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研究生:蔡婉楹
研究生(外文):Wan-ying Tsai
論文名稱:好氧及厭氧生物程序處理含油脂廢水與生質能之回收
論文名稱(外文):Aerobic and anaerobic bioprocess study for bioenergy recovery of oily food processing wastewater
指導教授:鄭幸雄鄭幸雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sheng-Shung Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:144
中文關鍵詞:基因選殖冰品廢液油脂好氧-厭氧產氫-厭氧甲烷三段式生物程序Jet噴射導流管
外文關鍵詞:anaerobic hydrogen fermentation and anaerobic meice cream refuseJet loopthree-stage processes of aerobic hydrolysisoil and greaseclone library
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本研究採用好氧-厭氧產氫-厭氧甲烷之三段式模場形式流體化床反應槽,反應體積分別為1000 L、69 L與110 L,進行含油廢水的階段式處理程序。先使含油廢水進入好氧系統進行油脂部份氧化,避免高濃度油脂對厭氧微生物造成傷害,再依序進入厭氧產氫槽及厭氧甲烷槽,並添加冰品廢液提高厭氧槽負荷以增加生物氣體的產量,評估油脂轉化為生質能源的可行性。好氧及厭氧反應槽各連續操作600與270天後,好氧槽部分總油脂轉換率可達60~80%在約2 kgCOD/m3-day 有機負荷下(0.2~1.0 gO&G/L) ,但油脂所形成的浮渣與微生物的大量流失成為了操作中最大的問題,由好氧反應槽中微生物之DGGE圖譜可發現具有油脂分解能力的Staphylococcus pasteur可長時間存在於反應槽中。厭氧系統總基質去除率約有87 %,且在20 kgCOD/m3-day(2 gO&G/L)的高負荷條件下,獲得0.12 L-H2/L-day(0.24 mm-H2/g-COD)及1 L-CH4/L-day(4.07 mm-CH4/g-COD)的生質能源,而槽內pH控制情況嚴重影響著厭氧產氣率大的好壞,並在操作過程中發現,冰品廢液中的高濃度油脂(2 gO&G/L)在厭氧槽體大量累積,而無法被生物順利分解。以T-RFLP結果顯示厭氧產氫槽中具產氫能力之Clostridium存在,甲烷槽中則以 Methanosaetaceae為主要菌群。
有鑑於模場操作經驗,為實際有效提升油脂好氧部分氧化效能,且提供微生物與基質有效接觸,避免好氧微生物的大量流失,故於實驗室設置一改良式的內部循環流式固定接觸曝氣槽,以Jet噴射導流管形式達到內部循環效果與氣體的供應,實驗結果發現,改良式反應槽在低氣體供應條件下(QG=3.6*10-3 m3/h),可獲得KLa為205 hr-1的高氧傳表現,且在反應槽的流力帶動下,創新式Bioweb生物載體可具有0.44 gVSS/gBioweb與175 mgO&G/gBioweb的吸附截留能力。
以高油脂含量冰品廢液為反應基質,將植種菌源固定於Bioweb載體進行好氧生物活性的測試,可得到6.3 mgO2/gVSS-hr 的S.OUR活性表現。內部循環流式固定接觸曝氣槽在1.6 kgCOD/m3-day (2 gO&G/L)的有機負荷下,經120天的長期操作,可達到96%的總COD降解效果及99%的油脂去除率,相較於傳統活性污泥有極高的油脂降解性。以內部循環流式固定接觸曝氣槽中載體的微生物進行 16S rDNA 基因選殖(clone library)及 DNA 定序(sequencing)實驗,在挑選的 161 個 clones 中發現 42 個 OTUs(operational taxonomic units)。可發現反應槽中同時存在好氧、厭氧與兼性菌,以Caldilinea aerophila (12.4%)為最主要的微生物菌群,另外還具有產生amylase 能力之Caldimonas taiwanensis strain On1與具有產生lipase基因序列的Schlegelella thermodepolymerans strain SA1,並發現其中有7個OTUs (19.9%)比對結果都具有分解碳氫化合物之能力
在厭氧產氫菌與甲烷菌的生物活性測試中,35℃中溫產氫菌在So/Xo =10.8的條件下,可獲得最佳yield約1.8 mmol-H2/g-COD。而55℃高溫產氫菌在So/Xo =12的條件下,可獲得最大產氫產率約2.0 mmol-H2/g-COD,而過程中高溫甲烷菌的添加則能有效提高油脂降解率至28%。
Three-stage processes of aerobic hydrolysis, anaerobic hydrogen fermentation and anaerobic methane fermentation were conducted to enhance the biodegradation and bioenergy recovery with pilot plant study. Adding granular activated carbon and diatomaceous earth as bacterial carrier in the aerobic fluidized bed was performed to increased mass transfer efficiency. Within 600 days of continuously operation, 60~80% of oil-and-grease were degraded in aerobic reactor at 2 kgCOD/m3-day of