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研究生:張家揚
研究生(外文):Chai-yang Chang
論文名稱:抗拒性格、對自主消費的重視程度、忠誠方案形式與知覺效用對消費者情境抗拒之影響
論文名稱(外文):The effects of trait reactance, importance of autonomous buying behavior, loyalty programs and perceived utility on consumer situational reactance
指導教授:張淑昭張淑昭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Su-chao Chang,
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系碩博士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:忠誠方案心理抗拒抗拒性格關係行銷
外文關鍵詞:trait reactancerelationship marketingloyalty programpsychological reactance
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由於市場環境的轉變,自上個世紀八○開始,關係行銷的相關議題在產學界備受關注,且一直延續至今。有別於傳統行銷理論著重於開拓新客源,現在的企業則希望透過各種手段來留住舊有顧客,於是乎各式的忠誠方案紛紛推出。以往學者研究忠誠方案多著重於探討其分類方式及類似忠誠度提升的正面效果,直到近年來才有研究融入消費者抗拒的變數考量,而後者正是本研究的主要焦點。

Brehm在1966年提出「心理抗拒理論」,本研究以此概念出發,並參考Wendlandt和Schrader(2007)對關係行銷層級的分類方式,從財務性、社會性及契約性三方面變數來探討忠誠方案結合方式對消費者知覺效用的影響,並考慮消費者的個人特質,納入抗拒性格傾向與對購買行為自主性的重視程度兩個變數,探討上述因素對於消費者心理抗拒的影響及其後續的行為意圖。

本研究以連鎖電影院業者為例,過程中利用情境設計的方式,操控三個忠誠方案結合的變數,設計出4×2×2=16種情境,並以問卷型式隨機發放。在回收363份有效樣本後,再透過迴歸分析和線性結構關係模式來進行資料分析並驗證假設。統合分析結果後,歸納出下列結論:
一、忠誠方案結合方式之中僅契約性結合會引起消費者的抗拒。
二、財務性結合和社會性結合會提升知覺效用,且前者較後者明顯。契約性結合則會使其降低。
三、消費者重視購買行為的自主性或傾向抗拒性格將提升產生抗拒的可能。
四、知覺效用的影響強力主導了整個情境抗拒產生的情況。
五、產生情境抗拒將造成對企業而言反效果的消費者行為意圖,如負面口碑、拒絕參與方案和再購行為。

最後,本研究依據結論建議企業實踐關係行銷時,可能要避免造成消費者抗拒而產生反效果。因此,企業應該學會如何去運用忠誠方案的三種結合方式來提高知覺效用,防止抗拒的產生以達成顧客保留的目標。
Due to the changes in marketing environment, business and academic field have been focusing on the issue of relationship marketing, since 1980s. Unlike traditional marketing theory which puts emphasis on attracting new customers, businesses nowadays try to keep their old customers. Therefore, today, businesses come up with various royalty programs. Usually, scholars focus their research on the classification of royalty programs or on the positive effects like increasing royalty; however, this research will mainly focus on consumer reactance which has only been taken into consideration by some researchers recently.

Based on the theory of psychological reactance presented by Brehm (1966) with the classification of relational marketing level by Wendlandt and Schrader (2007), the research elaborates how royalty program bonds influence consumers’ perceived utility from financial, social and contractual variables. The research analyzes the influences of consumers’ personal traits, the trait reactance tendency construct and the importance of autonomous buying behavior construct on consumers’ mental reactance and consumers’ following behavioral intention.

The research uses chain Movie Theater as its experiment subject, develops three royalty program bonds, designs 16 situations, and gives out questionnaires randomly. 363 questionnaires are collected and then analyzed by regression analysis and linear structure relation in order to analyze the data and to support the hypothesis. Following are the conclusions:
1.Of all the royalty program bonds, only contractual bond will arouse consumers’ reactance.
2.Both financial and social bonds will enhance perceived utility, but the former is more evident than the later. On the other hand, contractual bond will decrease perceived utility.
3.Consumers who put emphasis on the importance of autonomous buying behavior or have the trait reactance tendency will increase the possibility of reactance.
4.The influence of perceived utility strongly conducts the situational reactance.
5.Situational reactance will cause businesses negative effects on consumers’ behavioral intention, such as engaging in negative word-of-mouth, or refusing to participate in the program or to repurchase.

Finally, according to the conclusions, the research suggests that when adopting relationship marketing, businesses might avoid arousing consumers’ reactance which might lead to negative effects. Hence, businesses can try to learn to apply the three bonds of royalty program to strengthen perceived utility, to prevent reactance and to achieve the goal of customer retention.
目錄

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 4
第三節 研究流程 5
第二章 文獻探討 7
第一節 關係行銷 7
第二節 忠誠方案 13
第三節 抗拒理論 16
第三章 研究方法 19
第一節 研究架構 19
第二節 研究假設 20
第三節 研究設計 24
第四節 資料蒐集與分析方法 30
第四章 資料分析 32
第一節 問卷回收與基本資料分析 32
第二節 信度與效度分析 36
第三節 迴歸分析 40
第四節 線性結構關係模式 46
第五章 研究結論與建議 51
第一節 研究結論 51
第二節 理論意涵 54
第三節 實務建議 55
第四節 研究限制與後續研究建議 56
參考文獻 58
附錄一 情境總覽 67
附錄二 正式問卷 74
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