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研究生:王亞倫
研究生(外文):Allen George
論文名稱:一個「不道德的道德家」及其傳承:賽彌爾強森、修身、與十八世紀英國的文字印刷
論文名稱(外文):The “Vicious Moralist” and His Legacy: Samuel Johnson, Self-Improvement, and the Printed Word in Eighteenth Century Britain
指導教授:柯克柯克引用關係
指導教授(外文):Rufus Cook
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系碩博士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:280
中文關鍵詞:印刷賽彌爾強森詹姆士波士威爾自我道德
外文關鍵詞:selfhoodPrintSamuel JohnsonJames BoswellMorality
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十八世紀早期通常被稱為「初期現代」時期,很多當代美國的社會、文化、經濟理念及習慣皆起源於這時期。在此時期 ,書本、小冊子、及期刊等文字印刷品大量出現,創作了為數眾多的閱讀人口,社會各階層的人們紛紛把這些印刷品當作自我教育、自我修養、及道德指引的工具,造成了透過文字印刷品來自我修養的空前盛況。十八世紀最有名的寫有關道德方面作品的作家之一是賽彌爾•強森,但有很多證據顯示他是個言行不一的人,一輩子裡做盡了他作品中所極力引以為戒的壞事。強森的朋友,也是他的學生兼傳記作者詹姆士•波士威爾也是這樣一個喜歡研究道德學問,但私底下卻行為不檢的人。雖然他們都蒜言行不一的人,但兩人在很多方面卻明顯成為對比。強森代表前啟蒙時期英國社會的傳統道德及宗教信仰,而波士威爾則代表我們當代社會主流意識型態中比較開放及自由的信念。本論文試圖透過分析兩人所處的時代、所呈現的不同言行舉止、及批評家對兩人的不同評價,來管窺形成當代世界觀的一些力量。
Abstract
The early eighteenth century in England is often called the “early modern” era and witnessed the origin of many of the social, cultural and economic beliefs and practices of the contemporary Anglo-American world, including the emergence of individualism, or the “modern self.” This era also experienced an enormous increase in both the production and consumption of books, leaflets, and periodicals and more than in any other previous era in history, citizens of all ranks of society sought to use the printed word as a tool for self-education, personal improvement, and moral guidance. One of the eighteenth century’s most famous authors of moral writing was Samuel Johnson, but there is ample evidence that Johnson himself did not profit from his own advice, and throughout his life practiced many of the vices which he wrote most strenuously against. Johnson’s friend, biographer, and disciple, James Boswell was also a man who enjoyed the study of virtue but did not bother too much in its practice. Although similar in this way, these two men can in many ways be seen as almost opposites, representing the older, traditional moral and religious beliefs of pre-enlightenment England, and the more fluid, romantic, and modern beliefs that are fundamental to our contemporary ideology. Through an analysis of their times and the different sets of practices and beliefs of these two men, as well as the different ways they have been presented (or mis-represented ) to us by critics and scholars, this work attempts to give some insight into some of the forces that have shaped our modern world-view.
Table of Contents
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………..7

Part I: Seventeenth Century Ripple Effect: From Political Revolution to Individualism
Introduction: Meaning of a “New Self”…………………………………………………...21

Replacing the Heads of Government and Religion—With the Single Blow of an Ax…...27
Coffee Shops and the Public Sphere……………………………………………………...33
Where Philosophy and Religion Met: The Rise of Individualism………………………..37
The Growing Influence of the Secular Word……………………………………………..50
Addison and Steele and the Community of Readers…………………………….….…….57
Individualism and the Novel……………………………………………….……………...61
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….…………...68
Part II: Samuel Johnson as Pedagogue: Moral Good and the Improvement of the Self
Introduction: The Conflicting Meanings of Self-Improvement……………….……………73

Samuel Johnson: Self-Appointed Promoter of “Self-Improvement”……..………..……....78
.
A General Survey of Johnson’s Views on the Nature of the Individual and Social
Goodness………………………………………………………………………….…..…… 85
Socio-political Institutions as a Necessary Framework for Individual Goodness and
Improvement……………………………………………………………………..……..…..90
Samuel Johnson and the Way to Self Improvement…………………………..…….……..108
Self Improvement as a Moral Duty………………………………………………………109
Improvement Through the Arts………………………………..………………………....138

Part III: The Vicious Moralist and his Legacy: Samuel Johnson, James Boswell, Vice, Improvement, and the Historical Record…………………………………………………..152

Vicious Johnson: The Vicious Moralist and His Subsequent Whitewashings……………160
The Vicious Moralist……………………………………………………………………...184
Whitewashed Johnson…………………………………………………………………….197
James Boswell and the Construction of the Self………………………………………….219
Moral and Religious Boswell……………………………………………………………..226
Boswell and the Search for a Self………………………………………………………...233
Boswell Nearly Reforms: The Discovery of His True Self………………………….……243
Boswell and the Uses of His Journal……………………………………………………...253
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….……264
Works cited……………………………………………………………………………..…..274
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