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研究生:林柏戎
研究生(外文):Bo-Rong Lin
論文名稱:耦合空間音響特性之研究-以公共建築挑空大廳為例-
論文名稱(外文):Study on Acoustic Performances of coupling space-Discussing the Atrium of Public Buildings as example-
指導教授:賴榮平賴榮平引用關係
指導教授(外文):Rong-Ping Lai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:建築學系碩博士班
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:建築學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:早期衰減時間餘響時間耦合效應挑空大廳耦合空間
外文關鍵詞:early decay timeAtriumreverberating timecoupling effectcoupling space
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
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  • 下載下載:88
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
公共建築大廳是提供民眾服務及產生各種活動的重要場所,亦是連結各空間的主要場所,由於公共建築大廳所扮演的角色已不同於過往只侷限於過廊的使用,而是趨向多目的使用,因此,在不同的使用要求下,亦會有不同的音環境品質要求;一般公共建築大廳所面臨的問題,多為大廳背景噪音過大、餘響時間過長而造成語音清晰度不足等問題,其造成餘響時間過長的原因有缺乏吸音材、大廳容積過大及受耦合空間影響等。
耦合空間所產生的耦合效應一般都運用於音樂廳中藉以增加室內餘響時間;但在公共建築挑空大廳中所產生的耦合效應卻會使大廳內餘響時間過長,導致語音清晰度不足的問題。因此,本研究主要是透過電腦模擬探討公共建築大廳之耦合空間影響因子(等效吸音面積、耦合容積、耦合面面積)對大廳音響性能之影響以及控制大廳內耦合效應,適當降低餘響時間,以符合室內多目的使用之功能及音響品質。
本研究具體成果歸納如下:
(一)公共建築大廳耦合空間因子模擬分析
本研究將模擬變因分為 (1)耦合空間型態,(2)耦合開口變因,(3)等效吸音面積等三個部份,分別探討耦合效應具有影響性的因子:
(1)在耦合空間型態模擬部份,將單一個大型耦合空間分為數個耦合空間時(耦合空間總容積相同)其耦合效應有降低的趨勢,在變更耦合空間的形式中,深度變化與高度變化形式的耦合空間其所產生的耦合效應大於寬度變化形式的耦合空間。
(2)在耦合開口面積部份,當耦合開口設置於耦合面置中的位置時其耦合效應會大於將耦合開口設置於耦合面側邊的位置,顯示音源與耦合開口相對位置會影響其耦合效應的產生;在變更開口形式部分,耦合開口長高比1:1其耦合效應會高於耦合開口長高比4:1,顯示耦合開口長高比越小耦合效應越顯著;在相同耦合開口面積下,將單一耦合開口分為數個時,有較低的耦合效應,當耦合容積增加時,開口數量影響耦合效應有減少的趨勢。
(3)在吸音材的設置部分,耦合空間設置吸音材不但可降低大廳餘響時間,更可減少大廳耦合效應的產生,其吸音材設置方式由研究結果顯示,在相同吸音力的條件下,設置於天花板會優於側牆及後牆。
(二)實際案例模擬分析
本研究在南投縣政府案例中,採用(1)梯廳的出入口往內推,(2)變更梯廳開口形式,(3)在梯廳天花板及側牆設置吸音材等三種方式降低耦合效應;當梯廳的出入口往內推,以減少耦合容積,其挑空大廳內耦合效應可降低6%,餘響時間可降低6%;在變更梯廳開口形式時,其挑空大廳內耦合效應可降低3%,餘響時間可降低6%;在梯廳天花板及側牆設置吸音材部分,當梯廰側牆增設吸音材時,餘響時間可降低22%,耦合效應可降低11%,在天花板設置吸音材時,餘響時間可降低22%,耦合效應可降低13%;因此,在建築挑空大廳中產生的耦合效應是可依據耦合效應影響因子模擬結果進行對策的研擬,並且可預估其改善後的效果。
A public building lobby is an important place that provides public services and accommodates various activities. It is also the main area that connects the spaces. Since the role of the public building lobby differs from connecting structure use in the past, it is now a multi-purpose structure. Therefore, under different use needs, there are background sound quality requirements. Most public building lobbies face the problem of loud background sounds and excessive reverberating time that results to inadequate articulation. The reasons for the excessive reverberating time are a lack of sound-absorbing materials, a large lobby floor area and coupling space etc.
