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研究生:林煜庭
研究生(外文):Yu-Ting Lin
論文名稱:適性指標:多媒體學習中一種基於視覺認知理論的引導方式
論文名稱(外文):Adaptive Pointer: a Cognitive Guide in Multimedia Learning based on Visual Cognition Theory
指導教授:陳明璋陳明璋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Jang Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:理學院碩士在職專班網路學習學程
學門:電算機學門
學類:網路學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:313
中文關鍵詞:多媒體學習理論認知負荷理論
外文關鍵詞:multimedia learningcognitive load theory
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先前的研究中,Patricia D. Mautone 與 Richard E. Mayer (2001)已經將「信號原則signaling principle」列入他們的多媒體設計理論。在他們的實驗中接收教材引導信號的學生比沒有接收引導信號的學生在Transfer Test中呈現顯著較佳的表現。本文作者繼續上述的研究並提出一種多媒體學習中認知引導的機制:適性指標。
適性指標是一種激發式動態呈現方式,目的是希望能讓學習者知道如何能更有效地學習教材內容。適性指標與原始的信號原則不同之處在於適性指標具有運動特徵的效果,尤其是突然出現的新物件以及突然發生的新運動。上述兩個運動特徵已經被證實是由刺激物引發並且是以由下而上的方式吸引注意力。
本研究有兩個主要目的。第一,從視覺認知理論尋找適性指標有效的證據。我們開始先說明前注意處理歷程的概念,並且將已經被驗證屬於前注意處理的視覺特徵依照形狀特徵、顏色特徵、深度特徵與運動特徵加以分類整理。第二,我們實作了一個不等組前後測的準實驗設計來研究適性指標在數學學習的效果。
結果發現接受適性指標教材的學生在Retention Test與Matching Test的表現都明顯優於接受沒有適性指標教材的學生。所有三個測驗的結果與視覺認知理論、類比遷移以及認知負荷理論的預期一致。基於上述的結果,我們建議適性指標是一個多媒體學習理論可能需要考慮的因素。
In previous studies by Patricia D. Mautone and Richard E. Mayer (2001), they added a signaling principle to their collection of multimedia design principles. In their experiments, students who received signaling generated significantly more solutions on transfer test than students who did not receive signaling. The authors continued the above studies and proposed a mechanism for cognitive guidance in multimedia learning: adaptive pointer.
Adaptive pointer is a kind of dynamic presentation based on triggered animation that can help learners process their materials more efficiently. The difference between the original signaling principle and the adaptive pointer is the effect of motion, especially the abrupt onset of objects and motions. These features appear to capture attention in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up fashion.
There were two aims in this study. First, to find evidence for the effects of adaptive pointer from visual cognition theory. We begin with an overview of preattentive processing, and then organized the features identified as preattentive into a number of categories based on form, color, depth, and motion. Second, to conduct a quasi-experimental design using nonequivalent groups to study the effects of adaptive pointer during math-learning.
Results showed that students who received adaptive pointer performed significantly better during the retention test and the matching test than those who did not receive adaptive pointer. And the outcomes were consistent with visual cognition theory, analogical transfer and cognitive load theory. Based on these results, we suggest that adaptive pointer is a considerable factor in multimedia learning.
摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
目次 v
表目錄 ix
圖目錄 xi
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
一、 數學簡報系統的發展 1
二、 簡報軟體的問題 2
三、 多媒體學習理論 6
第二節 研究目的 6
第三節 研究方法 7
一、 適性指標在視覺認知科學的理論基礎: 7
二、 適性指標學習效果實驗: 7
第四節 適性指標的定義 8
第二章 適性指標與多媒體學習理論 9
第一節 多媒體學習理論 9
一、 Multimedia Learning的定義 9
二、 Multimedia Learning的三個認知假設 10
三、 Multimedia Learning的五個認知步驟 15
第二節 認知負荷理論 19
一、 認知負荷的來源 19
二、 降低外在認知負荷的教材設計方式 21
第三節 多媒體學習理論之設計原則 29
一、 多媒體學習理論的十項教材設計原則 30
二、 適性指標與多媒體學習設計原則 38
第三章 適性指標的視覺認知理論基礎 43
第一節 視覺訊息的前注意處理歷程 43
一、 注意瞬脫效應 43
二、 視像記憶的證據 45
三、 前注意處理歷程的存在 47
四、 基本視覺特徵的檢定方式 48
第二節 特徵整合理論 54
一、 理論架構 54
二、 現象解釋 55
第三節 引導搜尋理論 60
一、 理論架構 60
二、 基本視覺特徵如何引導注意力 63
三、 由下而上的引導表徵(Bottom-Up guidance) 69
四、 由上而下的引導表徵(Top-Down Guidence) 70
五、 活化圖(The Activation Map) 71
六、 現象解釋 71
第四節 注意力投注理論 73
一、 理論架構 73
二、 知覺描述階段(perceptual description) 75
三、 選取階段(selection) 76
四、 進入VSTM階段(visual short-term memory) 78
五、 交互選擇相似性(interalternative similarity) 79
六、 顯示畫面內部相似性(within-display similarity) 81
七、 現象解釋 82
第五節 偵測突出目標物 85
一、 單一元素假說 88
二、 空間整合假說 89
三、 不規則偵測假說 89
四、 事件相關腦電位研究 90
第六節 樣式知覺 92
一、 接近法則(Proximity) 94
二、 相似法則(Similarity) 94
三、 連接法則(Connectedness) 95
四、 連續法則(Continuity) 95
五、 對稱法則(Symmetry) 96
六、 封閉法則(Closure) 97
七、 共同命運法則(Common Fate) 99
第四章 適性指標的視覺特徵 103
第一節 形狀特徵(FORM) 103
一、 FORM-Orientation、Length、Width 104
二、 FORM-Size 105
三、 FORM-Curvature 106
四、 FORM-Blur 108
五、 FORM-Added marks 110
第二節 顏色特徵(COLOR) 115
一、 COLOR-Hue 118
二、 COLOR-Intensity 140
第三節 深度特徵(DEPTH) 154
一、 DEPTH-Stereoscopic depth 154
二、 DEPTH-Convexity & Concavity 162
第四節 運動特徵(MOTION) 164
一、 MOTION-New object 168
二、 MOTION-Transient 215
三、 MOTION-Looming 217
四、 MOTION-Jitter motion 218
五、 MOTION-New motion 219
六、 MOTION-Flicker 222
七、 MOTION-Coherence 224
八、 MOTION-Direction 226
第五章 適性指標學習效果實驗 233
第一節 實驗教材之設計說明 233
一、 第一張投影片 235
二、 第二張投影片 236
三、 第三張投影片 237
四、 第四張投影片 239
五、 第五張投影片 240
六、 第六張投影片 241
七、 第七張投影片 243
八、 第八張投影片 244
九、 第九∼十三張投影片 246
十、 第十四張投影片 247
第二節 實驗方法(Method) 248
一、 參與者與設計(Participants and design) 248
二、 實驗工具(Materials and apparatus) 251
三、 實驗流程(Procedure) 252
第三節 結果與討論(Results and Discussion) 252
一、 Retention Test 252
二、 Matching Test 257
三、 Transfer Test 264
四、 綜合討論 274
第六章 結論 279
第一節 適性指標在視覺認知科學的理論基礎 279
一、 視覺搜尋理論的支持 279
二、 基本視覺特徵的實驗證據 282
第二節 適性指標基於視覺認知科學的設計原則 284
第三節 適性指標與學習效果 289
一、 實驗結果與相關理論一致 289
二、 實驗發現 290
三、 研究建議 290
參考文獻 293
附件一 Retention Test 試卷 307
附件二 Matching Test 試卷 309
附件三 Transfer Test 試卷 313
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