跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(18.205.192.201) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/05 03:11
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳家佑
研究生(外文):Chia-yu Chen
論文名稱:電流再使用壓控振盪器之晶片研製
論文名稱(外文):Design of Current-Reused Voltage-Controlled Oscillators
指導教授:蘇炎坤蘇炎坤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yan-kuin Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:微電子工程研究所碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:142
中文關鍵詞:射頻電路壓控振盪器電流再使用架構
外文關鍵詞:voltage-controlled oscillatorCurrent-reused structureRF circuit
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:109
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
近幾年內,無線通訊技術發展已經日漸進步,射頻電路與無線通訊系統的應用,已經帶動了廣泛的設計與研究的趨勢。由於CMOS製程技術的快速發展,閘通道長度不斷地縮短,silicon CMOS製程的高密度、高整合性、低成本、低功率消耗等特性,成為現今IC設計的主流,因此射頻電路的設計可朝低消耗功率、縮小晶片面積等方面去發展。
射頻收發器前端電路中包括低雜訊放大器、功率放大器、混頻器以及壓控振盪器四個主要的射頻電路。壓控振盪器的功能為提供混頻器一個本地振盪頻率,在射頻接收器中將高頻訊號降為低頻訊號,讓後級的數位電路做處理;相對地在射頻發射器中將低頻訊號升為高頻訊號,經功率放大器並由天線發射之。
在本篇論文中,學生設計了一些壓控振盪器,為了達到低消耗功率及小晶片面積,學生採用了電流再使用架構,設計電路如下:運用最佳化源極退化電阻之電流再使用壓控振盪器、應用在2.5和3.4GHz WiMAX無線通訊系統之多頻段電流再使用壓控振盪器。
電流再使用壓控振盪器的架構主要是採用傳統補償式交錯耦合差動壓控振盪器的半電路,因為電晶體數節省了一半,消耗功率也相對減少了。由於電路為PMOS和NMOS電晶體的交錯耦合對,所以兩邊差動的振盪訊號會不對稱,學生在電晶體加了源極退化電阻去調整,使兩邊振盪訊號達對稱的效果。
在電路佈局方面,由於佈局走線的等效寄生電容或電感量會使壓控振盪器的實際振盪頻率低於模擬值,同時也會影響特性表現,因此學生用電磁分析方法,獲取走線之S參數,萃取其寄生量並重新代入電路中模擬,重新調整後以達到更準確的模擬結果。
本論文中之電路設計是以TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS 製程與UMC 0.18um CMOS製程之model 進行模擬,並透過CIC 之申請下線,完成晶片之製作。
In recent years, the technological development of wireless communication has already progressed day by day, the application of radio frequency (RF) circuit and wireless communication system have already driven the extensive design and trend studied.
Because the technology development of CMOS processes makes gate channel length being Shorter constantly, high density, high combination, low cost, low power consumption of characteristics of silicon CMOS processes become the mainstream of IC designs now. So the design of the radio
frequency circuit can develop towards low power consumption and the small area of the chip, etc.
RF transceiver front end circuit includes four fundamental RF circuits which are low noise amplifier (LNA)、power amplifier (PA)、mixer and voltage controlled oscillator (VCO).The function of VCO is to provide the
mixer with a local oscillation frequency. In RF receiver, the high frequency signal is down-converted to a low one, and it is dealt with by latter digital circuits. Relatively, in RF transmitter, the fundamental frequency signal is up-converted to a high one, and through the PA it will be transmitted by a antenna.
In this thesis, we designed some voltage controlled oscillators. To achieve the low power consumption and the small area of the chip, we chose the current-reused structure. The designed VCOs are current-reused VCO with
optimum source damping resisters and a multi-band current-reused VCO for 2.5 and 3.4 GHz WiMAX applications.
The structure of the current-reused VCO is a half circuit of the conventional compensatory cross coupled differential VCO. The number of transistors is half, and the central power consumption is also decreasing.
Because of the cross coupled PMOS and NMOS transistors, the differential oscillation signals in two sides will be asymmetric. We added the source damping resistors to the source of transistors, and the differential signals will
be symmetric.
According to the effective parasitic capacitance and inductance of lines in layout, the effective oscillation frequency is less than simulated one. Additionally, the performance of VCO is also influenced. So we used
electromagnetic analysis to obtain S parameter of lines and to extract the parasitic of them. Then simulating and adjusting the VCO again to achieve more accurate simulated results.
The VCO circuits were implemented by TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. These chips have also been fabricated by the support of CIC in Taiwan.