The coupling effect produced by the coupling space is generally for music hall use to increase the indoor reverberating time; however, the coupling effect produced in the public building atrium will result to excessive reverberating time and inadequate articulation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the effects of coupling space influential factors (equivalent sound-absorbing areas, coupling floor area, coupling area) of public building lobbies on the lobby sound effects and coupling effects controlling the lobby through computer-aided simulations in order to appropriately reduce the reverberating time and conform to the needs of indoor multi-purpose use and sound quality.
The substantial results of this research are as follows:
(1) Public building lobby coupling space factor simulation analysis
The simulation factors are divided into three aspects: (1) coupling space form; (2) coupling opening factor; and (3) equivalent sound-absorbing area to explore the influential factors in the coupling effects.
(1) Coupling space form: When a single large coupling space is divided into several coupling spaces (the total floor areas of the coupling spaces are the same), the coupling effect has the tendency to reduce. In changed coupling spaces, the depth change and height change in the coupling space will produce coupling effects greater than the width change coupling space.
(2) Coupling opening area: when the coupling opening is placed in the coupling plane, the coupling effect will be greater than the effect when the coupling opening is placed on the side of the coupling plane. It shows that the relative location of the sound source and the coupling opening will affect the production of coupling effects. In changed opening form, the coupling opening length-height ratio of 1:1 will have greater coupling effects than the coupling opening length-height ratio of 4:1. It shows that the smaller the coupling opening length-height ratio, the greater the coupling effect will be. At the same coupling opening areas, when a single coupling opening is divided into several openings, the coupling effect is lower. When the coupling floor area increases, the number of openings affecting coupling effect diminishes.

(3) Equivalent sound-absorbing material placement: the placement of sound-absorbing materials in the coupling space will not only reduce the lobby reverberating time but also reduce the lobby coupling effect. The sound-absorbing material placement methods are as shown in the study results. Under the same sound-absorbing power, ceiling placement is more favorable than sidewall or back wall placement.
(2) Case simulation analysis
In this research, the coupling effect is reduced through three methods as exemplified by the Nantou County Government case study: (1) The exit/entrance of the lobby (the buffer space between the elevator/stair and the indoor space) push inward; (2) change lobby opening form; and (3) place sound-absorbing materials on the lobby ceiling. When the lobby exit/entrance push inward, the coupling floor area can be reduced. The coupling effect inside the atrium can be reduced by 6%. When changing the lobby opening form, the coupling effect inside the atrium can be reduced by 3% and the reverberating time can be reduced by 6%. In terms of sound-absorbing materials placement on the lobby ceiling and sidewall, when placing sound-absorbing materials on the sidewall, the reverberating time can be reduced by 22% and the coupling effect can be reduced by 11%. When placing sound-absorbing materials on the ceiling, the reverberating time can be reduced by 22% and the coupling effect can be reduced by 13%. Therefore, the coupling effect produced from the building atrium may serve as reference in formulating strategies based on the influential factor simulating results. The improved results can also be predicted.
第一章 緒論....................................7
1-1 研究動機與目的 .............................7
1-2 相關文獻...................................8
