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研究生:粘逸群
研究生(外文):Yi-chun Nien
論文名稱:知識管理系統對知識創造之影響-以新產品開發績效為例
論文名稱(外文):The influence of Knowledge Management System toward to Knowledge Creation: In case of New Peoduct Development Performance.
指導教授:陳炫碩陳炫碩引用關係
指導教授(外文):non
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:企業管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:新產品開發績效知識管理系統功能知識創造
外文關鍵詞:the fuction of KMSknowledge creationNPD performance
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
在資訊爆炸的時代中,不論組織規模的大小,為了維持自身的競爭力,必須將組織的知識與外界的資訊良好的管理,以轉換成為知識,並應用於營運流程中。從事新產品開發一直是組織體現創新的最佳辦法,而藉由知識管理系統的溝通/傳播、儲存/取回、分析及組織功能,能夠加強組織對於知識創造的能力。知識創造體現在四種型態中:社會化、外顯化、結合化與內隱化。當知識創造的能力提高,則對創新與新產品開發便會有正面的效益。

本研究即從知識管理系統的功能類型對知識創造之影響,並以新產品開發績效為例,來探討其之間的影響關係。

故本研究以中華徵信所所統計2007年前2000大製造業中之資訊電子產業,針對從事於新產品開發的研發部門人員,進行問卷調查,總計發出521份,扣除填答不完整以及公司未直接參與研發作業之無效問卷共15份,共得有效問卷230份,問卷回收率為47.02%,而有效問卷回收率為44.15%。研究結果分析如下:

一、知識管理系統的溝通/傳播功能會正面影響經驗性知識資產,若組織中所採用之知識管理系統,能夠促使組織成員對內、外部的互動程度提高,創造人員搜尋知識和存取知識的互動平台,加強了組織成員的社交活動與知識分享活動,進而產生了經驗性知識資產。

二、知識管理系統的儲存/取回功能會正面影響概念性知識資產,若組織中所採用之知識管理系統,能夠良好地保存組織成員的知識、經驗,以及作業程序、流程、標準等文件,則組織成員在工作中有需要時便能夠迅速地取得,此外,組織成員也能夠利用儲存/取回的功能,進一步地以口語、文字或其他多媒體工具,將個人的工作經驗、專業知識、生活經驗等表達出來,進而增加了概念性知識資產。

三、知識管理系統的組織功能會正面影響系統性知識資產,若組織中所採用之知識管理系統,如決策支援系統、線上分析處理、商業智慧系統等,能夠協助組織成員迅速地整合、分析如客戶需求、競爭者、供應商以及過去的專案知識,以加強組織成員對既有知識及新知識的連結,進而產生系統性知識資產,並進一步安排成為創新。

四、知識管理系統的分析功能會正面影響例行性知識資產,透過資訊系統的解釋/分析功能,有效地將組織中既有的知識有效地重複利用,而獲得重要的知識,企業能夠搭配一些學習計劃、教育訓練、模擬實作指導等,經由在內隱化的過程中,組織會把內隱學習的流程標準化,讓大家可以盡快的學習,而產生如組織文化、組織常規、重視學習與知識創新的風氣等例行性知識。

五、經驗性知識資產會正向影響新產品開發績效,意即組織成員與內部、外部的知識流動程度高,因此資訊的流通更多元,資訊轉換的速度也越快(Nonaka,2000),而所產生之人的實作經驗、專業知識、情感等經驗性知識資產,也如Goodman(1998)之觀點所述,認為能夠降低組織的決策提供/支援成本,並且對新產品開發績效有正向的影響。

六、系統性知識資產會正向影響新產品開發績效,結合化程度高,意即組織成員能夠迅速整合組織既有知識與其他知識,如市場研究報告、設計規範、新的技術、產品原型測試報告等資訊,因此,會增加組織的系統性知識資產,如專案文件、產品開發經驗心得、產品樣式、操作手冊等系統化、制度化整理過的文件,容易被解讀、遵循的一些規則等 (Nonaka 2000)。因此組織便能夠利用更多有用的資訊進行新產品開發的活動,並且對新產品開發績效有正向的影響。此外,產品開發常有路徑依賴的情況,而系統性知識資產便可降低組織成員在新產品開發上的任務不確定性。
In the information-exploded era, each firm should manage knowledge within and outside the firm , and transform into knowledge and apply knowledge into daily operation processes to sustain their competitiveness. Engaging in new product development is always the way firms implement their innovations. Through the four function of knowledge management system: communicate/transfer, storage/retrieval, organize, analyze, firms can improve their knowledge creation ability. Knowledge creation includes four types: socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization. While the ability to create knowledge raises, the new product development performance improves.

