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研究生:潘怡君
研究生(外文):Yi-Chun Pan
論文名稱:高中學生英語學習動機與大學入學考試的關係
論文名稱(外文):The Relationship between College Entrance Exam and English Learning Motivation of Senior High School Students
指導教授:黃淑真黃淑真引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Chen Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:英語教學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:外語學習動機考試高中
外文關鍵詞:L2 learning motivationExaminationHigh School
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英語學習動機一向被視為對於學習過程與學習成就有相當大的影響。在研究中,英語學習動機常被視為是穩定的情緒或心理表徵。然而,在最近文獻中,學者提出了過程模式(Process Model),認為學習動機可能在學習過程中產生變化(D�宁nyei & Ott��, 1998)。本研究採用此一觀點來探討英語學習動機的變化並對於面臨大學入學考試的四百二十七位高中三年級學生做了一項英語學習動機與大學入學考試關係的調查。
此份問卷兩次施測點分別為大學學力測驗前與後的兩星期。問卷中所包含的英語學習動機要素分別為,學生對學習英文的(1)學習慾望; (2)學習強度; (3)學習持續度; (4)自我效能。此外,學生對學習英文的態度、大學入學考試的成績及學生背景資料如:所屬類組、性別,皆屬於調查範圍,並用於相關分析與平均數差異考驗。
本次所提出的研究問題包括:
(1)英語學習動機與學生對考試的態度及考試結果的關係為何?
(2)不同成就、類組、性別的學生在學科能力測驗前後,英語學習動機的變化為何?
(3)要參加大學入學指定考試學生與不參加者的英語學習動機在大學學力測驗之後是否有顯著不同?

根據以上研究問題,本研究採用相關分析及平均數差異考驗分析所得資料,顯示如下:
(1)考試成績及學生對考試態度均與英語學習動機呈正相關。其中,學生的學習強度呈現與考試成績及學生對考試態度最高的相關係數,分別為.472及.426。
(2)英語學習動機在大學入學考試前後變化程度依各項動機要素而有不同。整體來說,在考後,學生的學習慾望、學習強度及學習持續力皆下降,唯有自我效能提高。但深入研究之後發現,高成就學習者動機變化比低成就學習者高,低成就學習者的英語學習動機並沒有顯著變化。此外,不同類組的學生,英語學習動機變化也不同。英語學習動機變化高到低依次如下:第一類組高於第三類組高於第二類組。再者,不同性別學生的英語學習動機變化也不同,女學生的英語學習動機較男學生高且變化較少。
(3)本研究發現,對於要參加大學入學指定考試學生與不參加的學生來說,除了學習持續力以外,其他的英語學習動機要素並無顯著不同。也就是說,對於兩組學生,在大學學力測驗之後,學習慾望、學習強度及自我效能並無顯著變化,但是,要參加大學入學指定考試的學生顯現出較高的學習持續力。
Language learning motivation plays an important role in both research and teaching; however, it used to be regarded as a constant emotional or mental trait. In the more recent literature, learning motivation has been regarded as fluctuating during the learning process (e.g. Williams & Burden, 1997; D�宁nyei & Ott��, 1998; Ushioda, 1998). However, this argumentation has not been well attested in EFL contexts in Asia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether and how English learning motivation changed during the process when the students were preparing for and taking the high-stakes college entrance examination.
Participants of this study are 427 EFL senior high school students facing the college entrance examination. Two questionnaires were administered before and after the exam. Motivational variables including desire to learn, motivational intensity, persistence, and self-efficacy were examined. Test motivation (students’ attitude toward the exam) and their test results were also used to compare with their learning motivation. Statistical analyses such as t tests and correlations were employed to explore the relationship between the examination and students’ English learning motivation.
The result indicated the following. First, our result showed that the more efforts the students made, the higher academic achievement the students got. Second, the result suggested that when the students regarded the examination as important, they showed more desire to learn the language, put more efforts on studying, and lasted longer, but they did not seem to feel confident. Besides, higher test motivation may not necessarily guarantee better test results. Third, in general, it was found that the students’ desire to learn English stayed relatively unchanged, put less effort and persisted shorter, but felt more confident in learning English after the exam. However, different groups of students showed different patterns of motivation according to their achievement, belonging to different academic tracks, gender and whether they took the second exam, the APE, or not.
Among the three groups, Track 1 students showed the highest self-efficacy than Track 3 students and Track 2 students (Track 1 > Track 3 > Track 2). Besides, for the decrease of motivational intensity and persistence, Track 1 students was higher than Track 3 and Track 2 students (Track 1 > Track 3 > Track 2). Here, the pattern reported that for students’ English learning motivation, the rankings were Track 1 > Track 3 > Track 2 students.
From the gender perspective, the result correspond what was in the literature that female students are more willing to put more efforts in language learning and were more motivated (D�宁nyei & Csizer, 2002).
Finally, it was found that except for persistence, there was no significant difference on English learning motivation between students who chose not to take the second exam (APE) and those who were going to take the second examination. Results indicated that the students’ learning motivation may change and the high-stakes examination exerted influence on the students’ learning motivation.
Based on the findings, it should be noticed that when teaching, teachers must be aware that students of different background may possess different level of desire to learn the language, different level of effort and persistence, and also different level of self-confidence in learning the language on different stages. Most important of all, English learning motivation is not a constant emotional or mental trait; it may change during the learning process.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

