跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.231.230.177) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/02 09:50
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:洪晟晏
研究生(外文):Cheng-Yen Hung
論文名稱:以溶膠凝膠法製備氧化鎢薄膜電致色變之研究
論文名稱(外文):Investigation of Electrochromism WO3 Films by Sol-gel Method
指導教授:黃肇瑞黃肇瑞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jow-lay Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:材料科學及工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:熱處理氧化鎢電致色變溶膠凝膠法
外文關鍵詞:heat treatmentelectrochromismsol-gel methodtungsten oxide
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:718
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:196
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
電致色變材料是近年來被大家廣泛研究的一項薄膜光學技術,它可以被應用在汽車和建築物之視窗玻璃上,以製作節省能源、調節光線及控制熱負荷之智慧型窗戶。使用溶膠-凝膠法製備氧化鎢薄膜有前驅物配置容易、可以調整控制所需薄膜的孔隙度及成分,以及可披覆於大面積基材等優點,故以溶膠-凝膠法製備電致色變薄膜已開始被大家探討及應用。
實驗結果發現添加氧化劑的濃度為2 M時之鍍膜,在波長為550 nm時穿透率改變最大,可以達到70%。氧化鎢薄膜在沒有經過熱處理時為非晶質結構,熱處理到400℃時開始有結晶現象產生,並在500℃時完全結晶,結晶後的薄膜較非晶的更為緻密,而導致薄膜的光學穿透性能有降低的趨勢,但是可以提升薄膜的化學穩定度;故實驗最後利用在前驅物中添加多苯乙烯的高分子球,鍍膜後再以熱處理將其去除,以提升薄膜的孔隙度,進而提升薄膜因為熱處理而下降的光學穿透性能,進而製作出穩定且高效能的氧化鎢薄膜。
In recent years, electrochromism has been extensively utilized due to its potential application in smart windows utilized in architecture and those in automobile glazing. These have its repercussions in preventing energy wastage concomitant with modulation of light and solar radiation transmission.In this study, the precursor solutions were synthesized by sol-gel method while conventional low cost spin –coating technique was utilized for deposition of thin films, no need of high vacuum.

Experimental results indicated that the WO3 films comprising of 2M H2O2 concentration exhibited the optimum electrochromic properties. WO3 films were found to retain their amorphous phase up to 300oC. The onset of the crystalline phase occurs at 400oC and it become completely crystalline at 500oC. After annealing the electrochromic properties of WO3 deteriorate, however their chemical stability is better than the amorphous counterparts.
At the last, the polystyrene intermediate layer was used in order to generate porosity in the WO3 layers, eventually enhancing their surface area. This leads to improve its electrochromic properties and retent its chemical stability, which is the prime requisite for applications in smart windows.
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
總目錄 VI
表目錄 X
圖目錄 XI

第一章 緒論 1

1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究目的 7

第二章 理論基礎 8

2.1 電致色變性質 8
2.2 電致色變機制 13
2.2.1 非晶氧化鎢的電致色變機制 13
2.2.2 結晶氧化鎢的電致色變機制 16
2.3 氧化鎢的結構 19
2.4 溶膠凝膠法 22
2.4.1 溶膠凝膠法簡介 22
2.4.2溶膠凝膠法的原理 25
2.4.2.1 金屬醇氧化物之水解機制 27
2.4.2.2 金屬醇氧化物的聚縮合機制 28
2.4.2.3 無機金屬鹽類之水解機制 30
2.4.2.4 無機金屬鹽類的聚縮合機制 33
2.4.2.5 老化與凝膠化 (aging and gelation) 34

第三章 實驗方法與步驟 35

3.1 實驗方法 35
3.2 實驗材料與儀器 37
3.2.1 實驗材料 37
3.2.2 實驗儀器 37
3.3 前驅物的配製與基材前處理 38
3.3.1前驅物的配製 38
3.3.2 基材前處理 39
3.4 旋轉塗佈法 39
3.5 熱處理 40
3.6 實驗分析 40
3.6.1 光學性質測量 40
3.6.2 成份和化學鍵結分析 41
3.6.3 X-Ray繞射分析 41
3.6.4 微結構之觀察 41
3.6.5 電化學反應分析 42

第四章 結果與討論 45

4.1 氧化劑濃度對薄膜的影響 45
4.1.1 不同濃度氧化劑的添加溶液的型態 47
4.1.2電致色變性質 50
4.1.3 化學鍵結 56
4.1.4 參數選擇 58
4.2 熱處理對薄膜的影響 61
4.2.1 熱重及示差掃描熱量分析 61
4.2.2 X-ray繞射分 65
4.2.3化學鍵結 67
4.2.4 拉曼光譜分析 72
4.2.5 微觀組織及表面型態分析 75
4.2.6 電致色變性質 79
4.2.7 循環伏安測試 82
4.3 電致色變性質提升 90
4.3.1 聚苯乙烯球的添加 90
4.3.2 微觀組織 93
4.3.3 電致色變性質 96
4.3.4 循環伏安測試 99

