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研究生:侯慧芳
研究生(外文):Hui-fang Hou
論文名稱:以圖像謎題發現國小數學概念之兩階段鷹架
論文名稱(外文):Two Phases of Scaffolding Graphical Puzzle-Based Discovery of Elementary Mathematic Concepts
指導教授:陳德懷陳德懷引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tak-Wai Chan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:網路學習科技研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:教育科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:137
中文關鍵詞:謎題鷹架個人解釋同儕解釋
外文關鍵詞:puzzle-based scaffoldingpeer explanationself explanation
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本研究目的在於提出可行於教室的學習活動模,以輔助學生發現新概念,此學習模組稱為『謎題-解釋』活動模組,當中包含兩種鷹架--『謎題填空鷹架』、『解釋鷹架』,以及三個活動步驟分別為『謎題填空運算』、『手寫解釋』、『同儕解釋』。其目的在於學生利用『謎題填空』找出數學運算的規則與發現新的數學概念,接著再利用『解釋』將自己的想法統整歸納。
為瞭解『謎題-解釋』活動模組能否實際應用於教學上,我們先採用紙本方式進行活動流程,並以國小四年學生為實驗對象,實地觀察學生學習情況。並依照實驗結果進行活動修正,最後再將此系統實做於電腦上。故本研究除了觀察『謎題』、『解釋』兩種鷹架對於學生學習的影響外,同時也研究『口說解釋』與『手寫解釋』應用於教學現場的情況,及其與學習成績間的關係。
In the learning environment that the teacher is the center role in the math class, the teacher introduces students the new concept in textbooks, demonstrates some examples, students’ learning is passive. This study aims at proposing a feasible classroom activity which can introduce math knowledge by systematically scaffolding students to figure the new concept out. The learning model calls “puzzle- explanation” model, it is included two scaffolding: puzzle-based and explanation, and three steps: graphical puzzle, written explanation and peer explanation. We hope students learn the new concepts or find the math rules by filling the puzzle banks, and summary their thought by explaining.
To investigate the fundamental theoretical issues and possible obstacles, this learning flow was initially implemented in a four-grade classroom without technology supports. According the outcome from experiments, we will modify the model and then implement the “puzzle- explanation” model on computer. In addition to investigate the puzzle and explanation scaffolding, we also focus on the effectiveness of peer explanation and written explanation.
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的與研究問題 3
第二章 文獻探討 5
第三章 活動模組設計 13
3.1 設計理念 13
3.2 活動流程 15
第四章 實驗與結果分析 20
4.1 實驗對象與分組 21
4.2 資料收集與評量標準 22
4.3 實驗限制 23
4.4 個人學習 23
4.4.1實驗目的 23
4.4.2實驗流程與內容 24
4.4.3實驗結果 24
4.5 小組學習部份 28
4.5.1實驗目的 28
4.5.2同儕解釋鷹架測試 28
4.5.3同儕解釋實驗一 31
4.5.4同儕解釋實驗二 34
4.5.5同儕解釋實驗三 38
第五章 系統設計與應用 42
5.1 紙本進行同儕解釋之情形 42
5.2 系統設計與應用 44
5.2.1系統架構 44
5.2.2學習流程 45
5.2.3系統功能 46
5.2.4系統畫面介紹 48
5.3系統實作與應用 55
5.3.1電腦實作討論 56
第六章 討論 63
6.1 同儕解釋行為 63
6.2 三步驟鷹架 68
6.3 結論 76
6.4 未來工作 77
參考文獻 80
附錄一 11的倍數(實驗組) 84
附錄二 11的倍數(對照組) 88
附錄三 2-5配對(實驗組) 92
附錄四 2-5配對(對照組) 96
附錄五 湊整加法(實驗組) 100
附錄六 湊整加法(對照組) 104
附錄七 分配律(實驗組) 108
附錄八 分配律(對照組) 115
附錄九 周長(實驗組) 122
附錄十 周長(對照組) 124
一、英文文獻
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Bargh, J. A., & Schul, Y. (1980). On the cognitive benefits of teaching. Journal of Educational Psychology,72, 593–604.
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Bruner, J. S. (1966) Toward a theory of cognitive thought. American Psychologist. 19, 1~15.
Chi, M.T.H. (1996). Constructing self-explanations and scaffolded explanations in tutoring. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 10: 33-49.
Chi, M. (2000). Self-explaining expository texts: The dual process of generating inferences and repairingmental models.
