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研究生:林昱璇
研究生(外文):Yuh-Shyuan Lin
論文名稱(外文):Remembering the Past, Revising the Future:Trauma and Memory in Saving Private Ryan and Beloved
指導教授:白瑞梅白瑞梅引用關係司徒尉
指導教授(外文):Amie ParryDave Stewart
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:英美語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:65
外文關鍵詞:African AmericancommunitySecond World WarGreatest Generationmemorytrauma
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本論文檢視兩個創傷記憶的文本。回憶通常被看待為過去所發生的既定事件。然而,Mieka Bal 卻認為它是易變且不穩定的。回憶並不能象徵事件的完成。反之,它代表持續在進展的種種可能。創傷則是指人在過去所受到的精神上的傷害。心理上的創傷會對患者造成長遠的影響,但是這個影響也有可能是正面的。Tedeschi, Park 和 Calhoun 認為創傷可以正面地改變生活。歷史經常被重新塑造以便對看似已定的未來進行干預。評論家對於歷史重塑一直都感到好奇。他們同時也關注於人們為了得到充滿意義的生活而重塑過去記憶的種種行為。

論文的第一章探討Steven Spielberg的電影搶救雷恩大兵。這部電影呈現了戰時士兵的創傷經驗,它將這些經歷了經濟大蕭條以及二次世界大戰的美國人所做的犧牲展現出來以平反他們在六零年代被年輕世代醜化的形象。Tom Brokaw 稱此世代的美國人為“Greatest Generation”, 本章檢視這部電影企圖將他們改造為此一含有敬重意味之詞的過程。同時也將探討此部電影以感性訴求處理觀眾對於六零年代政治激進份子的感想,而這政治激進份子在影片中由擁有教育背景、抱持自由主義的兩個角色Upham和Miller所呈現。另外,對美國介入中東問題的這個政治議題則是透過Mellish這個猶太士兵所呈現。此角色的死亡提醒觀眾深思他們在猶太人飽受納粹迫害的歷史中所佔的位置,同時使他們反思未來對此議題積極參予的意願。

論文的第二章觀察Toni Morrison的小說摯愛。Morrison重現創傷記憶旨為探求非裔美國人更美好的未來。此篇小說描寫一個不願正視過去,因而深受回憶糾纏的非裔社群。書中的角色Beloved則體現了社群所逃避的過去。Morrison將奴隸制度的恐怖體現在Beloved非人的恐怖之中。作者不僅僅反對奴隸制,也同時關注此制度對非裔美人的心靈上造成的傷害。Morrison深信社群的力量足以治癒個體的心靈危機,因此,此小說提議以集體的力量整合黑人社群。並以此團結力量抵抗種族歧視、開創未來。
This thesis investigates memory in two texts, both of which deal with traumatic experiences. Typically, memory is regarded as a set of past events that are already settled and cannot be changed. But, Mieke Bal identifies the instability and fluidity of it. Memory is not something fix and terminal, it is active and inconclusive. The term trauma has often connected with negative meanings, too. It is psychological damage resulted from the past that keeps influencing present and future. But, the effects of trauma can be positive. Tedeschi, Park and Calhoun see it as the experience that could rebuild lives in important ways. Critics have long been interested in the ways history is reconstructed to intervene the future. They have also become interested in how human fashion memories of the past that give our lives meaning in the present and purpose in the future.
Chapter One explores Steven Spielberg’s 1998 film, Saving Private Ryan. By depicting the trauma of wartime experience, it demonstrating the sacrifices made by the men and women who endured the Great Depression and fought the Second World War. Spielberg shows the trauma of the soldiers during WWII to recover the demonized image the 60s youth counter culture imposed on the war generation. The chapter looks into the ways the film helps to transform the war generation into what Tom Brokaw called the “Greatest Generation” in the nineties. As well as how its emotional appeal reengineers feelings about liberal (or radical) politics of the 60s, represented by the liberal, educated characters Upham and Miller. The issue of current US involvement in the Middle East is conveys by the Jewish character, Mellish, whose death reminds the viewers of Nazi Germany’s persecution of Jewish and encourages them to deliberate on their obligation in preventing similar event from happening in the future.
Chapter Two investigates Morrison’s memory project in Beloved. Morrison also seeks to revive traumatic memory in order to create a better future for African Americans. The novel presents a black community unwilling to confront their past, and thus haunted by the embodiment of it—Beloved. Morrison embodies the traumatic experience of slavery in the horror of Beloved. She does not merely protest slavery, but concerns about its affect on the African American psyche. She believes that community can heal the spiritual crisis of individuals. The novel thus suggests a collective approach that will unite the black community in resisting racial discrimination and allowing African Americans to embrace their future.
Abstract…………………………………………………………………i
Acknowledgement………………………………………………...……v
Introduction……………………………………………………………..1
Chapter One: Saving the Greatest Generation…………………………..9
Chapter Two: The Beloved Community……………………………….32
Conclusion…………………………………………………………...…58
Work Cited……………………………………………………………...61
Bal, Mieka, and Jonathan Crewe, eds. Acts of Memory: Cultural Recall in the Present. Hanover: NH UP of New England, 1999.