第五章 結論 102

參考文獻 105

作者簡歷 111
[1] 吳永豪, 智慧窗與玻璃塗層, 工業材料雜誌, Vol. 207, p136-149, (2004).
[2] Elin Hammarberg, Arne Roos, "Antireflection treatment of low-emitting glazings for energy efficient windows with high visible transmittance", Thin Solid Films, Vol.442, p.222-226 (2003)
[3] C.M. Lampert, "Large-area smart glass and integrated photovoltaics", Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, Vol.76, p.489-499 (2003)
[4] G. Br�黷er, "Large area glass coatings", Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol.112, p.358-365 (1999)
[5] C.G. Granqvist, E. Avendano, A. Azens, "Electrochromic coatings and devices: survey of some recent advances", Thin Solid Films, Vol.442, p.201-211 (2003)
[6] C. G. Granqvist, A. Azens, A. Hjelm, L. Kullman, G. A. Niklasson, D. R�圢now, M. Str�幦me Mattsson, M. Veszelei, G. Vaivars, "RECENT ADVANCES IN ELECTROCHROMICS FOR SMARTWINDOWS APPLICATIONS", Solar Energy, Vol.63, No. 4, p. 199-216 (1998)
[7] D. N. Buckley, L. D. Burke, J. K. Mukahy, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday 72 (1)(1976) 1896
[8] L. D. Burke, E. J. M. O’sakan, J. Electroanal. Chem., Vol. 93 (1978) 11
[9] Y. A. Yang, Y. W. Cao, B. H. Loo, J. N. Yao, J. Phys. Chem. B, Vol.102 (1998) 9392
[10] Z. S. Guan, J. N. Yao, Y. A. Yang, B. H. Loo, J. Electroanal. Chem., Vol. 443 (1998) 175
[11] A. Azens, L. Kullman, G. Vaivars, H. Nordborg, C. G. Granqvist, "Sputter-deposited nickel oxide for electrochromic applications", Solid State Ionics, Vol.113-115, p.449-456 (1998)
[12] L.D. Burke ,T. A. M. Thomey, D. P. Whelan, J. Electroanal. Chem., Vol. 107 (1980) 201
[13] T. Ohtasuka, M. Masuda and N. Sato, J. Electrochem. Soc, Vol.134 (1987) 804
[14] Nilg�刡, �頊er, "Optical and electrochemical characteristics of sol-gel deposited tungsten oxide films: a comparison", Thin Solid Films, Vol 304, p.310-314 (1997)
[15] C.W. Ong, H.Y. Wong, G.K.H. Pang, K.Z. Baba-Kishi, and C.L. Choy, "Relationship between the microstructure and nanoindentation hardness of thermally evaporated and magnetron-sputtered electrochromic tungsten oxide films", J. Mater. Res., Vol.16(6), p.1541-1548 (2001)
[16] J. L. He, M. C. Chiu, "Effect of oxygen on the electrochromism of RF reactive magnetron sputter deposited tungsten oxide", Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol.127, p.43-51 (2000)
[17] Lamartine Meda, Richard C. Breitkopf, Terry E. Haas, Rein U Kirss, "Investigation of electrochromic properties of nanocrystalline tungsten oxide thin film", Thin Solid Films, Vol.402, p.126-130 (2002)
[18] G. Leftheriotis, S. Papaefthimiou, P. Yianoulis, "The effect of water on the electrochromic properties of WO3 films prepared by vacuum and chemical methods", Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, Vol.83, p.115-124 (2004)
[19] M. Deepa, A. K. Srivastava, S. Singh, S. A. Agnihotry, "Structure-property correlation of nanostructured WO3 thin films produced by electrodeposition", J. Mater. Res., Vol.19(9), p.2576-2585 (2004)
[20] A. Rougier, F. Portemer, A. Qu�縴�縹, M. El Marssi, "Characterization of pulsed laser deposited WO3 thin films for electrochromic devices", Applied Surface Science, Vol.153, p.1-9 (1999)
[21] M. Regragui, M. Addou, A. Outzourhit, J.C. Bern�縴e, Elb. El Idrissi, E. Benseddik, A. Kachouane, "Preparation and characterization of pyrolytic spray deposited electrochromic tungsten trioxide films", Thin Solid Films, Vol.358, p.40-45 (2000)
[22] M. Deepa, A. G. Joshi, A. K. Srivastava, S. M. Shivaprasad, and S. A. Agnihotryz, "Electrochromic Nanostructured Tungsten Oxide Films by Sol-gel: Structure and Intercalation Properties", Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 153 (5) C365-C376 (2006)
[23] Chao-Sheng Hsu , Chung-Kwei Lin, Chih-Chieh Chan, Chung-Chieh Chang, Chien-Yie Tsay, "Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline porous TiO2/WO3 composite thin films", Thin Solid Films 494 228 – 233 (2006)
[24] 何國川, 電化學與無窗時代, 化工, Vol 37, No 3, p.32-42
[25] 何主亮, 邱明傑, 反應磁控濺鍍氧化鎢薄膜氧含量對其電致色變性質之影響, 真空科技, Vol 12, No 3, p.4-15 (1999)
