跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(18.205.192.201) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/05 11:04
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:侯孝中
研究生(外文):Hsiao-Chung Hou
論文名稱:大氣中戴奧辛/口夫喃之乾濕沉降研究
論文名稱(外文):Both Dry and Wet Depositions of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in the Atmosphere
指導教授:李文智李文智引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Jhy Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:139
中文關鍵詞:濕沉降大氣乾沉降口夫喃戴奧辛
外文關鍵詞:Dry depositionFuransDioxinsWet depositionAtmosphere
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:254
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:51
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究目的為了解不同人為活動型態所造成之PCDD/Fs乾濕沉降差異及全年PCDD/Fs乾濕沉降量變化情形,本研究分別針對商業都會郊區、工業都會區、鄰海鄉鎮區及農業鄉鎮區等四種不同性質地區進行四季大氣中PCDD/Fs濃度之採樣調查,並配合PCDD/Fs乾濕沉降模式模擬得知各月份大氣中PCDD/Fs乾濕沉降通量,且進一步釐清大氣中PCDD/Fs乾濕沉降通量與氣候條件之相關性。本研究發現大氣中PCDD/Fs濃度皆以粒狀物相為主,而位於台灣北部及中部之商業都會郊區、工業都會區及鄰海鄉鎮區大氣中PCDD/Fs平均濃度皆以冬季大氣中PCDD/Fs平均濃度較高,春季最低;位於台灣南部之農業鄉鎮區大氣中PCDD/Fs平均濃度則以春季大氣中PCDD/Fs平均濃度較高,夏季最低。乾沉降通量部分,商業都會郊區、工業都會區、鄰海鄉鎮區及農業鄉鎮區四季之PCDD/Fs乾沉降行為均以粒狀物相沉降為主;商業都會郊區、工業都會區及鄰海鄉鎮區夏季及冬季之PCDD/Fs乾沉降通量較高,春季及秋季之PCDD/Fs乾沉降通量較低,然而由於農業鄉鎮區之春季大氣PCDD/Fs採樣濃度偏高,因此農業鄉鎮區則以春季及冬季之PCDD/Fs乾沉降通量較高,夏季及秋季之PCDD/Fs乾沉降通量較低;PCDD/Fs乾沉降通量與各項氣候條件僅具有中度或低度相關性,而農業鄉鎮區之PCDD/Fs I-TEQ乾沉降通量則與氣溫存在高度負相關性。濕沉降通量方面,商業都會郊區、工業都會區、鄰海鄉鎮區及農業鄉鎮區四季之PCDD/Fs濕沉降行為均以粒狀物相下洗機制為主;商業都會郊區、工業都會區、鄰海鄉鎮區及農業鄉鎮區受梅雨、颱風及東北季風所夾帶雨量之影響,導致PCDD/Fs濃度濕沉降逐月通量呈現雙峰或三峰之現象;降雨量及相對濕度存在高度正相關性,而與PM10及PM10/PM2.5比呈現高度負相關。總沉降通量方面,商業都會郊區、工業都會區、鄰海鄉鎮區及農業鄉鎮區之PCDD/Fs沉降行為皆以乾沉降為主,且地區性人為活動型態對總PCDD/Fs沉降量存在顯著之影響。總PCDD/Fs沉降通量與降雨量呈現高度正相關,然而與其他氣象條件僅具有中度或低度相關性。總PCDD/FsI-TEQ濃度沉降通量與所有氣象條件均僅具有中度或低度相關性,表示各氣象條件皆對總PCDD/FsI-TEQ濃度沉降通量有一定之影響程度。
The objectives of the present study were to know the differences and the annual variances of the dry and wet depositions of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between kinds of areas. A commercial suburban area, an industrial urban area, a coastal rural area and an agricultural rural area were chosen to seasonally sample the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the atmosphere in each kind of area. Then, the dry and wet monthly deposition fluxes of PCDD/Fs were calculated from the seasonally concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the atmosphere with the dry/wet deposition models. This research indicated that the most PCDD/Fs were adsorbed on the surface of the particulates in the atmosphere. The atmospheric concentractions of PCDD/Fs in the commercial suburban area, the industrial urban area and the coastal rural area which all were located in the north Taiwan were higher in winter and lower in spring, whether those in the agricultural rural area located in the south Taiwan were higher in spring and lower in summer. For dry depositions, the dominant mechanism of the dry deposition was the particle-phase