跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.84.188) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/06 12:36
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:張主羚
研究生(外文):Chu-lin Chang
論文名稱:從漢語植物固定語式中窺探中國性別角色
論文名稱(外文):Gender Roles Reflected in Chinese Botanical Fixed Expressions
指導教授:謝菁玉謝菁玉引用關係陳振宇陳振宇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shelley Ching-yu HsiehJenn-Yeu Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系碩博士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:性別漢語情緒感官知識本體植物固定語式
外文關鍵詞:genderHantologysensesemotionsMandarin Chineseplant fixed expressions
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:269
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:43
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本篇論文主要探討漢語植物固定語式中呈現出的中國男、女性別角色。主要採用六個理論基礎對語料做多面向的分析。Lakoff 和Turner (1989) 提出概念隱喻理論「人即植物」,人被視為植物,有著相彷的生命循環。Ullmann (1959) 觀察到通感式隱喻的等級分佈。Huang (2002) 提出情緒語言裡的四大基本要素。Heine, Claudi, 和 Hünnemeyer (1991) 提出概念的語言編碼。Chou和Huang (2005)主張漢字知識本體。Croft (in press) 主張社會認知語言學,了解一個語言不可乎視其文化社會背景。

所分析的語料主要來自中研院古漢語語料庫、現代漢語平衡語料庫、教育部線上國語辭典、林語堂當代漢英辭典電子版。
本文主要分為四部份。第一部份以Lakoff和Turner的人即植物為基礎,來觀察植物如何被譬喻為男、女,怎樣典型的男、女,植物的生長階段又是如何映照到男女的人生階段。又以Heine 的概念的語言編碼來看譬喻基底的機制,來源域與目標域的映照關係。第二部份以Huang和Ullmann的理論來看語料中情緒與感官的語言,其中男女的差異,以及通感轉移的現象。第三部份以Chou和Huang的漢字知識本體的觀點,用固定語的部首來探討男女差異。第四部份以歷史上的中國共同社會背景中男女的角色及期待來呼應前幾部份的發現。

研究發現,對女性的描述側重在外貌與貞潔,對男性則是能力、知識與人品,女性的角色限於家庭,而男性則是融入社會有多重的角色與關係。在感官方面,視覺、嗅覺主要用於描述女性的美貌,味覺、觸覺的語意主角則是男性,跨領域的用來比喻不尊重女性的負面社會行為。在情緒方面,只發現以生理反應來喻指女性的情緒。以漢字本體來看,部首的運用也細膩地隱含了男女的差異,植物固定語式豐富地展現了男、女的角色,及在中國文化下所賦予的期待與定位。
This study aims to detect gender roles in Mandarin botanical fixed expressions from different perspectives. The analysis is based on six theories. Lakoff and Turner (1989) claimed conceptual metaphor- PEOPLE ARE PLANTS that people are viewed as plants in connection with life cycle. Ullmann (1959) observed hierarchical distribution of Synesthesia. Huang (2002) made the claim of four emotion frame elements. Heine, Claudi, and Hünnemeyer (1991) proposed linguistic coding of concepts, which reveal the relationship between source domain and target domain in metaphors. Chou and Huang introduced (2005) Hantology. Croft (in press) asserts social cognitive linguistics, which suggests that social common background cannot be ignored in understanding a language.

Botanical fixed expressions (BFEs) are gathered mostly from Academia Sinica Ancient Chinese Corpus, Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus Mandarin Chinese, Online Chinese dictionaries of Ministry Education, and Lin Yu-tang Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage.

The text will present four parts. First, based on Lakoff and Turner’s PEOPLE ARE PLANTS, which shows how plants are analogized as female and male stereotypes are observed, and also how plants’ growing stages are mapped to match the life stages of women and men. In addition, BFEs are examined with Heine et al’s coding of concepts. Secondly, with Huang and Ullmann’s theories, BFEs are examined to find the differences between sexes in terms of emotions and senses, and the phenomena of Synesthesia. Third, from the perspective of Hantology by Chou & Huang, the radicals of the BFEs are calculated and analyzed to see the differences between both sexes. Finally, the gender roles in Chinese common social background throughout history are presented to correspond with the findings of the previous parts.

Findings reveal that the descriptions mainly focus on a woman’s appearance and chastity and a man’s ability, knowledge and integrity. A woman’s role is limited to the family but a man participates in society and plays more roles. In terms of senses, vision and smell are mostly used in comparison to a woman’s outward beauty, while taste and touch, acted out by the semantic agent, men, are compared to another domain, the negative social behavior toward women. As for emotions, only in women are their physiological reactions likened to their emotions. From Hantology perspective, the application of the radicals also exquisitely connotes the differences between men and women. Chinese botanical fixed expressions richly manifest the roles of both sexes and the expectations and stereotypes given by Chinese culture.