Abstract .................................................I
Contents ................................................VI
List of Tables ................................................VIII
List of Figures .................................................IX
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION .............................................1
1.1 Brief Introduction ···································1
1.2 Motivation ···········································2
1.3 Architecture of RF Transceiver························4
1.4 Thesis Organization ··································5
Chapter 2 WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS ........................ 6
2.1 WLAN ·················································6
2.1.1 IEEE 802.11b ·······································6
2.1.2 IEEE 802.11a ·······································9
2.1.3 IEEE 802.11g ······································11
2.2 WiMAX ···············································12
2.2.1 IEEE 802.16 ·······································12
2.2.2 IEEE 802.16a ······································13
2.2.3 IEEE 802.16d ······································13
2.2.4 IEEE 802.16e ······································13
Chapter 3 PRINCIPLES AND COMPONENTS OF THE
VOTAGE-CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR .......................... 17
3.1 Principle of the Oscillator ·························17
3.1.1 Negative Feedback Analysis ························17
3.1.2 One Port Network Analysis ·························20
3.2 Structure and High Frequency Components of the VCO ··24
3.2.1 Negative Resistance LC Tank Oscillator ············24
3.2.2 Voltage-Controlled Oscillator ·····················33
3.2.3 Varactor ··········································34
3.2.4 Inductor ··········································39
Chapter 4 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VOTAGE-CONTROLLED
OSCILLATOR ..............................................49
4.1 Phase Noise ·········································49
4.1.1 Definition of Phase Noise ·························49
4.1.2 Effect of Phase Noise in RF Transceiver ···········52
4.2 Phase Noise Considerations ··························54
4.2.1 KVCO ··············································55
4.2.2 Thermal Noise ·····································58
4.2.3 Flicker Noise······································64
4.2.4 1/f Noise Corner Frequency of MOSFETs ·············66
4.2.5 Quality Factor ····································67
4.2.6 AM-PM conversion ··································69
4.3 Models of Phase Noise ·······························71
4.3.1 Leeson’s Model ···································71
4.3.2 Abidi’s Model ····································73
4.3.3 Hajimiri’s Model ·································77
Chapter 5 DESIGN OF CURRENT-REUSED
VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED OSCILLATORS ..................... 83
5.1 Low Power Current-reused VCO with Optimum Source Damping Resistors ···· 83
5.1.1 Current-reused Structure ··························84
5.1.2 Source Damping Topology ···························85
5.1.3 Symmetric Output Signals Technique ················86
5.1.4 Measurement Consideration ·························90
5.1.5 Simulation and Measurement Results ················92
5.1.6 Summary············································98
5.2 Dual Band Current-reused VCO with a Switched Stack Inductor ······················ 99
5.2.1 Switched Inductor Structure ·······················99
5.2.2 Switched Stack Inductor Design ···················102
5.2.3 Current-controlled Switch Design ·················105
5.2.4 Measurement Consideration ························108
5.2.5 Simulation and Measurement Results ···············110
5.2.6 Summary···········································117
5.3 Multi-band Current-reused VCO for 2.5GHz and 3.4GHz
WiMAX applications ·····································118
5.3.1 Multi-band Current-reused VCO Structure ··········118
5.3.2 Switched Capacitors Structure ····················119
5.3.3 Measurement Consideration ························122
5.3.4 Simulation and Measurement Results ···············124
5.3.5 Summary···········································135
Chapter 6 CONCLUSION..............................................136
References .............................................138
[1] S. J. Yun, S. B. Shin, H. C. Choi, and S. G. Lee, “A 1mW current-reuse CMOS differential LC-VCO with low phase noise,” in IEEE ISSCC Tech. Dig., Vol. 1, pp.
540 – 616, Feb. 2005.
[2] C. Y. Cha, H. C. Choi, H. T. Kim, and S. G. Lee, “RF CMOS differential oscillator with source damping resistors,” in Proc. IEEE RFIC Symp., pp. 339-402, Jun. 2005.
[3] S.-M. Yim and K. K. O, “Demonstration of a switched resonator concept in a dual-band monolithic CMOS LC-tuned VCO,” in Proc. Custom Integrated Circuits Conf., pp.
205-208, May 2001.
[4] S.-M. Yim and K. O. Kenneth, “Switched resonators and their applications in a dual-band monolithic CMOS LC-tuned VCO,” IEEE Transactions on HMicrowave Theory and Techniques, HVol. 54, pp. 74 – 81, Jan. 2006.
[5] J. Steinkamp, F. Henkel, and P. Waldow, “Multi-mode wide-band 130 nm CMOS WLAN and GSM/UMTS,” IEEE International Workshop on HRadio-Frequency Integration Technology: Integrated Circuits for Wideband Communication and Wireless Sensor NetworksH, pp. 105 – 108, 30 Nov.-2 Dec. 2005.