中文摘要UT i
ABSTRACTUT iii
LIST OF TABLESUT viii
LIST OF FIGURESUT ix

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Statement of the Problem 1
Motivation to Learn English as a Second/ Foreign Language 1
Motivation in ESL and EFL Environments 1
Integrative, Instrumental, and Required Orientation 2
Motivation and Achievement Tests 3
Background of the Study 4
Feature of the College Entrance Examinations 5
High School English Education Influenced by College Entrance Examinations 5
Purpose of the Study 6
Research Framework 6
Research Questions 8
Significance of the Study 8

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 9
Learning Motivation 9
Definition of Learning Motivation 9
Theories of Learning Motivation 10
L2 Learning Motivation 13
Definition of L2 Learning Motivation 14
Theories of L2 Learning Motivation 15
The Classical Period (1959-1990) 15
Expansion of L2 Motivation Construct 17
The Fluctuating Nature of L2 Learning Motivation 20
The Temporal Dimension of Motivation 21
D�宁nyei and Ott�� ’s Process Model 22
Measuring Motivation 26
L2 Learning Motivation 26
Persistence 27
Test Motivation 28
Self-efficacy 29


CHAPTER THREE METHOD 31
Participants 31
Instruments 32
Items for Measuring English Learning Motivation 32
Development of Instruments 33
Translation of the Questionnaire Items 34
The First Questionnaire 34
The Second Questionnaire 35
Pilot Study and Its Results 35
Data Collection Procedures 36
Two-Stage Data Collection 36
Data Analysis Procedures 38

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 39
Background of the Participants 39
Descriptive Statistics 40
Investigation of Research Questions 42
Research Question One 43
Research Question Two 44
Analysis from All Participants 45
Analysis from High / Low Achievers 46
Analysis from Students in Different Academic Tracks 47
Analysis from Students of Different Gender 49
Research Question Three 51
Summary of the Results 52

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 54
Discussions of the Findings 54
Implications 60
Limitations 61
Suggestions for Future Research 61

REFERENCES 62
APPENDICES 69
APPENDIX A: COLLEGE ENTRANCE SYSTEM 69
APPENDIX B: THE SAMPLE TEST OF THE ABE (2006) 72
APPENDIX C: THE FIRST QUESTIONNAIRE 80
APPENDIX D: THE SECOND QUESTIONNAIRE 83
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