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
Acknowledgement IIV
Table of Contents V
List of Tables VIII
List of Figures VIII

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation and Goals 1
1.2 Methodology 2
1.3 Organization of the Thesis 3
Chapter 2 Review of the Literature 5
2.1 Studies on Gender Reflected in Languages 5
2.1.1 Bowker (2001) 5
2.1.2 Ng & Burridge (1993) 7
2.1.3 Wu (2002) 11
2.2 Studies on Plant Fixed Expressions 12
2.2.1 Hsieh & Chiu (2004) and Hsieh (Hsieh, 2004) 12
2.2.2 Lin (2005) 15
2.3 Summary 16
Chapter 3 Methodology 18
3.1 Linguistic Data and Categorization 18
3.2 Theoretical Background 21
3.2.1 Lakoff and Turner’s (1989) PEOPLE ARE PLANTS 22
3.2.2 Ullmann’s (1959) Hierarchical Distribution 24
3.2.3 Huang’s (2002) Emotional Frame Elements 27
3.2.4 Heine’s (Heine et al., 1991) Linguistic Coding of Concepts 28
3.2.5 Chou and Huang’s (2005) Hantology 31
3.2.6 Croft’s (in press) Toward a Social Cognitive Linguistics 34
3.3 Summary 36
Chapter 4 Female and Male Stereotypes 37
4.1 Female 37
4.1.1 The Kinds of Plants vs. the Types of Women 37
4.1.2 The Growing Stages of Plants vs. Women’s Life Stages 40
4.2 Male 42
4.2.1 The Kinds of Plants vs. the Types of Men 42
4.2.2 The Growing Stages of Plants vs. Men’s Life Stages 45
4.3 Linguistic Coding of Concepts in BFEs 46
4.3.1 PLANT > PERSON 47
4.3.2 PLANT > QUALITY 48
4.3.3 ACTIVITY > QUALITY 51
4.3.4 ACTIVITY > ACTIVITY 52
Chapter 5 Emotions and Senses 56
5.1 Emotions 56
5.1.1 Definition of Emotion and Basic Emotions 57
5.1.2 Emotion in Female BFEs 58
5.1.3 Emotion in Male BFEs 60
5.2 Senses 62
5.2.1 Senses in Females 62
5.2.2 Senses in Males 65
5.3 Interim Summary 68
Chapter 6 Gender Differences From an Ontology Perspective 69
6.1 Hantology: An Ontology based on Conventionalized Conceptualization 69
6.2 Analysis from an Ontology Perspective 70
6.2.1 Hantology in Female BFEs 71
6.2.2 Hantology in Male BFEs 79
6.3 Summary 88
Chapter 7 Gender roles in Chinese social common background 90
7.1 Confucianism 90
7.2 Men 91
7.3 Women 93
7.4 System Changing 96
Chapter 8 Conclusion 98
8.1 Summary of Results 98
8.2 Suggestions for Future Research 101
References 103
Alexander, Richard J. (1978). Fixed expressions in English: A linguistic, psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic and didactic study (part 1). Anglistik und Englischunterricht, 6, 171-188.
Alexander, Richard J. (1979). Fixed expressions in English: A linguistic, psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic and didactic study (part 2). Anglistik und Englischunterricht, 7, 181-202.
Aliki. (1962). My five senses. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Alverson, Hoyt. (1994). Semantics and experience : Universal metaphors of time in English, Mandarin, Hindi and Sesotho. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Atran, Scott. (1990). Cognitive foundations of natural history: Towards and anthropology of sceience. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Barcelona, Antonio. (2000). Metaphor and metonymy at the crossroads: A cognitive perspective. Berlin/ New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Bowker, Lynne. (2001). Terminology and gender sensitivity: A corpus-based study of the LSP of infertility. Language in Society, 30, 589-610.
Browne, Nick. (1994). Society and subjectivity: On the political economy of Chinese melodrama. In N. Browne, P. Pickowicz, V. Sobochack & E. Yau (Eds.), New Chinese Cinema: Forms, Identities, Politics (pp. 48): Cambridge University Press.
Cacciari, Cristina., & Glucksberg, Sam. (1994). Understanding figurative language. In Gernsbacher (Ed.), Handbook of psycholinguistics. San Diego: Academic Press.
