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研究生:吳旅瑤
研究生(外文):Lu-yao Wu
論文名稱:可調節式升降壓型充電式電荷泵浦直流-直流轉換器
論文名稱(外文):A Versatile Step-Up/Step-Down Regulated Charge-Pump Based DC-DC Converter
指導教授:魏嘉玲
指導教授(外文):Chia-Ling Wei
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:電荷泵浦直流轉換器穩壓器
外文關鍵詞:regulatorcharge-pumpDC/DC converter
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由於可攜性電子產品近年來的蓬勃發展,因此需要電源管理電路將電池電壓轉換成不同子電路所需求之固定電壓。此種應用範圍的電源管理電路設計重心為高效率、高精確度、低雜訊且體積小。相較於交換式電源供應器,無感式電荷泵浦具有體積小的優勢。然而以往的電荷泵浦架構大多沒有調節的功能或是使用PWM的方式調節。不使用回授調節的電荷泵浦架構器輸出精確度較差;而PWM調節的電路則由於導通時間太短,因此開關上承受劇烈的電流壓力且頻譜分析不夠明確,不易透過合適的設計將其雜訊濾除。數月前實驗室所提出的電流調節之充電式電荷泵浦電路架構大幅地改善負載調節率,但其電路的輸出電壓必須限制在較輸入電壓為高的範圍。因此當電池電壓隨著時間慢慢降低,直到較額定輸出電壓為低時,便無法再提供穩定的電源,有鑑於此,本論文提出一個電流調節的升降壓型電荷泵浦架構,加入升壓的功能,研究其頻率響應、補償的方式及時脈對於電路操作的影響。並實作透過CIC下線,量測與驗證研究的結果。
本電路使用台積電0.35um 2P4M製程實現;其輸入電壓設定在2.5V及5V,而輸出電壓則鎖定在3.3V,量測所得的結果如下:最大負載電流可達到9.2mA;若不考慮主動電路的能量耗損,其效率約為66%,效率值與輸入電壓及輸出電壓的大小相關;若是考慮主動電路的耗損,則效率值降為57%;線性調節率大約是0.15V/V,負載調節率則大約是2.06 mV / mA。
Since portable electrical product is rising and flourishing, power management circuits which supply different voltage to different sub blocks are needed. The issues of this kind of power management circuits contain high efficiency, high accuracy, low noise and low cost. Compared with switching regulator, inductor-free charge-pump regulator has the advantage of lower cost. However, the structures of past charge-pump regulator are not regulated or regulated by PWM method. The structures which are not regulated have poor performance of accuracy, and structures regulated by PWM method are under high current stress for its short duration and the noise can’t be filtered easily for its frequency spectrum is not well defined. Our lab proposed current-controlled charge pump regulator several months ago. This kind of structure improves load-regulation magnificently, but it can’t supply voltage higher than input. When the voltage of battery gets lower than input voltage, the battery can’t supply stable output voltage. For this reason, a step-up/step down regulator is proposed. The frequency response of loop gain and the method of compensation and influence of clock have been researched. The design, implementation, testing and verification will also be presented in this report.
The chip is implemented by the process of TSMC 0.35um 2P4M with a die area of 1.462x1.059 mm2. The input voltage of this circuit is set on 2.5V / 5V, and the output voltage is set on 3.3V. The measured results are listed as below. The maximum of load current is 9.2 mA. Measured load regulation is 2.06 mV/ mA, and measured line regulation is 0.15 mV / mA. If the power of active circuits isn’t considered, the efficiency is about 66%. If it is, the efficiency is about 57%.
第一章、簡介.....................................1
1.1研究動機......................................1
1.2 論文架構.....................................2
第二章、背景資料...............................................3
2.1使用電路架構實現不同的轉換比...............................................3
2.1.1簡單的電荷泵浦倍壓器[2].....................3
2.1.2簡單串接的電荷泵浦倍壓器....................4
2.1.3 Makowski電荷泵浦架構[2]....................5
2.1.4多相電荷泵浦架構[2].........................5
2.1.5降壓型電荷泵浦架構[6].......................8
2.1.6整合不同的轉換比例[3]......................10
2.2PWM調節的電荷泵浦[7].........................12
2.3電流調節的電荷泵浦...........................14
2.3.1 Gregoire電荷泵浦[1].......................14
2.3.2電流調節電荷泵浦的優點.....................17
第三章 電路設計.................................18
3.1系統架構.....................................18
3.1.1主要電路架構...............................19
3.1.2效率.......................................20
3.1.3 開迴路增益(Loop Response)的推導...........23
3.2回授控制電路.................................26
3.2.1回授控制電路的說明.........................26
3.2.2回授控制電路的分析.........................27
3.2.3運算放大器架構.............................28
3.2.4領先補償的分析.............................30
3.3時脈控制電路.................................33
3.3.1電壓提昇電路...............................33
3.3.2時脈產生電路...............................35
3.3.3延遲產生電路...............................35
3.3.4比較器電路.................................36
3.3.5時脈控制電路的操作.........................37
3.4電源管理電路參數分析.........................40
3.4.1負載調節率.................................40
3.4.2線性調節率.................................41
第四章、模擬與佈局..............................44
4.1模擬結果.....................................44
4.1.1系統步進響應...............................44
4.1.2運算放大器模擬結果.........................49
4.2電路佈局.....................................56
第五章、量測結果................................59
5.1測試儀器.....................................59
5.2測試結果.....................................61
第六章、結論....................................70
[1] B. Robert Gregoire, “A Compact Switched-Capacitor Regulated Charge Pump Power Supply,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1944-1953, Aug. 2006.
[2] Fengjing Qiu, Janusz A. Starzyk, and Ying-Wei Jan, “Analog VLSI Design of Multi-Phase Voltage Doublers with Frequency Regulation,” IEEE MSSMSD 1999, pp. 9-14, Apr. 1999.
[3] S. Bin, Y. Yujia, W. Ying, and H. Zhiliang, “High Efficiency, Inductorless Step-Down DC/DC Converter,” IEEE ASICON 2005, Oct. 2004, vol. 1, pp. 395-398.
[4] K.D.T.NGO, “Steady-State Analysis and Design of a Switched-Capacitor DC-DC Converter,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 30, pp. 92-101, Jan. 1994.
[5] H. Chung and B. O. A. Ioinovici, “Switched-Capacitor-Based DC-to-DC Converter with Improved Input Current Waveform,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits and Systems, May 1996, vol. 1, pp. 541–544.
[6] Jifeng Han, Annette von Jouanne and Gabor C. Temes, “A New Approach to Reducing Output Ripple in Switched-Capacitor-Based Step-Down DC-DC Converters,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Nov. 2006, vol. 21, NO.6, pp. 1548-1555.
[7] S.V. Cheong, S. H. Chung, and A. Ioinovici, “Development of Power Electronics Converters Based on Switched-Capacitor Circuits,” Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Systems, May 1992, pp. 1907-1910.
[8] David Johns and Ken Martin, Analog Integrated Circuit Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997, Chapter 6.
[9] Sean Nicolson, Khoman Phang, “Improvements in Biasing and Compensation of CMOS Opamps,” IEEE Circuits and Systems, Vol. 1, pp. I-665-668, May 2004
[10] S. H. Chung, S. Y. Hui, and S. C. Tang, “Development of a Multistage Current-Controlled Switched-Capacitor Step-Down DC/DC Converter with Continuous Input Current,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Syst. I, vol. 47, no. 7, Jul. 2000, pp. 1017-1025.
[11] Sergio Franco, Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002, Chapter11.
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