the volumetric loading rate (0.2~1.0 gO&G/L). With denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, Staphylococcus pasteur was found to be capable for oily compound degradation and always appeared in all the operation periods. At the second stage, the ice cream refuse was applied as the auxiliary substrate and co-fermented with aerobic tank effluent. With 270 days of operation and 20 kg-COD/m3/day (2 gO&G/L) of loading rate, 87% of substrate removal and 0.12 L /L-day of hydrogen producing rate were occurred (0.24 mm-H2/g-COD). At the third stage, the methane producing rate was 1 L/L-day (4.07 mm-CH4/g-COD). Clostridium cluster and Methanosaetaceae were the major microorganisms in the anaerobic hydrogen fermentation reactor and the anaerobic methane fermentation reactor via Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses.
Lab-scale fixed contact aerobic reactor with internal recycle was set up for oil-and-grease contained wastewater degradation. Jet loop design could get high oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa) as 205 hr-1 even with low air supply (QG=3.6*10-3 m3/h). The biomass growth on unit carrier was about 0.44 g/g-Bioweb and the oily compound absorption were amounted to 175 mg/g-Bioweb. The batch test for bacterial activity measurement was also studied, and the best specific oxygen uptake rate of 6.3 mg-O2/g-VSS/hr were achieved. With 120 days of operation, 96% of total chemical oxygen demand and 99% of oil and grease were removed with the volumetric loading rate of 1.6 kgCOD/m3-day (2 gO&G/L). According to the results of 16S rDNA based clone library, there were 42 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in 161 clones. 12.4% of clones could be identified as Caldilinea aerophila (93% of similarity). Caldimonas taiwanensis strain On1 (99% of similarity, 3.1% of abondence) was capable for amylase excretion, and Schlegelella thermodepolymerans strain SA1 (96% of similarity, 1.9% of abondence) was capable for lipase excretion. There were 7 OTUs found to be hydrocarbon compound degrading bacteria. The 35℃ of anaerobic biochemical hydrogen potential test was studied. The best yield of 1.8 mmol-H2/g-COD was observed when the mixture of ice cream refuse was applied for substrate and the food-microbial ratio (So/Xo) equals to 10.8. The 55℃ of anaerobic biochemical hydrogen potential test was also studied. The best yield with the mixture of ice cream refuse as substrate was 2.0 mmol-H2/g-COD when the testing condition was set at So/Xo = 12. 28% of oily compound degradation was achieved when methanogens was added in this system.