deposition. The dry deposition fluxes of PCDD/Fs in the commercial suburban area, the industrial urban area and the coastal rural area in spring and autumn were higher than those in summer and winter, though othes in the agricultural rural area were higher in spring and winter. The dry deposition fluxes of PCDD/Fs highly negative-correlated with the ambient temperatures. For wet depositions, the dominant mechanism of the wet deposition was the particle scavenging. Due to the rainy season of the plum rains, the typhoons and the eastern-north monsoons, the wet depositions fluxes of PCDD/Fs were two- or three-peaks phase distributions within monthes. The wet deposition fluxes of PCDD/Fs highly positive-correlated with the rainfall and the relative humidity, but negative-correlated with the ambient PM10 concentraction and PM10/PM2.5 ratio. For total depositions, the dry deposition was more important the the wet deposition of PCDD/Fs to total depositions, and the artificial activities influence the fluxes of total depositions of PCDD/Fs. The fluxes of total depositions of PCDD/Fs highly positive-correlated with the rainfall, however, the fluxes of total depositions of PCDD/Fs just lowly or medially correlated with the meteorological conditions.
摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
致謝 V
總目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 XI
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 2
2-1 PCDD/Fs之物理化學性質 2
2-2 PCDD/Fs對人體健康及環境的可能影響 3
2-3 PCDD/Fs之形成機制 7
2-3-1 de Novo合成反應 7
2-3-2 經由前驅物質之異相觸媒合成 10
2-3-3 PCDDs與PCDFs形成機制之相異處 10
2-4 環境中PCDD/Fs之來源 11
2-5大氣中之PCDD/Fs 17
2-5-1影響大氣中PCDD/Fs濃度之因子 17
2-5-2大氣中PCDD/Fs之趨勢 17
2-6污染物之環境傳輸 18
2-7氣相-粒狀物相分佈 21
2-8 PCDD/Fs乾沉降 22
2-9 PCDD/Fs濕沉降 23
2-10受體模式 26
2-10-1受體模式之基本理論 26
2-10-2特徵分析(Signature Analyses) 27
第三章 研究方法及實驗步驟 34
3-1研究架構 34
3-2採樣點之規劃 35
3-2-1採樣點決定 35
3-2-2空氣品質ISCST3擴散模式 35
3-2-3採樣點期程 40
3-3 採樣分析方法 48
3-3-1大氣PCDD/Fs採樣 48
3-3-1-1 PS-1高量空氣採樣器 48
3-3-1-2 氣固相採樣模組 48
3-3-1-3 流量校正 52
3-3-1-4 PCDD/Fs大氣採樣方法 57
3-3-1-5 PCDD/Fs大氣採樣之標準流量與體積 58
3-3-2 PCDD/Fs樣品之前處理 59
3-3-3 PCDD/Fs之儀器分析 62
3-3-3-1 高解析度氣相層析儀操作條件 62
3-3-3-2 高解析度質譜儀操作條件 62
3-3-3-3鑑定準則 66
3-3-3-4定量準則 66
3-3-4 品質保證與品質控制 67
3-3-4-1 實驗藥品與試劑 67
3-3-4-2大氣採樣 72
3-3-4-3 PCDD/Fs樣品分析前處理 75
3-3-4-4 實驗室PCDD/Fs測試能力範圍 76
3-3-4-5 高解析度氣相層析儀與高解析度質譜儀 76
3-3-4-6質譜圖鑑定準則 79
3-3-4-7實驗室品管程序 79
第四章 結果與討論 81
4-1不同性質地區大氣中PCDD/Fs之特徵 81
4-2不同性質地區大氣中PCDD/Fs之氣相-粒狀物相分佈 90
4-3不同性質地區大氣中PCDD/Fs之乾沉降量 98
4-3-1不同性質地區大氣中PCDD乾沉降特徵 98
4-3-2大氣中PCDD乾沉降通量與氣候條件相關性比較 103
4-4不同性質地區大氣中PCDD/Fs之濕沉降量 106
4-4-1不同性質地區大氣中PCDD濕沉降特徵 106
4-4-2大氣中PCDD濕沉降通量與氣候條件相關性比較 112
4-4-3不同性質地區之雨水中PCDD/Fs濃度 116
4-5不同性質地區大氣中PCDD/Fs之總沉降量 120
4-5-1不同性質地區大氣中PCDD總沉降特徵 120
4-5-2大氣中PCDD總沉降通量與氣候條件相關性比較 126
第五章 結論與建議 128
5-1結論 128
5-2建議 131
參考文獻 132
Alcock, R. E.; Jones, K. C. “Dioxins in the Environment: a Review of Trend Data” Environmental Science & Technology Vol. 30, pp. 3133-3143, 1996.
