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研究生:詹惠君
研究生(外文):Hui-Chun Chan
論文名稱:策略聯盟制度化過程權變關係之研究-聯盟學習歷程與社會資本觀點
論文名稱(外文):A Contingency Approach towards the Process of Institutionalization in Strategic Alliance: The Moderating Effects of Social Capital and Origins of the Trust
指導教授:吳萬益吳萬益引用關係史習安史習安引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wu, Wann-YihHis-An Shih
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:國際企業研究所碩博士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:139
中文關鍵詞:聯盟學習歷程社會資本策略聯盟能力聯盟制度化過程聯盟成功
外文關鍵詞:alliance learning processalliance institutionalization processstrategic alliance competencesocial capitalalliance success
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近年來,「策略聯盟」儼然成為新興顯學;而策略聯盟的形成源於單一企業意識到其資源缺乏,唯有透過策略聯盟的建構有效取得現有不足的資源。尤其對屬於「海島型經濟」的台灣而言,透過策略聯盟,可幫助廠商在高度競爭市場中維持其競爭優勢,同時追求國內與全球市場的有效競爭、建立國際地位。根據歸納過去相關文獻發現,策略聯盟失敗率高達三至七成且存在不穩定性,其失敗的原因主要來自聯盟本身「學習歷程」及「聯盟制度化」的問題。然而以往研究鮮少針對這兩方面議題深入探討。因此,本研究以「聯盟學習歷程」與「聯盟制度化」角度,探討策略聯盟之夥伴特質與聯盟能力對聯盟成功的影響,冀能填補此缺口。根據組織學習理論,聯盟學習歷程是指聯盟雙方透過此過程學習取得所需的資源與技術。此歷程本身包含知識清晰度、編碼、分享,及內化過程組成。從學習過程產生的知識將不直接影響聯盟成功,除非目標公司透過聯盟制度化過程將這些知識灌輸導入。
本研究觀念架構分為三大部分、九大研究假設:(1)策略聯盟之夥伴特質與聯盟能力;(2)聯盟學習歷程與聯盟制度化;(3)聯盟成功,並依此提出九項假設。研究對象選擇以目前台灣上市上櫃公司為主,上市(TSE)公司694家,上櫃(OTC)公司549家,進行策略聯盟專案的大型廠商為抽樣母體,合計1140家。回收問卷有效樣本數為211份,有效回收率為18.21%,對此進行統計分析。得到下列研究結論:
1. 聯盟學習歷程及聯盟制度化過程可能發生在焦點公司有合適內部和外部資源:即廠商聯盟能力與聯盟夥伴特質。廠商的聯盟能力包括聯盟管理者發展能力和夥伴鑑別傾向。根據資源理論,目標公司考量的策略夥伴特質包括技術能力、管理能力、行銷知識能力,和無形資產。另外,兩個情境變數被認為能減少聯盟學習和聯盟制度化對聯盟成功的影響:信任起源和社會資本。
2. 廠商聯盟學習歷程,對聯盟成功的提高,不具有直接性的影響;但若透過聯盟制度化,將廠商所接觸的聯盟知識進行學習清晰化、編碼、分享,及內化等活動,方能有效地提升聯盟的成功。由此可知聯盟學習歷程與聯盟制度化對聯盟成功扮演重要角色。
3. 此外,當聯盟關係具備良好的關係品質與社會互動時,對聯盟制度化強化聯盟成功有正向影響。社會互動對聯盟學習與制度化及聯盟成功之強化關係,說明了夥伴間經常的聯絡、互動,會降低知識、技術移轉的困難程度,亦即聯盟廠商藉由培養密切之關係,來促進資訊交換。且以過去與未來好的經驗信任為基礎的聯盟是重要的,因為它是促使聯盟夥伴彼此分享知識及聯盟成功的誘因。
4. 過去研究對於聯盟制度化研究並不受重視,本研究對未來廠商聯盟制度化的建構、強化與發展提供重要參考,且對於聯盟成功有顯著的正向影響。亦可作為實務上企業未來執行策略性聯盟工程參考。
To sustain competitive advantage in the highly dynamic market, firms increasingly rely on forming strategic alliance with others. This study argues that the success of alliance de-pends on the process within the alliance itself, which are largely remained in the black box. There are two strategic processes contribute to the success of alliance, alliance learning and institutionalization process. Based on organizational learning theory, the alliance learning process refers to the process that each party is learned each other to complement their current resources. The learning process itself consists of knowledge articulation, codification, sharing, and internalization process. It is suggested that the knowledge generated from learning proc-ess will not directly influence the success of alliance, unless the focal firm infuses this knowledge through alliance institutionalization process. Based on institutional theory, the in-stitutionalization process consists of implementation, internalization, and integration.
