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研究生:黃柏舜
研究生(外文):Po-shun Huang
論文名稱:柴油引擎發電機使用生質柴油所排放醛酮類化合物及排氣毒性分析
論文名稱(外文):Carbonyls Emissions and Cytotoxicity Analysis of Diesel Generator Exhaust using Biodiesel as Fuel
指導教授:林達昌
指導教授(外文):Ta-chang Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:細胞存活率試驗細胞毒性醛酮類化合物棕櫚生質柴油柴油引擎發電機
外文關鍵詞:diesel generatorpalm-biodieselcarbonylscytotoxicityMTT assay
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本研究係以柴油引擎發電機試驗程序,評估使用棕櫚生質柴油燃料時,引擎所排放醛酮類化合物(Carbonyls)濃度及尾氣細胞毒性(Cyto- toxicity)特徵,並與傳統石化柴油進行比較,另外亦針對發電機輸出功率變化所造成的影響進行探討;測試油品為傳統石化柴油(D)以及五種不同配比(體積比)之棕櫚生質柴油,包含10%(B10)、30%(B30)、50%(B50)、75%(B75)以及100%(B100)等。醛酮類化合物分析係利用高效能液相層析儀(HPLC)進行之,尾氣總毒性試驗則以人類肺支氣管上皮細胞(Beas-2B)進行細胞存活率試驗(MTT assay)予以判定。
實驗結果顯示五種配比生質柴油皆會使Carbonyls排放濃度高於柴油D,其中又以油品B50最為顯著;在其餘四種配比生質柴油中,Carbonyls排放濃度與生質柴油摻配比例(%)有正相關性。在四種發電機輸出功率(0 kW、4 kW、13 kW及22 kW)測試下,油品B10之Carbonyls排放濃度皆高於柴油D,而兩油品在引擎怠轉(輸出功率0 kW)以外的三種功率測試中,Carbonyls排放濃度與發電機輸出功率(kW)有負相關性。尾氣中Carbonyls主要貢獻物種為乙醛,其次是甲醛、丙酮以及丙烯醛,此4個主要醛酮物種佔Carbonyls總排放濃度的75%(B100)至90%(B10)。
由MTT assay結果發現,各油品所致引擎排放氣狀污染物之細胞毒性均高於粒狀污染物,尾氣細胞總毒性與生質柴油配比並無相關性,使用油品B50將使引擎尾氣具有最高毒性,其次為B75及B10。在四種發電機輸出功率(0 kW、4 kW、13 kW及22 kW)測試下,油品B10所致尾氣細胞總毒性皆高於柴油D,而兩油品在最大輸出功率測試中,皆可大幅降低尾氣總毒性。
The characteristics of carbonyl compounds (carbonyls) emissions and cytotoxicity of engine exhaust from a diesel generator fueled with pure palm-biodiesel (B100) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 10% (B10), 30% (B30), 50% (B50) and 75% (B75) and pure fossil diesel (D) were investigated. The effects of varying output power of generator were also studied carefully. The carbonyls analyses were performed using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the in vitro toxicity with the human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) was evaluated by MTT assay.
The results of this study showed that total carbonyls emission concentration from five different blended biodiesels were higher than those from D, with the maximum total carbonyls emission found in B50 test. For other biodiesel tests, there was a positive correlation between the total carbonyls concentration and the biodiesel blended percentage (%). At all output power levels (0 kW, 4 kW, 13 kW and 22 kW), the B10 was observed to have higher total carbonyls emissions than that from the pure fossil diesel D. In the three non-idling tests, a negative correlation was found between the total carbonyls concentration and the output power (kW) in D and B10 runs. Acetaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl compound in the exhaust, followed by formaldehyde, acetone and acrolein. These four major carbonyls emissions (MCE) accounted for 75% (B100) to 90% (B10) in total carbonyls concentration.
The results of MTT assay showed that the cytotoxicity of engine exhaust gas was higher than the particulates in all tested fuel. The cytotoxicity of exhaust did not increase with the biodiesel blended percentage, a high cytotoxicity was found while engine was fueled with B10, B50 and B75, especially B50. Compared with D, the B10 was observed to exhibit higher total cytotoxicity at all output power levels (0 kW, 4 kW, 13 kW and 22 kW), and the lowest cytotoxicity of engine exhaust from D and B10 was both found at the maximum output power.
第一章 前言
1-1 研究緣起……………………………………………………1
1-2 研究目的……………………………………………………4