[6] A. D. Berny, A. M. Niknejad, and R.G. Meyer, “A 1.8-GHz LC VCO with 1.3-GHz tuning range and digital amplitude calibration,” IEEE Journal of HSolid-State Circuits, HVol. 40, pp. 909 – 917, Apr. 2005.
[7] N. H. W. Fong, J.-O. Plouchart, N. Zamdmer, D. Liu, L. F. Wagner, C. Plett, and N. G. Tarr, “Design of wide-band CMOS VCO for multiband wireless LAN applications,”
IEEE Journal of HSolid-State Circuits, H Vol. 38, pp. 1333–1342, Aug. 2003.
[8] B. Q. Diep, and C. S. Park, “All PMOS Wideband VCO for Multi-band Multi-standard Radios,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Communication Technology, Vol. 3, pp. 1656 –
1659, Feb. 2007.
[9] M.-L. Yeh, W.-R. Liou, T. H. Chen, Y. C. Lin, and J.-J. Ho, “A Low-Power 2/5.8-GHz CMOS LC-VCO for Multi-band Wireless Communication Applications,” IEEE Int. Conf. on HCommunications, Circuits and Systems Proceedings, HVol. 2, pp. 825 – 828, Jun. 2006.
[10] H. L. Kao, D. Y. Yang, A. Chin, and S. P. McAlister, “A 2.4/5 GHz Dual-Band VCO using a Variable Inductor and Switched Resonator,” IEEE/MTT-S Int. Microwave Symposium, pp. 1533 – 1536, Jun. 2007.
[11] H. S. Chhaya and S. Gupta, “Throughput and fairness properties of asynchronous data transfer methods in the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol,” IEEE Int. Symp. on HPersonal,
Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, HVol.2, pp. 613 – 617, Sept. 1995.
[12] M. A. Visser and M. El Zarki, “Voice and data transmission over an 802.11 wireless network,” IEEE Int. Symp. on HPersonal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, HVol. 2, pp. 648 – 652, Sept. 1995.
[13] R. 0. LaMaire, A. Krishna, P. Bhagwat, and J. Panian, “Wireless LANs and mobile networking: standards and future directions,” IEEE HCommunications Magazine, HVol. 34, pp. 86 – 94, Aug. 1996.
[14] “Supplement To IEEE Standard For Information Technology- Telecommunications And Information Exchange Between Systems- Local And Metropolitan Area Networks- Specific Requirements- Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) And Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Higher-speed Physical Layer Extension In The 2.4 GHz Band,” IEEE Std. 802.11b-1999, pp. i-90, Jan. 2000.
[15] “Supplement to IEEE standard for information technology telecommunications and information exchange between systems - local and metropolitan area networks - specific requirements. Part 11: wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: high-speed physical layer in the 5 GHz band,” IEEE Std. 802.11a-1999, pp. i-82, Dec. 1999.
[16] “IEEE Standard for Information technology-Telecommunications and information
exchange between systems-Local and metropolitan area networks-Specific requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications,” IEEE Std. 802.11-2007, pp, C1–1184, Jun. 2007.
[17] J. G. Andrews, A. Ghosh, and R. Muhamed “Fundamentals of WiMAX: Understanding Broadband Wireless Networking,” Prentice Hall, 2007.
[18] “IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems,” IEEE Std. 802.16-2004, pp. 0_1–857, Oct. 2004.
[19] “IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems Amendment 2: Physical and
Medium Access Control Layers for Combined Fixed and Mobile Operation in Licensed Bands and Corrigendum 1,” IEEE Std. 802.16e-2005, pp. 0_1–822, Feb. 2006.
[20] B. Razavi, “Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits,” McGraw Hill, 2002.
[21] R. L. Bunch and S. Raman, “Large-signal analysis of MOS varactors in CMOS –Gm LC VCOs,” HIEEE Journal ofH Solid-State Circuits, Vol.38, pp. 1325 – 1332, Aug. 2003.
[22] P. Andreani and S. Mattisson, “On the Use of MOS Varactor in RF VCOs,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol.35, No.6, pp. 905-910, June 2000.
[23] C. Patrick Yue and S. Simon Wang, “On-Chip Spiral Inductors with Patterned Ground Shields for Si-Based RF ICs,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol.33, No.5, pp. 743-752, May. 1998.
[24] H. G. Booker, “Energy in Electromagnetism,” London/New York: Peter Peregrinus (on behalf of the IEE), 1982.
[25] L. Wiemer and R. H. Jansen, “Determination of coupling capacitance of underpasses, air bridges and crossings in MIC’s and MMIC’s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 344–346, Mar. 1987.
[26] I. T. Ho and S. K. Mullick, “Analysis of transmission lines on integratedcircuit chips,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-2, pp. 201–208, Dec. 1967.
