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研究生:曾至群
研究生(外文):Chih-Chun Tseng
論文名稱:超外差式雷射測量距離技術之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Research of Laser Range Measurement Technique
指導教授:沈志雄沈志雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-Hsiung Shen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:機電工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:相位直接混波自動增益控制雪崩光電二極體管線超外差升壓轉換器
外文關鍵詞:PhaseDirect mixingAGCAPDPipelineSuperheterodyneBoost Converter
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本論文研究採用超外差架構的相位式雷射測距技術。採用雪崩光電二極體(Avalanche Photo Diode)為接收器,並使用升壓轉換器(Boost convertor)設計供給APD的偏壓電路。於5伏特的電源供給下,可產生達180伏特的輸出電壓。為了穩定光訊號,我們在接收機的後端設計一個自動增益控制電路(Auto Gain Controller),此電路採用兩個可變增益放大器(Variable Gain Amplifier)串聯而成,以增加其頻寬。我們使用電晶體作為峰值偵測器來控制VGA,以達到自動增益的作用。論文第五章,我們提出管線式的相位偵測電路,將相位差轉變為電壓差。並以雙線式的資料處理方式,提高相位偵測的效率。
本論文的貢獻在於使用直接混波技術,改善超外差架構必須使用兩個混波器的缺點。我們用轉阻放大器(Transimpedance Amplifier)兼任其中一個混波器。並研究出可使用於加法混波上的檢波器,以解決濾波器無法對拍頻檢出低頻訊號的問題。同時我們也完成了一個以雪崩二極體為光接受器的雷射光收發機。並且於資料訊號處理方面,提出一個雙管線式相位偵測器的架構,以解決相位差訊號不易分析的問題。
Phase shift technology is often using in laser range finding nowadays. Many researchers make effort in improving super heterodyne structure for phase shift laser range finding. In our research, we study the whole phase shift laser range measurement technology, and provide novel super heterodyne structure by using the direct mixing technology.
The APD (Avalanche photo diode) was used in our optical detection circuit, because of it high sensitivity. In order to supply high bias voltage for APD, we use the boost converter to form the high bias voltage circuit.
For constant amplitude of signals, AGC circuit will be used in our optical transceiver. It forms by two AD603 that connect in serial, and we use the transistor as the peak detector which control the gain in AGC circuit.
At last in this thesis, we design a novel pipeline phase detect structure. It uses the pipeline technique to decrease the processing time of data, and transforms the phase shift into the potential difference. So that the phase shift could be represented as voltage, and we can use the ADC (Analog to Digital Convertor) to analysis the phase shift.
摘要 I
Abstract II
謝誌 III
Content IV
Figure Captions VI
Chapter 1 Introduction - 1 -
1-1 Research Motivation - 1 -
1-2 Research Methods - 2 -
1-3 Thesis Organization - 3 -
Chapter 2 Principles of Laser Range Finder - 4 -
2-1 Background of Laser Development - 4 -
2-2 Working Principle of Laser - 5 -
2-3 Interference Laser Range Measurement - 7 -
2-4 Time of Flight Laser Range Measurement - 9 -
2-5 Triangulation Laser Range Measurement - 10 -
2-6 Phase-Shift Laser Range Measurement - 11 -
2-7 Super Heterodyne Theory - 14 -
Chapter 3 Phase Shift Laser Range Finding System - 17 -
3-1 Main Block Diagram - 17 -
3-2 Phase Locked Loop - 18 -
3-3 Laser Driving Circuit - 22 -
3-4 Optical Detection Circuit - 24 -
3-4-1 Avalanche Photo Diode - 24 -
3-4-2 Reverse Bias Voltage for APD - 26 -
3-5 Band Pass Filter & Low Pass Filter - 32 -
3-6 Automatic Gain Controller - 35 -
Chapter 4 A Novel Direct Mixing Techniques - 42 -
4-1 Double-Balanced Diode Mixer - 42 -
4-2 BJT Mixer - 45 -
4-3 Direct Mixing - 48 -
4-3-1 Direct Mixing with Half Wave Rectifier - 51 -
4-3-2 Simulation of Direct Mixing with Full Wave Rectifier - 58 -
Chapter 5 Simulation of New Type Pipelines Phase Detector - 60 -
Chapter 6 Conclusions - 66 -
References - 67 -
Publication List - 69 -
[1] Cypress, PLL, 「CY22393 datasheet,」 Jun. 23, 2004.
[2] HAMAMASTU Technical Information SD-28, 「Characteristics and use of Si APD (Avalanche Photodiode),」 Aug. 2001.
[3] Aimtron Inc. Application Note 「Boost Converter」.
[4] Analog Device Inc., VGA, 「AD603 datasheet,」 2007
[5] Plextek Ltd., Liam Devlin, Technical Information 「RF Mixer Design,」 Apr. 2000
[6] D. Dupuy, M. Lescure and M. Cousineau, 「A FMCW Laser Range-Finder Based on a Delay Line Technique,」 IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Budapest, Hungary, May 2 I-23,2001.
[7] St′ephane Poujouly and Bernard Journet, 「A twofold modulation frequency laser range finder,」 JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS, Opt. 4 (2002) S356–S363.
[8] David Dupuy, Marc Lescure and H′el`ene Tap-B′eteille, 「Analysis of an avalanche photodiode used as an optoelectronic mixer for a frequency modulated continuous wave laser range finder,」 JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS, Opt. 4 (2002) S332–S336.
[9] D. Castagnet, H. Tap-Beteille and M. Lescure, 「Avalanche photodiode based heterodyne optical head of a phase-shift laser range finder,」 Optical Engineering 454, 043003 April 2006.
[10] M. Zahid, J. S. Smith and J. Lucas, 「High frequency phase measurement for optical rangefinding system,」 IEE Proc. – Sci. Meas. Technol. Vol. 144, No.3, May 1997.
[11] Leica Geosystems AG, Heerbrugg, Switzerland, 「DEVICE FOR DISTANCE MEASUREMENT,」 Patent No. US005815251A, Sep. 29, 1998.
[12] Leica Geosystems AG, Heerbrugg (CH), 「DEVICE FOR CALIBRATING DISTANCE-MEASUREMENT APPARATUS,」 Patent No. US006463393B1, Oct. 8, 2002.
[13] Leica Mircosystems Heidelberg Gmbh, Mannheim (DE), 」OPTICAL ARRANGEMENT FOR TRANSMITTING SHORT LASER PULSES IN OPTICAL FIBERS,」 Patent No. US006621953B1, Sep. 16, 2003.
[14] Leica Geosystems AG, Heerbrugg (CH), 「METHOD AND DEVICE FOR MEASUREMENT DISTANCES,」 Patent No. US006864966B2, Mar. 8, 2005.
[15] Tyco Electronics Inc. Application Note M565, 「RF Balun transformers,」 Jun. 05, 2001.
[16] Texas Instruments Inc., Application Report 「Using the TPS61040 in High-Voltage Applications,」 May, 2005.
[17] HAMAMASTU, Si APD, 「S5139 datasheet,」 Sep. 2005.
[18] Arima Communications, Laser diode, 「ADL-63101TL datasheet」.
[29] Mini-Circuits, Frequency Mixer, 「ADE-1 datasheet」
[20] Fairchild, NPN Silicon transistor, 「BC817 datasheet,」 Nov. 2006.
[21] 江國維,「應用光電感測技術與超外差式 (Super heterodyne) 相位法之距離、震動、加速度量測系統」,國立成功大學電機工程學系碩士論文,九十一年六月。
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