These processes could be happened when the focal firm has suitable internal and ex-ternal resources. The internal factors refer to the strategic alliance competence, which con-sists of the systematical ways to identify the potential partners as well as the ability of managers to manage the alliance itself. The external factors refer to the characteristics of strategic partner. Based on resource-based theory, this study proposed that there are four characteristics of strategic partners that could be considered by the focal firm: technical competencies, management competencies, marketing competencies, and intangible assets. In addition, two contingency variables are identified that could moderate the effects of al-liance learning and institutionalization on the success of the alliance: social capital and ori-gins of the trust.
A research model is developed and nine hypotheses are proposed for further empirical validation. The hypotheses are tested based on the major survey data on 1140 Taiwanese firms listed in the stock market. The results indicated that learning and institutionalization process play prominent role on firms’ alliance success. Moreover, the results also indicate that alliance learning need to be mediated by institutionalization process before having further impact on alliance success. Furthermore, the effects of alliance learning and institutionalization processes on alliance success are greater when the inter-relationships are characterized by higher social capital and origins of the trust. Specifically, when the alliances are characterized by higher relationship quality and social interaction, the positive effect of institutionalization process on alliance success is strengthened. Similarly, when the alliances are having good shadow of the past and the future, the positive effect of institutionalization process on alliance success is strengthened.
Since previous studies on the contingency perspective of alliance institutionaliza-tion have largely been ignored, the results of this study can provide important reference for academicians for further theoretical and empirical validation on this research issue. The results are also very valuable for professionals to design and implement the project of stra-tegic alliance.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Motivation 5
1.3 Research Objective 6
1.4 Research Flow 7
1.5 The Structure of this Study 8
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 The Underlying Theory 10
2.1.1 Resource Based Theory 10
2.1.2 Institutional Theory 11
2.2 Definition of Research Construct 13
2.2.1 Characteristics of Strategic Partner 13
2.2.2 Strategic Alliance Competence 16
2.2.3 Alliance Learning Process 18
2.2.4 Institutionalization Processes 22
2.2.5 Alliance Success 26
2.2.6 Social Capital 27
2.2.7 Origins of the Trust 29
2.3 Hypotheses Development 32
2.3.1 The Effects of Strategic Alliance Competence 32
2.3.2 The Effects of Characteristics of Strategic Partner 33
2.3.3 The Effects of Alliance Learning Process 34
2.3.4 The Effects of Alliance Institutionalization Process 37
2.3.5 The Moderating Effects of Social Capital 38
2.3.6 The Moderating Effects of Origins of the Trust 40
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 42
3.1 The Conceptual Model 42
3.2 Construct Measurement 43
3.2.1 Characteristics of Strategic Partner 44
3.2.2 Strategic Alliance Competence 45
3.2.3 Alliance Learning Process 46
3.2.4 Alliance Institutionalization Process 47
3.2.5 Social Capital 49
3.2.6 Origins of the Trust 50
3.2.7 Alliance Success 51
3.2.8 Firm and Respondent Information 52
3.3 Sampling Plan 52
3.4 Data Analysis Procedures 53
CHAPTER FOUR DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS AND RELIABILITY TESTING 57
4.1 Descriptive Analysis 57
4.1.1 Response Rates 57
4.1.2 Demographic Variables 59
4.1.3 Measurement Results for Relevant Research Variables 61
4.2 Exploratory Factor Analysis 65
4.2.1 Characteristics of Strategic Partner 66
4.2.2 Strategic Alliance Competence 69
4.2.3 Alliance Learning Process 70
4.2.4 Alliance Institutionalization Process 73
4.2.5 Social Capital 75
4.2.6 Origins of the Trust 76
4.2.7 Alliance Success 78
CHAPTER FIVE RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 82
5.1 Linear Relationships among Research Variables 82
5.1.1 The Effects of Strategic Alliance Competence 82
5.1.2 The Effects of Characteristics of Strategic Partner 84
5.1.3 The Effects of Alliance Learning Process 87
5.1.4 The Effects of Alliance Institutionalization Process 87
5.2 Moderating Effects of Social Capital and Origins of the Trust 88
5.2.1 The Moderating Effects of Social Capital 88
5.2.2 The Moderating Effects of Origins of the Trust 94
5.3 Interrelationships between characteristics of strategic partner with strategic alliance competence 99
5.4 Structural Equation Model 99
5.4.1 The Proposed Model 100
5.4.2 The Rival Model 103
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 105
6.1 Conclusions 105
6.2 Managerial Implications 109
6.3 Future Research Directions 111
References 113
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