[27] H. Hasegawa, M. Furukawa, and H. Yanai, “Properties of microstrip line on Si–SiO2 system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT-19, pp. 869–881, Nov.
1971.
[28] Jan Craninckx and Michiel S. J. Steyaert, “A 1.8-GHz Low-Phase-Noise CMOS VCO Using Optimized Hollow Spiral Inductors,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol.32, pp.736-744, May 1997.
[29] D. B. Leeson, “A Simple Model of Feeback Oscillator Noise Spectrum,” Proc. IEEE, Vol. 54, pp. 329-330, Feb. 1966.
[30] A. Hajimiri, T. H. Lee, “A General Theory of Phase Noise in Electrical Oscillators,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 2, Feb. 1998.
[31] L.R. Malling, “Phase-Stable Oscillators for Space Communications, including the Relationship between the Phase Noise, the Spectrum, the Short-Term Stability, and the Q of the Oscillator,” HProceedings of the IREH, Vol. 50, HIssue 7H, pp. 1656 – 1664, July 1962.
[32] Behzad Razavi , “A Study of Phase Noise in CMOS Oscillator ,"IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits ,vol. 31 ,pp. 331-343, March 1996.
[33] A. Jerng and C.G. Sodini, “The impact of device type and sizing on phase noise mechanisms,” IEEE Journal of HSolid-State Circuits,H Vol. 40, HIssue 2H, pp. 360-369, Feb. 2005.
[34] B. Wang, J.R. Hellums, C.G. Sodini, “MOSFET thermal noise modeling for analog integrated circuits,” IEEE Journal of HSolid-State Circuits, HVol. 29, HIssue 7H, pp. 833 – 835, Jul. 1994.
[35] S. Levantino, C. Samori, A. Zanchi, A.L Lacaita, “AM-to-PM conversion in varactor-tuned oscillators,” IEEE Transactions on HCircuits and Systems II: Analog and
Digital Signal Processing, [see also IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs,]H Vol. 49, HIssue 7H, pp. 509 – 513, Jul. 2002.
[36] C. Samori, A. L. Lacaita, A. Zanchi, S. Levantino, and F. Torrisi, “Impact of indirect stability on phase noise performance of fully-integrated L–C tuned VCOs,” in Proc. 25th Eur. Solid-State Circuits Conf., Duisburg, Germany, pp. 202–205, Sept. 1999.
[37] J.J. Rael, A.A. Abidi, “Physical processes of phase noise in differential LC oscillators,” IEEE Conf. on HCustom Integrated Circuits, Hpp. 569–572, May 2000.
[38] C.-H. Liu, C.-Y. Chan, R.-L. Wang, Y.-K. Su, “Low Power Current-reused Voltage-Controlled Oscillator with Optimum Source Damping Resistors,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits, pp. 1017-1020, Dec. 2007
[39] J. P. Hong, S. J. Yun, N. J. Oh, and S. G. Lee, “A 2.2-mW backgate coupled LC quadrature VCO with current reused structure,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.,
vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 298-300, Apr. 2007.
[40] Y. H. Chuang, S. L. Jang, S. H. Lee, R. H. Yen, and J. J. Jhao, “5-GHz low power current-reused balanced CMOS differential armstrong VCOs,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 139-141, Feb. 2007.
[41] N. J. Oh, S. G. Lee, “Current reused LC VCOs,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 736-738, Nov. 2005.
[42] S. H. Lee, S. L. Jang, Y. H. Chuang, J. J. Chao, J. F. Lee, and M. H. Juang, “A low power injection locked LC-tank oscillator with current reused topology,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 220-222, Mar. 2007.
[43] S.-M. Yim, T. Chen, and K. K. O, “The effects of a ground shield on the characteristics and performance of spiral inductors,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.
37, no. 2, pp. 237-244, Feb. 2002.
[44] C.C. Ho, C.W. Kuo, C.C. Hsiao and Y.J. Chan, “A fully integrated dual-band VCO by 0.18 μm CMOS technologies”, Solid State Electronics, 47(11), pp. 2015-2018, Nov. 2003.
[45] H. Sjoland, “Improved switched tuning of differential CMOS VCOs,” IEEE Trans. on Circuits & Systems, Analog & Digital Signal Processing, vol. 49, pp. 352-355, May 2002.
[46] J. Maget, M. Tiebout, and R. Kraus, “Influence of novel MOS varactors on the performance of a fully integrated UMTS VCO in standard 0.25-μm CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 37, pp. 953-958, Jul. 2002.
[47] P. Vaananen, M. Metsanvirta, N.T. Tchamov, “A 4.3-GHz VCO with 2-GHz tuning range and low phase noise,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 36, pp. 142-146, Jan.
2001.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top