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研究生:黃建基
研究生(外文):Jian-Ji Huang
論文名稱:有機發光二極體電極之研究
論文名稱(外文):Investigation of the Electrodes in Organic Light Emitting Diodes
指導教授:蘇炎坤蘇炎坤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yan-Kuin Su
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:有機發光二極體透明導電氧化物黑膜微共振腔效應相位移
外文關鍵詞:phase shiftmicrocavity effectDBR-likeblack filmTCOTEOLEDOLED
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本論文主要研究於「有機發光二極體電極之研究」。文中主要分成三大部分:
(a)透明導電氧化物在陽極的應用; (b)週期性陽極(Al/Ni/Au)在有機上發光二極體的應用; (c)製作陰極黑膜可降低環境光進而提高對比度方面進行研究。
(a)透明導電氧化物在陽極的應用:
以射頻磁控共濺鍍系統研製透明電極氧化銦錫(ITO)及氧化銦錫:氧化鋅(IZTO)共濺鍍的薄膜之二極體特性比較。在室溫不退火處理條件下,IZTO在400 nm有最佳厚度,比ITO (400 nm)或是350 nm的最佳厚度都擁有較低的電阻率及較快的載子移動率。並針對IZTO薄膜在150,250,400 nm的不同厚度下對於有機發光二極體的影響比較結果,也是400 nm的厚度最好。經由ETFOS軟體模擬實驗結果,將實驗及模擬的光譜做匹配,可以快速校正有機層膜厚計的誤差,得到實驗室的膜厚計針對NPB材料會有約2倍的誤差。
(b)週期性陽極(Al/Ni/Au)在有機上發光二極體的應用:
首先在Al/Au陽極白光上發光元件製作中探討Al在70及80 nm對元件效能的影響,其中表面平整度影響反射率,及元件效能。在週期性陽極(Al/Ni/Au)1,2和3週期對上發光元件效率的影響上,我們發現週期性陽極有DBR-like的效果及微共振腔效果,其中2週期在反射率、光電特性及效率方面表現最佳,具有95.4 %的反射率,7.99 cd/A的效率,而1週期的效率有6.85 cd/A,3週期由於反射率降到85.9 %,且功函數降到4.54 eV,所以效率約5.07 cd/A。微共振腔效應的理論及金屬的相位移在上發光OLED的模擬驗證了我們的實驗結果,並經由精準計算金屬間的相位移對於光學長度及波長變化的影響。
(c)製作陰極黑膜可降低環境光進而提高對比度方面進行研究:
以雙週期Al/CuPc/Al/CuPc/Al黑膜在33.5 cd/m2的環境光照射下,有最低反射光約2.61 cd/m2。元件的對比率(CR)在無黑膜、單週及雙週期黑膜的值分別為82.5,267.1及958。證明保持CuPc總厚度在80 nm並增加一層極薄的Al在中間形成的雙週期結構可大大降低CR值使元件適合在戶外白天中提高螢幕對比度。
This dissertation is divided into three parts: (a) Transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films applications; (b) Periodic anode applications with Al/Ni/Au structures on top emitting organic light emitting diodes (TEOLEDs); (c) Black film for improving the contrast ratio of organic light emitting diodes.
(a) Transparent conductor oxide (TCO) films applications
A comparison between indium tin oxide (ITO) and ITO codoped zinc oxide (IZTO) is constructed using the rf magnetron co-sputtering system. The 400-nm-thickness IZTO film has low resistivity and high mobility compared with 350 and 400-nm-thicknesses ITO films. The effects of different IZTO thicknesses (150, 250 and 400 nm) on OLEDs are discussed. The 400-nm-thickness IZTO film exhibits superior performance. The effects of the organic layer thickness on the spectra by ETFOS are also discussed for NPB thickness calibration. A 2-fold error was identified.