中文摘要..........................................................................................................V
Abstract ........................................................................................................VII
致謝................................................................................................................ IX
目錄..................................................................................................................X
表目錄.........................................................................................................XIII
圖目錄...........................................................................................................XV
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1. 油脂(Oil and Grease, O&G)之結構特性與生物分解機制 3
2-1-1. 油脂(Oil and Grease, O&G)與脂肪酸之組成結構與特性 3
2-1-2. 現今含油廢水處理現況 7
2-1-3. 油脂之生物分解機制與代謝途徑 9
2-1-4. Lipase水解酵素於含油廢水之應用 13
2-2. 噴射流導管流體系統之應用與設計因子 17
2-2-1. 噴射流導管流體系統 17
2-2-2. 噴射流導管流體系統設計與氧傳係數影響關係 18
2-2-3. 下流式噴射流導流管流體化床於廢水處理程序之應用 26
2-3. 吸附擔體於流體化床廢水處理程序之應用 28
2-3-1. 吸附理論 28
2-3-2. 影響吸附作用之因子 28
2-3-3. 等溫吸附模式 30
2-3-4. 活性碳之吸附 33
2-3-5. 矽藻土之吸附 35
2-3-6. 吸附劑之生物附著性 37
第三章 研究材料與方法 39
3-1. 反應槽設置 39
3-1-1. 內部循環流之接觸曝氣反應槽 39
3-1-2. 三段式好氧厭氧生物反應槽 41
3-2. 水質分析項目與使用儀器 47
3-2-1. ㄧ般水質分析項目 47
3-2-2. 儀器分析 48
3-3. 生物反應器流力實驗設備 50
3-3-1. 槽體總氧傳係數(Overall oxygen transfer coefficient , KLa)之測定 50
3-3-2. 槽體循流流況之測定 50
3-4. 生物活性檢測法 51
3-4-1. 氣泡呼吸儀好氧生物比攝氧速率試驗(Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate ,S.OUR) 51
3-4-2. 批分次生化產氫潛能試驗( Biochemical Hydrogen Potential test , BHP test) 53
3-5. 掃描式電子顯微鏡 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) 55
3-6. 分子生物技術 56
3-6-1. 總DNA萃取 56
3-6-2. 聚合酵素連鎖反應(Polymerase Chain Reaction, PCR) 57
3-6-3. 變性梯度明膠電泳 (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis , DGGE) 59
3-6-4. 尾端修飾限制片段長度多形性(T-RFLP) 61
3-6-5. 16S rDNA基因選殖實驗(clone library) 63
第四章 結果與討論 65
4-1. 油脂類廢水與廢棄物特性分析 65
4-2. 模場規模好氧向下噴射流流體化床之流力特性研究 68
4-2-1. 模場規模好氧向下噴射流流體化床之流況特性探討 68
4-2-2. 模場規模好氧向下噴射流流體化床總氧傳特性探討 72
4-3. 三段式模場規模反應槽試程功能之探討 73
4-3-1. 好氧流體化床油脂處理反應槽之操作程序與水質分析 73
4-3-2. 厭氧產氫槽之操作程序與水質分析 75
4-3-3. 厭氧甲烷槽之操作程序與水質分析 79
4-3-4. 好氧流體化床微生物菌相與菌群結構探討 82
4-3-5. 厭氧產氫槽微生物菌相與菌群結構探討 85
4-3-6. 厭氧甲烷槽微生物菌相與菌群結構探討 88
4-4. 實驗室規模內部循環流式接觸曝氣反應槽之流力特性探討 92
4-4-1. 實驗室規模內部循環流式接觸曝氣反應槽之氧傳效能(K La) 探討 92
4-4-2. 實驗室規模內部循環流式接觸曝氣反應槽流力型式探討 96
4-5. Bioweb載體之基質與生物吸附性研究 97
4-5-1. Bioweb吸附載體表面特性探討 97
4-5-2. Bioweb載體於反應槽內之微生物附著特性 98
4-5-3. Bioweb載體於反應槽內之油脂附著特性 99
4-6. 油脂好氧分解活性測試 101
4-7. 實驗室規模內部循環流式接觸曝氣反應槽操作 106
4-7-1. 內部循環流式接觸曝氣反應槽之功能表現與微生物生態 106
4-7-2. 內部循環流式接觸曝氣反應槽之微生物菌相與菌群結構探討 110
4-7-3. 含油脂廢品生物處理與文獻之比較 120
4-8. 厭氧油脂分解菌之生化產氫與產甲烷潛能探討 124
4-8-1. 中溫厭氧產氫菌分解油脂之生化產氫潛能測試 124
4-8-2. 高溫厭氧微生物分解油脂之生化產氫與產甲烷潛能測試 126
第五章 結論與建議 131
5-1. 結論 131
5-2. 建議 133
第六章 參考文獻 135
自述 144
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