Carter, Ronald. (1987). Vocabulary. London: Allen and Unwin.
Carter, Ronald. (1998). Vocabulary: Applied linguistic perspectives. London: Routledge.
Chen, Jian Min. (1992). Language and culture. Macrolinguistics, 1, 127-131.
Chou, Hui Jing. (2005). To manifest the female social status in ancient Chinese from woman radicaled characters in Shuowen. Hsuan Chuang University.
Chou, Ya-Min, & Huang, Chu-Ren. (2005). Hantology: An Ontology based on conventionalized conceptualization. Paper presented at the Ontologies and Lexical Knowledge Bases, Jeju Island, South Korea
Cornelius, Sheila., & Smith, Ian Hydn. (2002). New Chinese cinema: Challenging representations. London: Wallflower Press.
Croft, William. Toward a social cognitive linguistics. In V. Evans & S. Pourcel (Eds.), New directions in cognitive linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Croll, Elisabeth. (1995). Changing identities of Chinese women: Rhetoric, experience and self-perception in twentieth-century China. London: University of Hong Kong Press-Zed Books.
Damasio, António. (2003). Looking for Spinoza: Joy, sorrow, and the feeling brain, harcourt. Orlando, Fla: Harcourt.
Fillmore, Charles., & Atkins, Beryl. (1992). Toward a frame-based lexicon: The semantics of RISK and its neighbors. In A. Lehrer & E. F. Kittay (Eds.), Frames, Fields and Contrasts (pp. 75-102). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Gibbs, Raymond W, & Steen, Gerard J. (1999). Metaphor in cognitive linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Heine, Bernd, Claudi, Ulrike, & Hunnemeyer, Friederike. (1991). Grammaticalization: A conceptual framework. Chicago/ London: University of Chicago Press.
Herrera-Sobek, Maria (1994). Gender and rhetorical strategies in Mexican ballads and songs: Plant and mineral metaphors. Lore and Language, 12, 97-113.
Hoosain, Rumjahn. (1991). Psycholinguistic implications for linguistic relativity: A case study of Chinese. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hopper, Paul J. (1996). Some recent trends in grammaticalization. Annual Review of Anthropology, 25, 217-236.
Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu, & Chiu, Yuan-Ling. (謝菁玉 & 邱菀伶). (2004). Plant fixed expressions in Mandarin Chinese and English: A cross-cultural study on 'trees'. Paper presented at the International Conference on Second Language Learners.
Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu., Lien, Chin Fa., & Meier, Sebastian. (2005). Compositionality in plant fixed expressions (Vol. 2). Frankfurt, Paris, Lancaster: Ontos Verlag.
Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu. (2004). A Semantic analysis of Taiwanese botanical fixed expressions: Core meaning and lexical cognition. Journal of Taiwanese language and literature, 2, 299-314.
Hu, Shih. (胡適). (1919). Chung-kuo che-hsueh shi ta-kang (An Outline of the History of Chinese Philosophy). Shanghai: Commercial Press.
Huang, Guang-Guo. (黃光國). (1988). Zhongguoren de renqing guan xi (The relationships among Chinese people). In W. C. Yi & X. X. Huang (Eds.), Zhongguoren: guannian yu xing wei (Chinese: Concepts and behavior) (pp. 43-69). Taipei: Giant flow.
Huang, Shu Fang. (2002). Tsou is different: A cognitive perspective on language, emotion, and body. Cognitive Linguistics, 13(2), 167-186.
Huang, Shu Fang. (2007). Toward a semantic typology of the language of emotion - An austronesian perspective. Paper presented at International Symposium on Language, Culture and Cognition, Taipei, Taiwan.
Ibarretxe-Antunano, Iraide. (1999). Metaphorical mappings in the sense of smell. In R. S. Gibbs, Gerard (Ed.), Metaphor in Cognition (pp. 29-45). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Kövecses, Zoltán. (2000a). Force and emotion. In L. Albertazzi (Ed.), Meaning and Cognition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Kövecses, Zoltán. (2000b). Metaphor and emotion: Language, culture, and body in human feeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kövecses, Zoltán. (2000c). The scope of metaphor. In A. Barcelona (Ed.), Metaphor and metonymy at the crossroads (pp. 79-92). New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kramsch, Claire. (1998). The privilege of the intercultural speaker. In M. Byram & M. Fleming (Eds.), Language learning in intercultural perspective (pp. 16-31). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lakoff, George, & Johnson, Mark. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
Lakoff, George, & Turner, Mark (1989). More than cool reason: A field guide to poetic metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lakoff, George. (1986). A figure of thought. Metaphor and symbolic activity, 1(3), 215-225.
