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研究生:江淑娟
研究生(外文):Shu-chuan Chiang
論文名稱:超輕航電的空中防撞系統
論文名稱(外文):Traffic Collision Avoidance System for Ultra Light Aircrafts
指導教授:林清一林清一引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin E. Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:民航研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:空中防撞系統自動回報監視電子飛行儀表
外文關鍵詞:ADS-BEFISTCAS
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近年來,隨著人們對於休閒活動的需求與日俱增,台灣的天空開始活絡起來,但受到目前民航局對超輕航機載具的規範還沒很完善再加上所開放的飛行場範圍有限,許多空中活動安全反而成為一大隱憂,為了尋找更優質的飛行娛樂,低高度飛行超輕航機的安全是相當重要的。
本論文利用自動回報監視的概念(ADS)去架構超輕航機的空中防撞系統,利用回報監視的概念,地面站可以監視整個飛行空域,當發現有不尋常的狀況,可以適時的提醒飛行員,以化解不必要的危機。此外,透過地面站回報的每架飛機的資料,飛行員可以透過電子飛行儀表(EFIS)了解目前附近週遭環境的狀況,透過這個概念,建立超輕航機的空中防撞系統(TCAS),可以預測飛機在未來幾分鐘是否有空中接近的情形發生,並且在飛機的週遭建構保護圈(Bubble),以避免其他飛機接近,建立飛機防撞的最後一道防線。
Within this recent decade, Ultralight Aircraft (ULA) activities have been devoted with vigorous development. However, Civil Aviation Regulations can not catch up with ULA demands that many mid-air activities still have great safety latency. This thesis adopts Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) conception to construct Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) for ULAs. Utilizing report and surveillance techniques, Air Traffic Controller (ATC) ground station surveillances all of the flight airspace. When ATC discovers unusual situation and appropriately reminds pilot to reconcile the conflict. Besides, through reporting each aircraft’s position and velocity, pilot can understand nearby environment condition on the Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS). In such support, TCAS system can predict aircrafts whether approach with each other in the future and construct the protection bubble around the ownership to build the line of defense.
ABSTRACT iii
CONTENTS vi
LIST OF FIGURES ix
LIST OF TABLES xii
LIST OF ACRONYMS xiii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Main Idea 2
1.3 Literature Survey 7
1.3.1 Starting Stage 7
1.3.2 Early Developing Stage 8
1.3.3 Implementation Stage 9
1.4 Scope 10
1.5 Thesis Outline 10
CHAPTER II AIRBORNE COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM 12
2.1 Overview of TCAS 13
2.2 System Components 16
2.3 Collision Avoidance System (CAS) Concept [11] 19
2.3.1 Sensitivity Level 19
2.3.2 τ Concept 21
2.3.3 Altitude Test Logic 27
2.3.4 Protected Volume 29
2.4 Summary 30
CHAPTER III SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN 31
3.1 Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) [17] 32
3.2 System Architecture 34
3.3 TCAS Functional Architecture 37
3.3.1 Sensing 38
3.3.2 Detection 39
3.3.3 Avoidance [5] 46
3.4 Summary 48
CHAPTER IV DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATIOM OF TCAS 49
4.1 Development Environment 49
4.1.1 Adopted Tool 49
4.1.2 Interface to EFIS 50
4.1.3 Indicators on EFIS [19, 20] 52
4.2 Traffic Display 55
4.2.1 Definition of Traffic Advisory 55
4.2.2 Interface Implementation 56
4.3 Summary 58
CHAPTER V SIMULATION OF SPECIFIC CONDITION 59
5.1 The Generation of Simulation Data 60
5.2 Simulation 62
5.2.1 Parallel 63
5.2.2 Intersect to One Point 67
5.3 Summary 74
CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION 76
REFERENCES 78
VITA 80
[1] Civil Aviation Regulations, available from website:
http://www.caa.gov.tw/big5/content/index.asp?sno=89
[2] Ultra Light Aircraft Airspace, available from website:
http://www.caa.gov.tw/big5/content/index.asp?sno=288
[3] M. A. Christodoulou and S. G. Kodaxakis,“An Automatic System for Aircraft Collision Avoidance in Free Flight: the 3D Problem”, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation System, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 2006.
[4] Federal Aviation Administration,“TCAS II Version 7”,
U. S. Department of Transportation, November 2000.
[5] Aircraft Flight Operation regulations, available from website: www.caa.gov.tw/big5/download/08-01-01-I02.PDF
[6] ACAS Introduction, available from website:
http://www.eurocontrol.int/msa/public/standard_page/ACAS_Startpage.htm.
[7] P. J. Klass,“Bendix, B. F. Goodrich, Trimble Vie for TCAS I Business”, Aviation Week & Space Technology, pp.45-47, January 1993.
[8] A. Browde,“The Application of Time/Frequency Technology in the Air Traffic Control Environment”, AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conf., 1969.
[9] Federal Aviation Administration,“BCAS Concept”, Report No. FAA-EM-78-5, Vol. I and Vol. II. Washington, D.C.
[10] ATCRBS Introduction, available from website:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_traffic_control_radar_beacon_system
[11] T. Williamson, N. A. Specer,“Development and Operation of the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)”, IEEE, Vol. 77, NO. 11, November 1989.
[12] FAA HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY, available from website:
http://www.faa.gov/about/media/b-chron.pdf
[13] Mode C Introduction, available from website:
http://bathursted.ccnb.nb.ca/vatcan/fir/moncton/WeeklyTopics/Archives/20040620/CurrentTopic.html
[14] Mode S Introduction, available from website:
http://rfdesign.com/military_defense_electronics/radio_understanding_mode_technology/
[15] C. E. Lin,“Assessment on Taipei FIR Automatic Dependent Surveillance Network”, Civil Aviation Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 29-41, December 2001.
[16] 交通部民用航空局,“通訊、導航、監視與飛航管理(CNS/ATM)研討會論文集”,1997~2001。
[17] ADS conception, available from website:
http://www.ads-b.com/home.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automatic_dependent_surveillance-broadcast
[18] R. A. Paielli and H. Erzberger,“Conflict Probability Estimation for Free Flight”,Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 588-596, May 1997.
[19] C. E. Lin, T. P. Chen,“Digital Aircraft Instrument System of Ultralight Aircraft with Digital Avionic”, Unpublished Master Thesis, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, Tainan city, July, 2004.
[20] C. E. Lin, Y. J. Lin,“Digital Avionics using Control Area Network”, Unpublished Master Thesis, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, Tainan city, January, 2007.
[21] 簡良益、蔡長俽,(2001),PaPaGo!SDK GIS 系統建置理論與實務,台北縣: 研勤科技股份有限公司。
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