Chi, M.T.H., M. Bassok, M. Lewis, P. Reimann and Glaser,R. (1989). How Students Study and Use Examples in Learning to Solve Problems. Cognitive Science, 145-182.
Chi, M., deLeeuw, N., Chiu, M., & LaVancher, C. (1994). Eliciting self-explanation improves understanding. Cognitive Science, 18, 439–477.
Chi, M., Siler, S., Jeong, H., Yamauchi, T., & Hausmann, R. G. (2001). Learning from human tutoring.Cognitive Science, 25, 471–533.
Cohen, P. A., Kulik, J. A., & Kulik, C. C. (1982). Educational outcomes of tutoring: A meta-analysis of findings. American Educational Research Journal, 19(2), 237–248.
Cohen, J. (1986). Theoretical considerations of peer tutoring. Psychology in the Schools, 23, 175–186.
Conati, C., & VanLehn, K. (2000). Toward computer-based support of meta-cognitive skills: A computational framework to coach self-explanation. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 11, 398-415.
Cole, P., & Chan, L. (1990). Method and strategies for special education. Sydney
Prentice Hall.
Coleman, E. B., Brown, A. L., & Rivkin, I. D. (1997). The effect of instructional explanations on formallearning from scientific texts. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 6(4), 347–365.
Coleman, E. B. (1998). Using Explanatory Knowledge During Collaborative Problem Solving in Science. The Journal of The Learning Sciences, 7(3&4),387-427.
Crouch, C. H. & Mazur, E. (2001). Peer Instruction: Ten Years of Experience and Results, American Journal of Physics, 970-977
Delquadri, J., Greenwood, C. R., Stretton, K., & Hall, R. V. (1983). The peer tutoringgame: A classroom procedure for increasing opportunity to respond and spelling performance. Education and Treatment of Children, 6, 225-239.
Fantuzzp-Hessler, M.,& de Jong.,(1990). Studying physics texts: Differences in study processes between good and poor performers. Cognition and Instruction, 7,41-54
Fantuzzo, J. W., King. J. A., & Heller, L. R. (1992) . Effects of reciprocal peer tutoring onmathematics and school adjustment: A component analysis, Journal of EducationPsychology, 84(3 ) , 331-339.
Gardner, M. (1961). Entertaining Mathematical Puzzles, New York: Dover Publications.
Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. C., & Hall, R. V. (1988). The use of peer tutoring strategies in classroom management and educational instruction. School Psychology Review,17, 258-275.
Greenwood, C. R. & Delquadri, J. (1995). ClassWide Peer Tutoring and the prevention of school failure. Preventing School Failure, 39 (4), 21-25.
Hausmann, R. G. M., & Chi, M. T. H. (2002). Can a computer interface support self-explaining? Cognitive Technology, 7(1), 4-14.
King, A. (1991, 1997). ASK to THINK-TEL WHY: A model of transactive peer tutoring for scaffolding higher level complex learning. Educational Psychologist. 32(4 ) ,221-235.
King, A. (1994). Guiding knowledge construction in the classroom: Effects of teaching children how toquestion and how to explain. American Educational Research Journal, 31(2), 338–368.
King, A. (1998). Transactive peer tutoring: Distributing cognition and metacognition. Educational Psychology Review, 10(1), 57–74.
Ploetzner R., Dillenbourg P., Praier M & Traum D.(1999) Learning by explaining to oneself and to others. Collaborative-learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches. (pp. 103-121)
Rohrbeck, C. A., Ginsburg-Block, M. D., Fantuzzo, J. W., & Miller, T. R. (2003). Peer-assisted learning interventions with elementary school students: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Educational Psychology,95(2), 240–257.
R.D. Roscoe & Chi, M.T.H. (2004). The influence of the tutee in learning by peer tutoring. In the Twenty-sixth Cognitive Science Proceedings.
R.D. Roscoe & Chi, M.T.H (2007). Tutor learning: the role of explanation and responding to questions
Roy, M., & Chi, M. T. H. (2005). The self-explanation principle in multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 271-286). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychologicalprocesses. (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, E. Souberman. Eds,. Cambridge,MA: Harvard University Press.
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Z Michalewicz & M Michalewicz(2007). Puzzle-Based Learning. AaeE
二、中文文獻
劉秋木(2002)。國小數學科教材教法。五南出版社
南一文教事業(2005)。國民小學數學第九冊
翰林文教事業(2005)。國民小學數學第八冊
張春興 (1996)。教育心理學 三化取向的理論與實踐 。臺灣東華
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