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研究生:李宏君
研究生(外文):Hong-Chun Li
論文名稱:從空載光達點雲之反射強度萃取道路交通標線交點
論文名稱(外文):Extraction of Intersection Points of Road Marking Lines from Airborne LiDAR Reflectance Data
指導教授:蔡展榮蔡展榮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jaan-Rong Tsay
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:測量及空間資訊學系碩博士班
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:反射強度空照數位影像空載光達擴充式最小二乘匹配
外文關鍵詞:Extended Least Squares Matching (ELSM)reflectanceAerial Digital ImageAirborne LiDAR
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空載光達與航空攝影測量的整合應用愈來愈受到重視,其最重要的前置工作為統一光達點雲與空照影像的坐標系統,本文的主要目的即是以光達點雲的點特徵求解空照影像的外方位參數,如此光達點雲與空照影像便可建立在共同的坐標系統之中。從真實的空載光達點雲中,觀察到瀝青路面和交通標線之反射強度明顯不同,根據此一通性,本文設計一個擴充式最小二乘匹配法,以求定交通標線之線特徵參數,進一步求得直交的兩特徵線之交點,此法產生的交點群即可用作光達與影像整合之用。另外,由於本文使用的光達航帶寬度明顯小於空照影像航帶所涵蓋的地面寬度,在統一光達點雲與空照影像坐標基準之前,勢必要先連結多條光達航帶的點雲,本文利用共同掃瞄區裡的同名交點進行相鄰光達航帶點雲坐標基準偏差量之估計與改正。

光達航帶點雲坐標基準經改正後,同名交點之整體平面偏差量之均方根值從0.650m降至0.286m,符合光達點之平面先驗精度±0.25m。使用這些基準改正後的點位做為地控點(共30點),施行空照影像光束法平差,整體空三精度達到±0.67個像元的次像元精度等級,驗證本文所提之方法應可行。
Recently, the issue of integrating airborne LiDAR and aerial photogrammetry has been in academic and industrial spotlight, because both technologies have their unique characteristics respectively and some advantages of airborne LiDAR can compensate for shortcomings of aerial photogrammetry, and vice versa. An absolute prerequisite for combining both data sets is to establish a common reference frame. The main objective of this study is to utilize the point features in LiDAR point cloud and aerial image to determine external orientation of aerial images defined in the LiDAR coordinate system. Hence, an algorithm based on Extended Least Squares Matching is designed to extract road marking lines from airborne LiDAR point cloud, according to the high contrast character of LiDAR reflectance between asphalt and road marking lines. After that, the intersection of two road marking lines can be solved as the point feature in LiDAR point cloud. Besides, the point features, as tie-point, also can be applied to adjust the systematic error between LiDAR strips before combining LiDAR point cloud and aerial images.

The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the tie points between LiDAR strips is decreased from 0.650m to 0.286m after 3D conformal transformation. After that, the point features will be used as ground control points to determine the external orientation of aerial images by bundle block adjustment. In the study, there are 30 control points extracted from LiDAR point cloud and the standard deviation of unit weight in the bundle block adjustment reaches ±0.67 pixels.
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目次 V
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 X
第1章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機 1
1-2 研究目的 4
1-3 研究方法 6
1-4 論文架構 9
第2章 資料特性探討與初步模式推導 10
2-1 光達反射強度的基本原理 10
2-1-1 影響反射強度的因素 13
2-1-2 實際光達點雲反射強度資料的統計特性 15
2-2 實驗區塊反射強度之函數表達 23
2-2-1 函數之定義 24
第3章 平差求解模式與實驗設計 29
3-1 擴充式最小二乘匹配法介紹 29
3-1-1 最小二乘法平差流程 32
3-2 實驗設計 41
3-2-1 實驗範圍及實驗區塊選定 42
3-2-2 初步航帶系統誤差分析及改正 43
3-2-3 光束法區域平差求定影像外方位元素 44
第4章 實驗成果與分析 46
4-1 以實際資料驗證ELSM模式 46
4-1-1 實驗資料規格及實驗區 46
4-1-2 ELSM成果與分析 49
4-2 航帶平差之成果與分析 63
4-3 光達與空照影像連結 80
4-3-1 光束法區域平差成果與分析 80
第5章 結論與建議 84
參考文獻 87
附錄 91
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