Alcock, R. E., Sweetman, A. J., Anderson, D. R., Fisher, R., Jennings, R., Jones, K. C. “Using PCDD/F congener patterns to determine the source of elevated TEQ concentrations in cows milk: a case study”, Chemosphere, Vol 46, pp.383-391, 2002.
Ballschmiter, K.; Zoller, W.; Buchert, H.; Class, T. F. Z. Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 322, pp. 587, 1985.
Bidleman, T. F.; Billing, W. N.; Foreman, W. T. “Vapor-particle partition of semivolatile organic compounds: estimates from field collections” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol.20, pp.1038-1043,1986.
Blifford, I. H.; Meeker, G. O. “A Factor Analysis Model of Large Scale Pollution”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 1, pp. 147-157, 1967.
Buekens, A.; Cornelis, E.; Huang, H.; Dewettinck, T. “Fingerprints of Dioxin from Thermal Industrial Processes” Chemosphere, Vol. 40, pp. 1021-1024, 2000.
Cains, P. W.; Mccausland, L. J.; Fernandes, A. R.; Dyke, P. “Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans Formation in Incineration: Effects of Fly Ash and Carbon Source” Environmental Science and Technology , Vol.31, pp. 776-785, 1997.
Caserini, S.; Monguzzi, A. M. “PCDD/Fs Emissions Inventory in the Lombardy Region: Results and Uncertainties” Chemosphere, Vol.48, pp. 779-786, 2002.
Chang, M. B.; Weng, Y. M.; Lee, T. Y.; Chen, Y. W.; Chang, S. H.; Chi, K. H. “Sampling and analysis of ambient dioxins in norther Taiwan” Chemsphere, Vol.51, pp. 1103-1110, 2003.
Chao, M. R.; Hu, C. W.; Chen, Y. L.; Chang-Chien, G. P.; Lee, W. J.; Chang, L. W.; Lee, W. S.; Wu, K. Y. “Approaching gas-particle partitioning equilibrium of atmospheric PCDD/Fs with increasing distance from an incinerator: measurements and observations on modeling” Atmospheric Enviroment, Vol. 38, pp.1501-1510, 2004.
Cleverly, D.; Schaum, J.; Winter, D.; Schweer, G.; O'Rourke, K. “The Inventory of Sources of Dioxin in the United States”, Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 36, pp. 1-6, 1998.
Dickson, L. C.; Lenoir, D.; Hutzinger, O. “Quantitative Comparison of de Novo and Formation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins under Simulated Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Postcombustion Conditions” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 26, pp. 1822-1828, 1992.
Dickson, L. C.; Lenoir, D.; Hutzinger, O. “Surface-catalyzed Formation of Chlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans during Incineration”, Chemosphere, Vol. 19, pp. 277-282, 1989.
Donnelly, J. R.; Munslow, W. D.; Mitchum, R. K.; Sovocool, G. W. “Correlation of structure with retention index for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins” Journal of Chromatography, Vol. 392, pp. 51-63, 1987.
Eitzer, B. D.; Hites, R.A. “Vapor pressures of chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 22, pp. 1362-1364, 1988.
Eitzer, B. D.; Hites, R.A. “Atmospheric transport and deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 23, pp. 1396-1401, 1989.
Eltzer, B. D. “Comparison of Point and Nonpoint Sources of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans to Sediments of the Housatonic River” Environmental Science & Technology Vol. 27, pp. 1632-1637, 1993.