Lakoff, George. (1993). The contemporary theory of metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and Thought (pp. 202-251). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lee, Christina, & Owens, R. Glynn (2002). The psychology of men's health: Open University Press.
Lee, Eliza W.Y. (2003). Gender and change in Hong Kong: Globalization, postcolonialism and Chinese patriarchy. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Lévi-Strauss. (1963). The bear and the barber. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 93, 1-11.
Li, Yu-Ning. (1992). Feminist thought in ancient China. In Chinese Woman Through the Ages. Armank, New York: M. E. Sharpe Inc.
Lien, Chin-Fa. (2003). Taiwan minnanyu guding yushi shilun (Fixed expressions in Taiwanese Southern Min) Paper presented at the Second Tamkang Global Sister Universities Conference on Chinese Linguistics and Culture, Taipei.
Lin, Meng-Mei. (林孟美). (2005). Animal and plant terms & their metaphorical extensions in Chinese lexicon: An empirical study. Tsing Hua University.
Ma, Ning. (1994). Spatiality and subjectivity in Xie Jin's film melodrama of the new period. In N. Browne, P. G. Pickowicz, V. Sobochack & E. Yau (Eds.), New Chinese cinema: Forms, identities, politics (pp. 18): Cambridge University Press.
Moon, R. (1998). Fixed expressions and idioms in English. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Munro, Donald J. (Ed.). (1985). Individualism and holism studies in Confucian and Taoist values. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan.
Ng, B.-C., & Burridge, K. . (1993). The female radical: Portrayal of women in the Chinese script. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 10, 54-85.
Nisbett, Richard. (2003). The geography of thought: How Asians and westerners think differently.... and why. New York: Free Press.
Ortony, Andrew., & Clore, Gerald. (1988). The cognitive structure of emotions. Cambridge: CUP.
Pan, Jun Fu. (潘俊富). (2002). Chengyu zhiwu tujian (Idiomatic plants illustrated handbook). Taipei: Owl.
Panther, Klaus-Uwe , & Radden, Günter. (1999). Metonymy in language and thought. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Plutchik, Robert. (1980). A general psychoevolutionary theory of emotion. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience: Vol. 1. Theories of emotion (pp. 3-33). New York: Academic.
Preminger, Alex. (1974). Princeton encyclopedia of poetry and poetics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Quangjiu shaonu, chuju xingdong (Save young girls-daisy actions). (2007). Retrieved 06.15, 2007, from http://www.ccea.org.tw/soc/17.htm
Sapir, Edward. (1921). Language: An introduction to the study of speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Schneider, Wolf. (1979). Worter machen Leute: Magie und Macht der Sprache. Reinbeck: Rowohlt.
Schulz, Muriel R. (1975). The semantic derogation of women. In B. Thorne & N. Henley (Eds.), Language and sex: Difference and dominance (pp. 64-75).
Shen, Y. (1997). Cognitive constraints on poetic figures. Cognitive Linguistics, 8, 33-71.
Silbergeld, Jerome. (2004). Hitchcock with a Chinese Face: Cinematic Doubles, Oedipal Triangles, and China's moral voice. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Swales, John M., & Feak, Christine B. (2004). Academic writing for graduate students (2 ed.). Ann Arbor: The university of Michigan Press.
Talmy, Leonard. (1988). Force dynamics in language and cognition. Cognitive Science, 1, 49-100.
Tang, Yu-Huan. (唐玉環). (2002). Hanyu xingbie biaoda de yinyu toushe (Metaphoric projection of Chinese gender expressions). Journal of Yiyang teachers college, 05.
Ullmann, Stephen. (1959). The principle of semantics (2nd ed.). Glasgow: Jackson.
Wierzbicka, Anna. (1999). Emotions across language and culture: Diversity anduniversals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Williams, Joseph M. (1976). Synesthetic adjectives: A possible law of semantic change. Language in Society, 52(2), 461-478.
Wu, Bi Jane. (吳碧貞). (2002). Examine the female image in Chinese culture from woman radicaled characters in ShuowenJiezizhu. Philosophy and culture, 29(4), 356-365.
Yu, Ning. (1992). A possible semantic law in synesthetic transfer: Evidence from Chinese. The SECOL Review, 16(1), 24-40.
Yu, Ning. (2003). Chinese metaphors of thinking. Cognitive Linguistics, 14(2/3), 147-165.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top