第二章 文獻回顧
2-1 柴油引擎污染排放研究……………………………………5
2-1-1 柴油引擎概述……………………………………………5
2-1-2 柴油引擎排氣特性………………………………………6
2-1-3 柴油引擎污染物排放特徵及健康危害性………………6
2-1-4 柴油引擎尾氣毒性特徵…………………………………8
2-2 醛酮類化合物研究…………………………………………10
2-2-1 醛酮類化合物之來源與生成機制………………………11
2-2-2 醛酮類化合物之濃度分佈特性…………………………11
2-2-3 醛酮類化合物之大氣反應特性…………………………12
2-2-4 醛酮類化合物之健康危害性……………………………13
2-2-5 柴油引擎醛酮類化合物排放特徵………………………15
2-3 生質柴油發展與應用………………………………………22
2-3-1 生質柴油發展趨勢………………………………………22
2-3-2 生質柴油製造原理………………………………………23
2-3-3 生質柴油物化及生物特性………………………………24
2-3-4 生質柴油之引擎污染物排放特徵………………………25

第三章 研究方法及設備
3-1 研究架構……………………………………………………30
3-2 引擎尾氣採樣設備…………………………………………32
3-2-1 測試油品…………………………………………………32
3-2-2 污染物之收集材料………………………………………32
3-2-3 柴油引擎發電機…………………………………………33
3-2-4 引擎尾氣冷凝器及其他周邊設備………………………34
3-3 引擎尾氣採樣方法…………………………………………37
3-3-1 採樣前工作………………………………………………37
3-3-2 採樣系統程序……………………………………………38
3-4 引擎尾氣分析設備及方法…………………………………41
3-4-1 傳統空氣污染物分析……………………………………41
3-4-2 醛酮類化合物分析………………………………………41
3-4-3 細胞存活率試驗 (MTT assay)…………………………43
3-5 數據處理……………………………………………………50
3-5-1 醛酮類化合物排放濃度及係數計算……………………50
3-5-2 引擎尾氣污染物所致細胞存活率計算…………………51

第四章 品質保證與品質管制
4-1 採樣程序之QA/QC …………………………………………52
4-2 醛酮類化合物分析程序之QA/QC …………………………53
4-3 生物毒性分析程序之QA/QC ………………………………57

第五章 結果與討論
5-1 引擎使用生質柴油所排放CO、NOX 及PM特徵解析………59
5-2 引擎使用生質柴油所排放醛酮類化合物特徵解析………64
5-2-1 引擎排放Carbonyls濃度特徵 …………………………64
5-2-2 引擎排放Carbonyls組成解析 …………………………65
5-2-3 單位油耗Carbonyls排放係數特徵 ……………………66
5-3 引擎於不同負載下所排放醛酮類化合物特徵解析………70
5-3-1 不同負載下Carbonyls濃度特徵 ………………………70
5-3-2 不同負載下Carbonyls組成解析 ………………………71
5-3-3 不同負載下單位時間功率Carbonyls排放係數特徵 …72
5-3-4 不同負載下單位油耗Carbonyls排放係數特徵 ………73
5-4 生物毒性特徵評估…………………………………………80
5-4-1 使用生質柴油引擎尾氣細胞毒性特徵…………………80
5-4-2 不同負載下引擎尾氣細胞毒性特徵……………………81
5-4-3 引擎尾氣細胞毒性與Carbonyls排放濃度之關聯 ……82

第六章 結論與建議
6-1 結論…………………………………………………………86
6-2 建議…………………………………………………………88

參考文獻…………………………………………………………89
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