Everaert, K.; Baeyens, J. “The Formation and Emission of Dioxins in Large Scale Thermal Processes” Chemosphere, Vol. 46, pp. 439-448, 2002.
Fang, G. C.; Wu, Y. S.; Wen, C. C.; Huang, S. H.; Rau, J. Y. “Ambient air particulate concentractions and metallic elements principal component analysis at Taichung Harbor (TH) and WuChi Traffic (WT) near Taiwan Strait during 2004-2005” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. B137, pp. 314-323, 2006.
Hagenmaier, H.; Kraft, M.; Brunner, H.; Haag, R. “Catalytic Effects of Fly Ash from Waste Incineration Facilities on the Decomposition of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 21, pp. 1080-1084, 1987.
Hagenmaler, H.; Undig, C.; She, J. “Correlation of Environmental Occurance of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans with Possible Sources” Organohalogen Compounds, pp.271-274, 1993.
Hale, M. D.; Hileman, F. D.; Mazer, T.; Shell, T. L.; Noble, R. W.; Brooks, J. J. “Mathematical modeling of temperature programmed capillary gas chromatographic retention indexes for polychlorinated dibenzofurans” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 57, pp. 640-648, 1985.
Hanna, S.R. “Applications in air pollution modelling. In: Nieuwstadt, F.T.M. and Van Dop, H., Editors, 1982” Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Pollution Modelling, Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 275–310, 1982.
Hell, K.; Altwicker, E. R.; Stieglitz, L.; Addink, R. “Comparison of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Conversion to PCDD/PCDF on A MSWI-Fly Ash and A Model Fly Ash” Chemosphere, Vol. 40, pp. 995-1001, 2000.
Hiester, E.; Bruckman, P.; Bohm, R.; Eynck, P.; M�刜der, A.; Ristow, W. Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 24, pp. 147-152, 1995.
Holsen, T. M.; Taylor, E. R.; Seo, Y. C.; Anderson, P. R. “Removal of sparingly souluble organic chemicals from aqueous solutions with surfactant-coated ferrihydrite” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol.25, pp.1585-1589, 1991.
Hung, H.; Blanchard, P.; Poole, G.; Thibert, B.; Chiu, C. H. “Measurement of particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Arctic air at Alert, Nunavut, Canada” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.36, pp.1041-1050, 2002.
Iino, F.; Imagawa, T.; Takeuchi, M.; Sadakata, M.; Weber, R. “Formation Rates of Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Dibenzo-p-Dioxins from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Activated Carbon and Phenol” Chemosphere, Vol. 39, pp. 2749-2756, 1999.
Japan Ministry of the Environment, The Environmental Monitoring Report on the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Japan. 2002.
Jimenez, B.; Hermandez, L. M.; Gonzalez, M. J. “Congerner, Specific Analysis of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Crabs and Sediments from the Vince and Orbello, Lagoons, Italy” Environmental Science & Technology Vol. 32, pp. 3853-3861, 1998.
Jolliffe, I. T. Principal Component Analysis, Springer-Verlag, 1986.
Junge , C.E., Fate of Pollutants in the Air and Water Environments, Part I, Wiley, New York, pp. 7–26, 1977.
Karasek, F. W.; Dickson, L. C. Science, Vol. 237, pp.754, 1987.
Leeuwen, F. X. R.; Feeley, M.; Schrenk, D.; Larsen, J. C.; Farland, W.; Younes, M. “Dioxins: WHO’s Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) Revisited” Chemosphere, Vol. 40, pp. 1095-1101, 2000.
Lee, W.J.; Lin Lewis, S. J.; Chen, Y. Y.; Wang, Y. F.; Sheu, H. L.; Su, C. C.; Fan, Y. C. “Polychlorinated biphenyls in the ambient air of petroleum refinery, urban and rural areas” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.30, pp.2371-2378, 1996.
Lohmann, R.; Jones, K. C. The Science of the Total Environment Vol. 219, 53, 1998.
Lohmann, R.; Nelson, E.; Eisenreich, S.; Jones, K. C. “Evidence for Dynamic Air-Water Exchange of PCDD/Fs: A Study in the Rarttan Bay/Hudson River Estuary” The Science of the Total Environment Vol. 34, pp. 3086-3093, 2000.