Bhabha, Homi K. “The Location of Culture.” In A Practical Reader in Contemporary Literary Theory. London, New York: Prentice Hall/Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1996.

Bradbury, Malcolm, and Howard Temperley, eds. Introduction to American Studies. 2nd ed. London: Longman, 1989.

Brokaw, Tom. The Greatest Generation. New York: Random House, 1998.

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Davis, Ronald L. Duke: the Life and Image of John Wayne. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.

Digeser, Peter. “Performativity Trouble: Postmodern Feminism and Essential Subjects.” Political Research Quarterly. 47:3 (1994).

Feuer, Lewis S. “Student Unrest in the United States.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 404 (1972).

Furman, Jan. ‘Remembering the “Disremembered”: Beloved.’ In Toni Morrison’s Fiction. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996.

Henderson, Mae G. “Toni Morrison’s Beloved: Re-membering the Body as Historical Text.” In A Practical Reader in Contemporary Literary Theory. London, New York: Prentice Hall, 1996.
Kazin, Michael. The Populist Persuasion. Ithaca and London: Cornel University Press, 1995.

Mankoff, Milton, and Richard Flacks. “The Changing Social Base of the American Student Movement.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 395 (1971).

McAdoo, Harriet Pipes. “Black Mothers and the Extended Family Support Network.” In The Black Woman. Sage Publications, Inc, 1980.

Momento. Christopher Nolan. I Remember Productions, 2000.

Morrison, Toni. Beloved. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987.

Munich. Steven Spielberg. Universal Studios, 2005.

Peach, Linden. Toni Morrison. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.

Plasa, Carl. ‘“An Extraordinary Act of Imagination’: Reviews of Beloved and Interviews with Toni Morrison.” In Toni Morrison: Beloved. Duxford: Icon Books, 1998.

Saari, Salli. A Bolt the Blue: Coping with Disasters and Acute Traumas. Trans. Annira Silver. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2005.

Saving Private Ryan. Steven Spielberg. Amblin Entertainment, 1998.

Schindler’s List: An Interview with Steven Spielberg. Eds. Susan Royal and Alyssa Boyle. 10 May. 2006 < http://www.insidefilm.com/spielberg.html >

Schindler’s List. Steven Spielberg. Amblin Entertainment, 1993.
Sicher, Efraim. “The Future of the Past: Countermemory and Postmemory in Contemporary American Post-Holocaust Narratives.” History and Memory 12 (2001)

Tedeschi, Richard G, Crystal L. Park and Lawrence G. Calhoun, eds. Posttraumatic Growth: Positive Changes in the Aftermath of Crisis. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 1998.

The Official Homepage of the United States Army. 27. Aug <http://www.army.mil/d-day/beaches.html>

The Shootist. Dino De Laurentiis Company, 1976.

Tom Brokaw. 27 Aug. 2007 <http://www.randomhouse.com/features/brokaw/books.html >
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