1-2-1相關文獻回顧 .............................8
1-2-2小結......................................11
1-3 研究內容與範圍 .............................13
1-3-1研究內容..................................13
1-3-2研究範圍..................................14
1-4 研究方法與流程.............................15
第二章 公共建築大廳耦合空間音響性能概說........17
2-1公共建築大廳音響性能概要....................17
2-1-1餘響時間(RT)..............................17
2-1-2早期衰減時間(EDT).........................20
2-2耦合空間之基本理論..........................20
2-2-1雙斜衰減曲線..............................20
2-2-2耦合效應影響因子..........................21
2-2-3耦合效應模擬軟體概述......................23
第三章 公共建築大廳耦合空間因子模擬及結果分析..25
3-1電腦模擬與環境設定..........................25
3-1-1電腦模型建立..............................25
3-1-2固定條件與變因設定........................27
3-1-3模擬環境設定..............................35
3-2公共建築大廳耦合空間因子模擬結果分析........37
3-2-1耦合空間型態模擬及分析....................37
3-2-2耦合開口變因模擬及分析....................46
3-2-3等效吸音面積模擬及分析....................56
3-2-4耦合空間影響因子模擬結果分析..............58
第四章 公共建築大廳實際案例模擬分析............67
4-1公共建築大廳案例模擬........................67
4-1-1公共建築大廳實際案例的選擇................67
4-1-2公共建築大廳實際案例概述..................69
4-2電腦模型建立及模擬環境設定..................74
4-3電腦模擬適切性分析..........................75
4-3-1現況測量值................................75
4-3-2電腦模擬數值..............................76
4-3-3適切性分析................................77
4-4電腦模擬數值分析............................78
4-4-1耦合效應顯著性分析........................78
4-4-2小結......................................81
4-5降低耦合效應之對策與電腦模擬結果分析........81
4-6小結........................................85
第五章 結論與建議..............................86
5-1結論........................................86
5-2後續研究建議................................88
參考文獻.......................................89
附錄...........................................91
附錄一 公共建築大廳耦合空間因子模擬數據........91
附錄二 實際案例模擬數據.......................114
附錄三 用語定義...............................115
中文部份
C01.王錦堂著,1972,〈建築應用物理學〉,台隆出版社
C02.中國建築科學研究院建築物理研究所,1987,〈建築聲學設計手冊〉,中國建築工業出版社
C03.賴榮平,1987,〈音樂廳音響性能之評估研究-台灣地區音樂廳之音響性能現況檢討〉,文山書局,p.1-204
C04.杜銘秋,1993,〈廳堂音質性能電腦模擬評估適用性之研究〉,成功大學建研所
C05.L.Cremer原著,王季卿等譯,1995,〈室內聲學設計原理及其應用〉,同濟大學出版社
C06.L.Bernek原著,王季卿等譯,2002,〈音樂廳和歌劇院〉,同濟大學出版社
C07.譚軍安,2003,〈耦合空间厅堂音质设计中应用〉,電聲技術,第四期
C08.王季卿,2005,〈耦合空间与厅堂音质〉,電聲技術,第十一期
C09.曾瓊瑤,2006,〈耦合空間理論於多功能廳堂之應用〉,台灣科技大學建研所
C10.鄧志勇,2006,〈基于仿真试验的耦合空间音乐厅客观音质参数的多元方差分析〉,中国传媒大学学报
C11.江禹興,2007,〈公共建築大廳音響性能現況分析之研究-以縣市政府為例〉,成功大學建研所

英文部份
E01. C. F. Eyring,1931,“Reverberation time measurements in coupled rooms,”J. Acoust. Soc.Am. 3,p.181-206
E02. J. S. Anderson,1997,“The acoustics of a large space with a repetitive pattern of coupled room.,”Journal of Sound and Vibration,208(2),313-329
E03. B. Harrison and G. Madaras,2001,“Computer modeling and prediction in design of coupled volumes for a 1000-seat concert hall at Goshen College, Indiana,”J. Acoust. Soc. Am.109,2388(A)
E04. Jason E. Summers etl.,2002,“Midfrequency modeling of coupled-room performance spaces by computation of transmission coefficients of apertures and arrays of apertures.,”J. Acoust. Soc. Am.,,Vol. 112,2225
E05. David T. Bradley and Lily M. Wang,2003,“ Relating double slope decay in coupled volumes with volume ratio, absorption ratio, and aperture size.,”J. Acoust. Soc. Am.,Vol. 113,2185
E06. Michael Ermann,2004,“Exposure and materiality of the secondary room and its impact on the impulse response of coupled-volume concert halls. ,”Journal of Sound and Vibration 284 915–931
E07. David T. Bradley and Lily M. Wang,2004,“Comparison of real world measurements and computer model results for a dedicated coupled volume system.,”J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 116,2552
E08. Michael Ermann,2004,“Five sensitivities of the coupled volume/double sloped system.,”J. Acoust. Soc. Am.,Vol. 116,2552

日文部份
J01.佐木實,1990,〈公共の場の音環境の在り方〉,日本音響学会誌 Vol.46,No.9 (19900901) pp. 773-775 ISSN:03694232
J02.船場 ひさお,2004,〈公共空間の音環境〉,日本音響学会誌Vol.60, No.3(20040301) pp.129-134 ISSN:03694232
J03.藤井 光治郎、伊積康彥,〈駅空間の音環境評価法に関する研究〉,Vol.2000(20000731) pp. 39-40 社団法人日本建築学会 ISSN:13414496
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