(b) Periodic anode applications with the Al/Ni/Au structures on top emitting organic light emitting diodes (TEOLEDs)
When the Al/Au thickness is further increased to 80/5 nm, the top emitting brightness decreases to lower than those of 70/5 nm. The deposition time for Al/Au (80/5 nm) is longer than that for Al/Au (70/5 nm). The longer deposition time leads to a rougher surface. The rough surface leads to a decrease in luminance performance. The TEOLED current efficiency with Al/Au of 80/5 nm is therefore worse than that with Al/Au of 70/5 nm. The 2-pair (Al/Ni/Au/Ni/Au) anode with a reflectivity of 95.4% is better than that for 1 and 3-pair anodes. The optimum current efficiency with the 2-pair Ni/Au anode is increased up to 7.99 cd/A compared with the 1-pair Ni/Au anode (6.85 cd/A) and 3-pair Ni/Au anode (5.07 cd/A) due to the reduced work function of 4.54 eV. The phase shift on emitting light reflection into periodic ultra-thin metals plays an important role in determining the wavelength of a microcavity device. We demonstrated 1, 2, and 3 Ni/Au pairs upon Al as the anode for achieving a DBR-like structure. The phase shift also occurred in the interfaces of ultra-thin multilayer metals. The phase shifts were obtained from precisely calculated results using two mirror electrodes for three different pair anodes. From the experimental result, the measured wavelength peak values for 1, 2, and 3-pair were 520, 556, and 540 nm, respectively. This is in good agreement with the theoretical calculations for 1, 2, and 3-pairs at 516, 556, and 536 nm, respectively.
(c) Black film for improving the contrast ratio of organic light emitting diodes
A black film with double period metal-organic cathode structure (Al/CuPc/Al/CuPc/Al) was designed for reducing the cathode reflection and enhancing the contrast ratio (CR) in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The contrast ratio are 82.5, 267.1, and 958 for without, single, and double periodic black films, respectively. The absorption and destructive interference effect caused by the copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and ultra thin aluminum (Al) periodic layers decrease the ambient light.
Abstract (Chinese)…………………………………………………I
Abstract (English)………………………………………………III Acknowledgement………………………………………V
Contents………………………………………………………………….……………..VI
Table Captions…………………………………….………………….…………..….VIII
Figure Captions………………………………………………………..………….…..IX
CHAPTER 1 Introduction……………………………………………………..…….1
1.1 Review of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films…….…………….…………...1
1.2 Review of top emitting organic light emitting diodes (TEOLEDs)….........................2
1.3 Review of high contrast OLEDs………………….…………..………………...........4
1.4 Organization of this dissertation…………………..…….……………………...........5
CHAPTER 2 Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) Films as Anode of OLEDs………………………..……..……….…………........................7
2.1 ITO codoped ZnO (IZTO) by a RF magnetron co-sputtering system......……………7
2.2 Comparisons of room temperature deposited ITO and IZTO as anode of OLEDs......8
2.3 Effects of IZTO thicknesses on OLEDs…………….…………..…….…………….10
CHAPTER 3 Rapid Calibration of Organic Layer Thickness by ETFOS
…………………………………………………………………………..11
3.1 Design of emission thin film layer structure by ETFOS……………..……………..11
3.2 Effects of organic layer thickness on spectra by ETFOS…………………………..12
3.2.1 Simulation procedure…………………………………….………...................14
3.2.2 Results and discussion…………………...……………………..…………….14
3.3 Summary……………………………………………………....................................16
CHAPTER 4 Periodic Metallic Anode of TEOLEDs.………………………18
4.1 Al/Au as anode in white TEOLEDs……………………………………..………….18
4.1.1 Experiments…...…………………………………………………..………….18
4.1.2 Effects of anode thickness on white TEOLED……….…………...…….……19
4.1.3 Effects of DCJT red doping concentrations on white TEOLED…......…..….20
4.1.4 Effects of DCJT red doped location on white TEOLED………………….…21
4.2 Periodic Ni/Au anode in TEOLEDs………………………………...………………22
4.2.1 Experiments…………………………………………………..………….……22
4.2.2 Efficiency enhancement of TEOLEDs using periodic anode………...………23
4.3 Effects of phase shift in periodic anode on the emission spectra of TEOLEDs........27
4.3.1 Microcavity theory in TEOLEDs……………………………..………………27
4.3.2 Analysis of phase shift in DBR-like periodic anode………….………………29
4.3.3 Calculations of optical length including DBR, organic layers, and phase shift effects……………………………………………………………………...….30
4.4 Summary………………………………………….………………….……………..31
CHAPTER 5 Black Film for Improving the Contrast Ratio of Organic Light Emitting Diodes……………..………………………..…...33
5.1 Fabrication of black films…………………………………….……………………33
5.2 Single and double periodic black films……………………………..………….….34
5.3 Summary……………..…………………………………………………………….37
CHAPTER 6 Conclusions and Future Work......................................................38
6.1 Conclusions…………………………….………………………….………………..38
6.2 Future work…………………………………………………….……...……………40
References………………………………………………………………………………41
Tables……………………………………………………………………………………52
Figures……………………………………………………………………..……………70
Publication List…………………………………………………………………..…..113
Vita………………...………………………………………………………………..…..116
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