Luijk, R.; Akkerman, D. M.; Slot, P.; Olie, K.; Kapteijn, F. “Mechanism of Formation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in the Catalyzed Combustion of Carbon”, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 28, pp.312-321, 1994.
McKay, G. “Dioxin Characterisation, Formation and Minimisation during Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Incineration: Review”, Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 86, pp. 343-368, 2002.
Milligan, M. S.; Altwicker, E. “The Relationship between de Novo Synthesis of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Low-Temperature Carbon Gasification in Fly Ash” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 27, pp.1595-1601, 1993.
Okamoto, Y; Tomonari, M. “Formation Pathways from 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol (TCP) to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs): An Ab Initio Study” The Journal of Physical Chemistry A., Vol. 103, pp. 7686-7691, 1999.
Olie, K.; Vermeulen, P. L.; Hutzinger, O. “Chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and Chlorodibenzofurans Are Trace Components of Fly Ash and Flue Gas of Some Municipal Incinerators in the Netherlands” Chemosphere, Vol. 6, pp. 455-459, 1977.
Olie, K.; Vermeulen, P. L.; Hutzinger, O. “Chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and Chlorodibenzofurans Are Trace Components of Fly Ash and Flue Gas of Some Municipal Incinerators in the Netherlands” Chemosphere, Vol. 6, pp. 455-459, 1977.
Pankow, J.F. “An absorption model of the gas/aerosol partitioning involved in the formation secondary organic aerosol” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 21 , pp. 2275–2283, 1987
Pankow, J.F. “An adsorption model of gas/particle partitioning of organic compounds in the atmosphere” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 28, pp. 185–188, 1994.
Pankow, J.F. “A Simple Box Model for the Annual Cycle of Partitioning of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds Between the Atmosphere and the Earth's Surface” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 27a, pp. 1139–1152, 1993.
Pankow, J.F. “Commom y-intercept and single compound regressions of gas-particle partitioning data vs. 1/T” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.25A, pp.2229-2239, 1991.
Pankow, J.F.; Bidleman, T. F. “Interdependence of the slopes and intercepts from log-log correlations of measured gas-particle partitioning and vapor pressure-I Theory and analysis of available data” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.26A, pp.1071-1080, 1992.
Qua��, U.; Fermann, M. W.; Br�刌er, G. “Steps Towards A European Dioxin Emission Inventory” Chemosphere, Vol. 40, pp. 1125-1129, 2000.
Radke, LF “Scavenging of Aerosol Particles by Precipitation” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 19, Issue 6, pp.715-722, 1980.
Rigo, H. G.; Chandler, A. J.; Lanier, W. S. “The Relationship Between Chlorine in Waste Streams and Dioxin Emissions from Waste Combustor Stacks” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1995.
Schr�丼er, J., Welsch-Pausch, K., McLachlan, M.S. ”Measurement of atmospheric deposition of polychrinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) to a soil“ Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 31, pp. 2983-2989, 1997.
Schuhmacher, M.; Granero, S.; Xifr��, A.; Domingo, J. L.; Rivera, J.; Eljarrat, E. “Levels of PCDD/Fs in Soil Samples in the Vicinity of a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator” Chemosphere Vol. 37, pp. 2127-2137, 1998.
Schwarz, G.; Steiglitz, L.; Roth, W. “Formation Conditions of Several Polychlorinated Compound Classes on Fly Ash of a Municipal Waste Incinerator” Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 3, pp. 169-172, 1990.
Sehmel, G. A. “Particle and gas dry deposition: a review”, Atomspheric Environment, Vol. 14, pp. 983-1011, 1980.
Sheu, H. L.; Lee, W. J.; Su, C. C.; Chao, H. R.; Fan, Y. C. “Dry deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air” Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 122, pp. 1101-1109, 1996.
Shih, M.; Lee, W. S.; Chang-Chien, G. P.; Wang, L. C.; Hung, C. Y.; Lin, K. C. “Dry deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air” Chemosphere, Vol. 62, pp. 411-416, 2006.
Slinn, W. G. N.; Hasse, L.; Hicks, B. B.; Hogan, A. W.; Lal, D.; Liss, P. S.; Munnich, K. O.; Sehmel, G. A.; Vittori, O. “Some aspects of the transfer of atmospheric trace constituents past the air-sea interface” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 12, pp. 2055-2087, 1978.
