獻探討…………………………………………………3
第一節 沙門氏菌簡介……………………………………………3
一、 形態與生化特性…………………………………………3
二、 命名與分類………………………………………………4
三、 培養與分離………………………………………………4
(一) 前增菌培養………………………………………………5
(二) 選擇性增菌培養…………………………………………5
(三) 選擇性培養………………………………………………6
四、 血清型……………………………………………………6
(一) 體表抗原…………………………………………………6
(二) 鞭毛抗原…………………………………………………7
五、 沙門氏菌的書寫規則……………………………………7
第二節 沙門氏菌傳播途徑與治療………………………………8
一、 傳播途徑…………………………………………………8
二、 疾病症狀…………………………………………………8
三、 治療………………………………………………………9
第三節 犬隻傳播沙門氏菌在公共衛生上的關係………………9
第四節 犬隻沙門氏菌抗藥性的情形……………………………10
第五節 動物收容中心犬隻處理流程簡介-以臺中縣動物之家(流浪犬收容中心)為例…………………………………………………10
第三章 材料與方法………………………………………………13
第一節 樣本採集來源……………………………………………13
第二節 實驗方法…………………………………………………13
一、 檢體採集的方式與器材…………………………………13
二、 沙門氏菌分離與純化……………………………………14
三、 菌種保存…………………………………………………14
四、 血清型鑑定………………………………………………15
五、抗生素感受性試驗……………………………………………17
第三節 統計分析…………………………………………………18
第四節 問卷調查…………………………………………………19
第四章 實驗結果…………………………………………………20
第一節 樣本來源之分佈…………………………………………20
第二節 流浪犬及家犬沙門氏菌分離結果………………………20
第三節 沙門氏菌血清群及血清型之分佈………………………22
第四節 抗生素感受性試驗之結果………………………………23
第五節 問卷調查…………………………………………………24
第五章 討論………………………………………………………26
第六章 結論………………………………………………………32
參考文獻……………………………………………………………67
附錄…………………………………………………………………74

表目次
頁次
表1. 單價O抗原對應H抗原快速檢索表………………………………33
表2. 依抗生素感受性試驗抑制圈大小結果判定菌株抗藥性之標準35
表3. 臨床獸醫師使用抗生素之問卷調查表…………………………36
表4. 問卷調查明信片回函……………………………………………37
表5. 台灣中部地區犬隻樣本收集來源分析…………………………38
表6. 台灣中部地區所有犬隻沙門氏菌陽性率之比較………………39
表7. 台灣中部地區各收容中心犬隻沙門氏菌陽性率之比較………40
表8. 台灣中部地區所有犬隻依性別區分之沙門氏菌陽性率比較…41
表9. 台灣中部地區流浪犬隻依性別區分之沙門氏菌陽性率比較…42
表10. 台灣中部地區家犬依性別區分之沙門氏菌陽性率比………43
表11. 台灣中部地區所有犬隻依年齡區分之沙門氏菌陽性率比較44
表12. 台灣中部地區流浪犬依年齡區分之沙門氏菌陽性率比較…45
表13. 台灣中部地區家犬依年齡區分之沙門氏菌陽性率比較……46
表14. 台灣中部地區所有犬隻依季節區分之沙門氏菌陽性率比較47
表15. 台灣中部地區流浪犬依季節區分之沙門氏菌陽性率比較…48
表16. 台灣中部地區家犬及流浪犬之沙門氏菌分離株血清群……49
表17. 沙門氏菌分離株血清群之血清型分佈………………………50
表18. 台灣中部地區家犬及流浪犬沙門氏菌分離株之血清型……51
表19. 台灣中部地區家犬及流浪犬沙門氏菌分離株之抗生素感受性…53
表20. 台灣中部地區家犬及流浪犬沙門氏菌分離株之抗生素抗藥性百分比…………………………………………………………………54
表21. 沙門氏菌Newport及Enteritidis血清型分離株之抗生素抗藥性百分比………………………………………………………………55
表22. 臨床獸醫師使用抗微生物藥物之問卷調查結果……………56
表23. 台灣北部地區犬隻沙門氏菌分離株血清型之分佈…………57
表24. 台灣地區人類沙門氏菌分離株之血清型前10名……………58
表25. 2003年臺灣地區動物收容所犬隻收容處理情形統計表……59
表26. 2004年臺灣地區動物收容所犬隻收容處理情形統計表……60
表27. 2005年臺灣地區動物收容所犬隻收容處理情形統計表……61



圖目次
頁次
圖1. 動物收容中心處理流程圖……………………………………62
圖2. 犬隻保定及採樣圖……………………………………………63
圖3. 沙門氏菌培養之流程圖………………………………………64
圖4. Modified Semi-solid Rappaport-Vassiliadis(MSRV)Medium培養示意圖…………………………………………………65
圖5. MSRV培養陽性反應示意圖………………………………………65
圖6. 平板培養基TSA示意圖…………………………………………66
圖7. 菌株接種示意圖…………………………………………………66
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