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研究生:周永生
研究生(外文):Yong-Sen Choo
論文名稱:施工中變更設計之原因、成本與流程處理探討
論文名稱(外文):Reasons and Cost for Design Change During Construction and Correspondence Process Analysis
指導教授:張行道張行道引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shing-Tao Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:利害關係者錯誤或遺漏變更設計原因公文流程業主要求設計者責任
外文關鍵詞:stakeholdererrors and omissionsReasons of design changesdesigner responsibilityowner's requestcorrespondence flow
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:16
  • 點閱點閱:1309
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:189
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
工程於施工中變更設計是常態,但在實務上處理變更設計時,變更理由的撰寫常存有模糊地帶,由於不知變更的真正原因,不利於減少變更設計。又對於變更的設計成本與時間,該如何處理以降低,一般少有研究。
本研究探討施工中變更設計原因,深入瞭解、分析變更設計成本與時間,並提出施工中的處理變更公文流程,降低設計變更的影響。以個案研究方法,蒐集某顧問公司案例,訪談四個工程的設計者、業主、監造、承包商,包括公路拓寬、下水道、公路新建及景觀橋樑。分析施工中變更設計的來源、原因、成本,公文往來、處理時間,及變更函文流程。
個案研究結果顯示,變更來源有業主、監造、承包商及利害關係者,以承包商提出變更的比例最高(41%)。而施工中造成變更設計,可歸納出三個根本原因:業主可控制、設計單位可控制、不可控制,每個原因各有4個細項原因。分析各原因所占設計變更比例,較高的有:設計單位原因占45%,顯示設計單位是造成變更設計的重要一環,其中錯誤或遺漏占37%;不可控制原因占29%,其中利害關係者占44%。
四個工程的施工變更金額占合約金額分佈在1%到28%之間,不可控制原因的次數(45%)與金額(55%)最多,其次是設計單位原因的次數(37%)與金額(35%)。另外,施工中重新設計人時占原設計人時,最高是下水道的23.5%,最低是9.6%,平均15.4%。每百萬施工變更之設計人時從11.4~115.5不等,換成設計成本,每100元施工變更金額,需花費設計成本從0.4元到4元,可相當於新工程的設計費用。
至於處理施工中變更設計的效率,個案分析顯示,監造及設計者可利用網路處理掉58%的工作。然而,他們處理的時間僅占33%,業主處理及轉文的時間占67%。為節省處理及轉文時間,業主可授權監造收承包商文並發函設計者,以增加公文流程效率。
Design changes are very common during construction, but their reasons are often unclearly written in change orders that is not good to reducing design changes. Further, how to minimize the cost and time of design changes is also less studied.
This research explored the reasons for the design changes during construction, analyzed design change cost and time, and proposes a correspondence flow procedure among construction parties. It used a case study method and collected cases from a consultant company, interviewed designers, owners, supervisors, and contractors of four construction projects including highway widening, sewers, new highway and landscaping bridge.
The results of case study show that the changes were proposed from the owner, construction supervisor, contractor and stakeholders, among them the contractor had the highest percentage (41%). The design change causes during construction can be classified into three types of reasons: under owner’s control, under designer’s control, and beyond control. Each reason has four detailed reasons. From analyzing the reason’s proportion for design changes, under designer’s control (45%) takes the largest part, in which errors and omissions takes 37%.
The construction change amounts of the four projects are between 1% and 28% of their construction contract amounts. They were caused largely by beyond-control and designers reasons in the design stage. Furthermore, the re-design time during construction for the sewer project had the highest percentage (23.5%) of the original design time, the lowest is 9.6% and average 15.4%. The design cost per $100 construction change amount ranges from 0.4 to 4 dollars. It can be a new project’s design cost.
Regarding the efficiency of handling design changes during construction, the case analysis shows that construction supervisor and designer can use internet to handle 58% of the change work. However, the change work handling time is largely consumed by the owner (67%). In order to save the handling time, the owner can authorize construction supervisor to collect the contractor’s documents and send letters to the designer to improve the efficiency of correspondence flow.
目錄
摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iv
目錄 v
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究範圍與限制 3
1.4 研究方法與流程 3
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1 重做理論 6
2.1.1 重做原因 6
2.1.2 重做成本 8
2.2 協調理論 10
2.2.1 協調方式 11
2.2.2 專案變更管理系統 12
第三章 變更設計原因分類與統計 13
3.1 變更設計的原因 13
3.1.1 變更設計常見的理由 13
3.1.2 變更設計原因的分類 16
3.1.3變更理由分辨真正原因 20
3.1.4 變更設計與契約變更 21
3.2 個案變更設計原因統計 22
3.2.1 變更設計的提出來源 22
3.2.2 變更設計原因所佔比例 25
第四章 變更設計原因與人時成本 29
4.1 人時分析 29
4.1.1 設計階段 29
4.1.2 施工階段 31
4.2 成本分析 38
4.2.1施工變更次數與金額 38
4.2.2 設計人時成本與施工變更金額 40
4.2.3 與文獻重做原因及成本比較 45
第五章 施工中協調 46
5.1 外部公文協調 46
5.1.1 有關單位間公文的流程 46
5.1.2 發函問題分類統計 47
5.2 內部公文網路系統 49
5.2.1 系統的分析 50
5.2.2 處理變更設計分佈的時間 51
5.3 變更或澄清的公文流程 53
5.3.1 承包商發函 53
5.3.2 業主發函 56
第六章 結論與建議 59
6.1 結論 59
6.2建議 62
6.2.1 本研究建議 62
6.2.2 未來研究方向 63
參考文獻 64
附錄一 訪談問題 68
附錄二 各標變更項目與原因彙整表 73
附錄三 高速公路拓寬工程B標中變更理由敘述 99
附錄四 訪談記錄 102
附錄五 高速公路拓寬施工中變更設計人時調查表 131
自 述 134
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二、中文部份
1. 陳素娥,協調管理規範,國立成功大學土木工程研究所碩士論文,民國九十二年。
2. 交通部台灣區國道高速公路局工程標準作業程序,民國九十三年。
3. 許憲志,道路拓寬工程變更設計問題之探討-以雲嘉南縣之公路工程為例,國立雲林科技大學營建工程系碩士論文,民國九十四年。
4. 黃忠發、江建達、廖文弘,高雄市政府工務業務執行現況、問題與對策分析,2005城市論壇-價值工程實踐國際研討會,民國九十四年。
5. 詹孟霖,工程專案協調時間規劃,國立成功大學土木工程研究所碩士論文,民國九十五年。
6. 陳宥均,營建工程師之協調型式與時間分配,國立成功大學土木工程研究所碩士論文,民國九十六年。
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