Stieglitz, L.; Vogg, H., Report KFK 4379, Laboratorium fur Isotopentechnik, Institut fur Heize Chemi, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 1988.
Tan, P.; Hurtado, I.; Neusch�厎z, D. “Thermodynamic Modeling of PCDD/Fs Formation in Thermal Processes” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 35, pp. 1867-1874, 2001.
Thurston, G. D.; Spengler, J. D. “A Quantitative Assessment of Source Contributions to Inhalable Particulate Matter Pollution in Metropolitan Boston” Atomospheric Environment, Vol. 19, pp. 9-25, 1985.
US EPA Alternative Control Techniques Document - NOx Emissions from Iron and Steel Mills. EPA-453/R-94-065, 1994c.
US EPA Combustion Emissions Technical Resource Document (CETRED), Report No. EPA 530-R-94-014, Washington, DC, 1994b.
US EPA Database of Sources of Environmental Releases of Dioxin like Compounds in the United States, EPA/600/C-01/012, 2001.
US EPA Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds, EPA/600/P-00/001Bb, 2000.
US EPA Health Assessment Document for 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds”, EPA/600/Bp-92/001c Estimating Exposure to Dioxin-Like Compounds, EPA/600/6-88/005Cb, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC, 1994a.
US EPA Locating and Estimating Air Emission from Source of Polycycle Organic Matter(POM), EPA-45014-84-007, 1987.
US EPA Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry. EPA/310-R-95-005, 1995.
US EPA The Inventory of Sources of Dioxin in the United States, EPA/600/P-98/002Aa, April 1998.
US EPA, Technical Implementation Document for EPA’s Boiler and Industrial Furnace Regulations. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. EPA-530-R-92-001, 1992b.
US EPA, Technical Support Document for HWC MACT Standards, Volume II, Miscellaneous Technical Issues, 1996.
US EPA, The Inventory of Sources of Dioxin in the United States (External Review Draft 2005). EPA/600/p-03/002a, 2005.
Wang, L. C.; Lee, W. J.; Lee, W. S.; Chang-Chien, G. P.; Tsai, P. J. “Major emission inventory of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in Taiwan”, Environmental Health Perspectives, Prepared for Submission, 2003a.
Wang, L. C.; Lee, W. J.; Lee, W. S.; Chang-Chien, G. P.; Tsai, P. J. “Effect of chlorine content in feeding wastes of incineration on the emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans”, The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 302, pp.185∼198, 2003b.
WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, “PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs: Prevention and Control of Accidental and Environmental Exposures” Environmental Health Series, Vol. 32, 1987.
Wiesenhahn, D. F.; Li, C. P.; Penner, S. S. “A Simplified Model for Dioxin and Furan Formation in Municipal-waste Incinerators” Energy, Vol. 13, pp. 225-237, 1988.
Wikstr�卌, E.; Marklund, S. “Secondary Formation of Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans, Biphenyls, Benzenes, and Phenols during MSW Combustion” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 34, pp. 604-609, 2000.
Williams, R. M., “A model for the dry deposition of particles to natural water surfaces” , Atomspheric Environment, Vol. 16, Issue 8, pp. 1933-1938, 1982.
Yamasaki, H.; Kuwata, K.; Miyamoto, H. “Effects of ambient temperature on sapects of airbone polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 16, pp. 189-194, 1982.
Yu, M.L.; Shin, C.W.; Hsu, C.C.; Chan, W.C.; Guo, Y.L. “The immunological evaluation of the Yucheng children” Chemosphere, Vol. 37, pp. 1855-65, 1998.
台南市政府環境保護局全球資訊網,http://www.tnepb.gov.tw/,2006。
楊錫賢,大氣環境中多環芳香烴化合物與金屬元素之特徵,國立成功大學環境工程學系博士論文,1997。
環保署,重型柴油車、柴油小客車及SUV車排放戴奧辛污染測試調查計畫,2006。
環保署,建立台灣地區戴奧辛排放清冊及排放資料庫計畫,EPA-92-FA12-03-A158,2004。
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