[26] Prakash R. Somani, S. Radhakrishnan, "Electrochromic materials and devices: present and future", Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol.77, p.117-133 (2002)
[27] 楊明長, 電致色變系統簡介, 化工, Vol 40, No 2, p.64-67 (1993)
[28] 謝育忠, 電漿濺鍍電致色變氧化鎳薄膜特性研究與節能評估, 中原大學化學工程系, 碩士論文, 民國九十一年.
[29] S. K. Deb, "A Novel Electrophotographic System", Appl. Optics, Suppl. 3, p.192 (1969)
[30] B. W. Faughnan, R. S. Crandall, P. M. Heyman, "Electrochromism in WO3 Amorphous Films", RCA Review, Vol 36, p.177-197 (1975)
[31] S.H. Lee, H. M. Cheong, J. G. Zhang, A. Mascarenhas, D. K. Benson, S. K. Deb, "Electrochromic mechanism in a-WO3-y thin films", Applied Physics Letters, Vol 74, No 2, p.242-244 (1999)
[32] S. K. Deb, "Optical and Photoelectric Properties and Color Centers in Thin Films of Tungsten Oxide", Philosophical Magazine, Vol 27, No 4, p.801-822 (1973)
[33] J.M. Honig, in: S. Trasatti (Ed), Electrodes of Conductive Metallic Oxides, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980
[34] O. F. Schirmer, V. Wittwer, G. Baur, G. Brandt, "Dependence of WO3 Electrochromic Absorption on Crystallinity", Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol.124, No.5, p.749-753 (1977)
[35] C.G. Granqvist, "Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials ", Elsevier, Amsterdam, Lausanne, New York, Oxford, Shannon, Tokyo, 1995 p.181
[36] K. Bange, " Colouration of tungsten oxide films: A model for optically active coatings", Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, Vol.58, p.1-131 (1999)
[37] B. Jirhennsons, M. E. Straumanis, “Colloid Chemistry”, McMillan Co. New York (1962).
[38] “Sol-gel technologies and their products”, http://www.chemat.com/, CHEMAT Technology, Inc.
[39] 陳慧英,“溶膠凝膠法在薄膜製備上之應用”,化工技術,第80期,11月 (1999).
[40] C. Jeffrey Brinker, George W. Scherer, “Sol-Gel Science: the Physics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing”, Academic Press, Inc. (1990).
[41] 謝坤龍,“�I銀合金/氧化鋁複合膜之特性研究:以溶膠凝膠法修是基材孔徑之探討”,國立成功大學化學工程研究所碩士論文 (2000).
[42] C. J. Binker, G. W. Scherer, “Sol-Gel-Glass: I. Gelation and Gel Structure”, J. Non-Cryst. Soilds, 70, 301-322 (1985).
[43] D. C. Bradley, R. C. Mehrotra, D. P. Gaur, “Metal Alkoxide”, Academic Press, London (1978).
[44] J. Zarzycki, J. Phalipon, “Synthesis of Glasses from Gels”, J. Mater. Sci., 17, 3371-3379 (1982).
[45] C.G Granqvist, “Handbook of inorganic electrochromic materials”, p.71-77
[46] M. Deepa, M., “Electrodeposited tungsten oxide films: annealing effects on structure and electrochromic performance”, Thin Solid Films 468 (2004) 32– 42
[47] Thomas C. Arnoldussen, “A Model for Electrochromic Tungstic Oxide Microstructure and Degradation”, J. Electrochem. Soc. 128 (1981) 117.
[48] Se-Hee Lee, Hyeonsik M. Cheong, C. Edwin Tracy, Angelo Mascarenhas, David K. Benson, Satyen K. Deb, " Raman spectroscopic studies of electrochromic a-WO3", Electrochimica Acta, Vol.44, p.3111-3115 (1999)
[49] Yin-Song Huang, Yu-Zhi Zhang, Xian-Ting Zeng, Xing-Fang Hu, "Study on Raman spectra of electrochromic c-WO3 films and their infrared emittance modulation characteristics", Applied Surface Science, Vol.202, p.104-109 (2002)
[50] P.R. Bueno, F.M. Potes, E.R. Leite, L.O.S. Bulh�殂s, P.S. Pizani, P.N. Lisboa-Filho, W.H. Schreiner, "Structural analysis of pure and LiCF3SO3-doped amorphous WO3 electrochromic films and discussion on coloration kinetics", Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 96, No.4, p.2102-2109 (2004)
[51] H. Kamal, A.A. Akl, K. Abdel-Hady, "Influence of proton insertion on the conductivity, structural and optical properties of amorphous and crystalline electrochromic WO3 films", Physica B, Vol.349, p.192-205 (2004)
[52] P.V. Ashrit, G. Bader, Vo-Van Truong, "Electrochromic properties of nanocrystalline tungsten oxide thin films", Thin Solid Films, Vol.320 p.324-328 (1998)
[53] Simona Badilescu, “Study of sol–gel prepared nanostructured WO3 thin films and composites for electrochromic applications”, Solid State Ionics 158 (2003) 187– 197
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top