Therefore, this study intends to discuss the influence of knowledge management system toward to knowledge creation, and to discover the impact on new product development performance. The results as follows:
1. The communicate/transfer function of knowledge management system has positively effect on experiential knowledge asset.
2. The storage/retrieval function of knowledge management system has positively effect on conceptual knowledge asset.
3. The organize function of of knowledge management system has positively effect on systematic knowledge asset.
4. The analyze function of of knowledge management system has positively effect on routine knowledge asset.
5. The experiential knowledge asset has positively effect on new product development performance.
6. The systematic knowledge asset has positively effect on new product development performance.
目錄
第一章 緒論..................................................................................................1
第一節 研究背景與動機.............................................................................................1
第二節 研究目的..........................................................................................................3
第三節 研究流程..........................................................................................................4
第二章 文獻探討..........................................................................................6
第一節 知識的定義......................................................................................................6
第二節 知識的分類......................................................................................................9
第三節 知識管理能力................................................................................................11
第四節 知識管理系統................................................................................................20
第五節 新產品開發績效............................................................................................26
第三章 研究設計..........................................................................................33
第一節 觀念性架構....................................................................................................33
第二節 衡量變數定義................................................................................................34
第三節 研究假說........................................................................................................40
第四節 知識管理系統功能、知識創造與新產品開發績效之結構方程模型
..........................................................................................................................................44
第五節 抽樣方法與問卷設計...................................................................................53
第四章 實證分析結果...............................................................................54
第一節 樣本基本資料分析.......................................................................................54
第二節 知識管理系統功能、知識創造與新產品開發績效之衡量模型的評估
..........................................................................................................................................56
第三節 知識管理系統功能、知識創造與新產品開發績效之結構模型的評估
..........................................................................................................................................66
 第四節 知識管理系統功能、知識創造與新產品開發績效之研究假說分析
..........................................................................................................................................71
第五章 結論與建議...................................................................................74
第一節 結論與貢獻....................................................................................................74
第二節 建議.................................................................................................................78


參考文獻
中文部分.........................................................................................................................80
英文部分.........................................................................................................................81
附錄 問卷......................................................................................................87































圖目錄
圖 1- 1 研究流程圖..........................................................................................................5
圖 2- 1 知識創造螺旋....................................................................................................12
圖 2- 2 知識管理的流程................................................................................................13
圖 3- 1 本研究之觀念性架構.......................................................................................33
圖 3- 2 溝通/傳播的衡量模型......................................................................................44
圖 3- 3 儲存/取回的衡量模型......................................................................................45
圖 3- 4 組織的衡量模型................................................................................................45
圖 3- 5 分析的衡量模型................................................................................................45
圖 3- 6 經驗性知識資產的衡量模型..........................................................................46
圖 3- 7 概念性知識資產的衡量模型..........................................................................46
圖 3- 8 系統性知識資產的衡量模型..........................................................................46
圖 3- 9 例行性知識資產的衡量模型..........................................................................47
圖 3- 10 新產品開發績效的衡量模型..........................................................................47
圖 3- 11 資訊系統功能、知識創造型態與新產品開發績效的結構關係模型
...............................................................................................................................................48
圖 4- 1 資訊系統功能、知識創造型態與新產品開發績效的結構模式圖...........68




















表目錄
表 2- 1 知識的定義與對知識管理、知識管理系統的隱含........................................8
表 2- 2 知識的分類........................................................................................................10
表 3- 1 影響溝通/傳播功能的衡量變數定義.............................................................34
表 3- 2 影響儲存/取回功能的衡量變數定義.............................................................35
表 3- 3 影響組織的衡量變數定義...............................................................................35
表 3- 4 影響分析的衡量變數定義...............................................................................36
表 3- 5 經驗性知識資產的衡量變數定義..................................................................36
表 3- 6 概念性知識資產的衡量變數定義..................................................................37
表 3- 7 系統性知識資產的衡量變數定義..................................................................38
表 3- 8 例行性知識資產的衡量變數定義..................................................................38
表 3- 9 影響新產品開發績效的衡量變數定義..........................................................39
表 3- 10 徑向圖符號說明................................................................................................49
表 3- 11 知識管理系統功能、知識創造與新產品開發績效結構模型方程式.......50
表 3- 12 知識管理系統功能、知識創造與新產品開發績效測量模型方程式(ξ因子)........................................................................................................................50
表 3- 13 知識管理系統功能、知識創造與新產品開發績效測量模型方程式(η因子)........................................................................................................................51
表 4- 1 受測對象職稱統計............................................................................................54
表 4- 2 受測對象公司員工人數統計..........................................................................55
表 4- 3 受測對象公司營業額統計...............................................................................55
表 4- 4 基本適合度分析................................................................................................57
表 4- 5 衡量模型各變數信效度分析表......................................................................59
表 4- 6 衡量模型的潛在構面相關矩陣......................................................................61
表 4- 7 區別效度檢定表(溝通/傳播功能構面對其他構面).....................................62
表 4- 8 區別效度檢定表(儲存/取回功能構面對其他構面).....................................62
表 4- 9 區別效度檢定表(組織功能構面對其他面)...................................................63
表 4- 10 區別效度檢定表(分析功能構面其他構面)...................................................63
表 4- 11 區別效度檢定表(經驗性知識資產構面其他構面)......................................64
表 4- 12 區別效度檢定表(概念性知識資產構面對其它構面)..................................64
表 4- 13 區別效度檢定表(系統性知識資產構面對其他構面)..................................65
表 4- 14 結構模型之配適指標.......................................................................................67
表 4- 15 研究假說檢定結果............................................................................................69
表 4- 16 研究模型的間接直接與整體效果..................................................................70
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