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研究生:林書賢
研究生(外文):Shu-Shian Lin
論文名稱:探討採摘期對石柿柿葉抗氧化性之影響與柿葉茶之研製
論文名稱(外文):Study on the antioxidant activities of persimmon leaf by various harvesting periods and developing persimmon leaf tea
指導教授:余嚴尊
指導教授(外文):Yen-Tsun Yu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:石柿柿葉抗氧化柿葉茶採摘期
外文關鍵詞:persimmon leafantioxidative activitypersimmon leaf teaharvesting period
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本研究係以新竹縣北埔鄉所產之石柿柿葉為原料,採摘期為2007年4月至10月並以採隔週採摘方式進行,擬探討不同採摘期之石柿柿葉抗氧化活性及活性成分含量,確認最佳抗氧化性之石柿柿葉採摘期。另進一步,探討製作柿葉茶之乾燥溫度、殺菁與揉捻等製程處理參數對柿葉茶之抗氧化性、理化性質和感官品評之影響。研究結果顯示在清除DPPH自由基方面,以7月23日(PLSu V)採摘之柿葉最佳,其400 mg/L甲醇萃取物可達95.09 %清除能力;在螯合亞鐵離子、還原力方面及抑制亞麻油酸氧化能力方面,則皆以5月30日(PLSu II)採摘之柿葉為最佳。不同採摘期石柿柿葉之抗氧化相關活性成分含量,皆以5月30日(PLSu II)採摘柿葉之總酚、類黃酮及抗壞血酸含量較其他採摘期為佳,其含量分別為8.27 mg/g、0.60 mg/g及2.25 mg/g。
在石柿柿葉茶的乾燥溫度處理,50 oC較70 oC及90 oC的乾燥溫度有較佳之抑制亞麻油酸氧化能力,而其總酚、類黃酮及抗壞血酸含量亦皆為最高,所以50 oC 可做為石柿柿葉茶之乾燥溫度。另揉捻和殺菁製程處理之石柿葉茶總酚、類黃酮及抗壞血酸含量均較不處理為低。分析不同製程之石柿柿葉茶的理化性質,結果顯示經揉捻(PTR)製程之柿葉茶湯中可溶性醣、游離胺基酸及單寧含量較高,茶湯顏色 a和b值較高;殺菁(PTS)製程之之茶湯酸鹼值會較高。在石柿柿葉茶湯之感官品評中,以揉捻(PTR)製備之茶葉在顏色、酸度及澀度感上,接受度較高,50 oC 熱風乾燥(PTt50)則有較好的甘味和香氣接受度,就整體言之,以50 oC 熱風乾燥(PTt50)和揉捻(PTR)製程製備的茶葉最能被接受。
In this research we used persimmon leaves harvested from Hsinchu Peipu as raw materials. The harvesting period was from April to October in 2007, and two weeks a time. We evaluate the antioxidant activity and active component contents of different period persimmon leaves for determining the best harvesting period. On the other hand, we evaluate how drying temperature, steaming and rolling treatment affect the antioxidant activity of the persimmon leaf tea is. The result showed the methanol extracts of persimmon leaves harvested on 23th July (PLSu V) has the best scavenging DPPH free radical ability, performed 95.09% scavenging ability in the 400 mg/L. The methanol extracts of persimmon leaves harvested on 30th May (PLSu II) has the best the ferrous ion chelating ability, the reducing power and inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid ability. Antioxidative correlation active component content of persimmon leaf on 30th May harvesting one has the most content of total phenol, total flavonids and the ascorbic acid content is 8.27 mg/g ; 0.60 mg/g ; 2.25 mg/g respectively.
In drying treatment temperature of persimmon leaf tea at 50 oC compares 70 oC or 90 oC show a better inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid ability, and with higher total phenol, total flavonids and the ascorbic acid contents. Therefore, 50 oC is suit for persimmon leaf tea drying treatment. Moreover the total phenol, total flavonids and ascorbic acid contents of the persimmon leaves tea treated by rolling and steaming were higher than not one. Moreover physics and chemistry properties of different treatment demonstrated that soluble sugar, amino acid and tannin content of persimmon leaf tea in rolling and 50 oC drying (PTR) is highest, color of different treatment, demonstrated that a and the b value of persimmon leaf tea in rolling and 50 oC drying (PTR); pH of value of persimmon leaf tea in steaming and 50 oC drying (PTS) is highest.Sensory evaluation of persimmon leaf tea in the different treatment, demonstrated that color, acidity and astringent taste of persimmon leaf tea in rolling and 50 oC drying (PTR) is highest, sweetness and aroma of persimmon leaf tea in 50 oC drying (PTt50) is highest, but overall appeareance of persimmon leaf tea in 50 oC drying (PTt50) and rolling and 50 oC drying (PTR) are best.
摘要 I
Abstract II
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻回顧 2
一、石柿之介紹 2
(一)品種 2
(二)產量和產區 2
(三)生理情況與栽培條件 5
(四)、藥理作用 7
二、自由基與抗氧化機制之介紹 8
(一)自由基 8
(二)抗氧化系統 11
三、健康茶之介紹 19
(一)、健康茶 19
(二)茶的製作方式 24
参、研究目的與架構 26
肆、材料與方法 28
ㄧ、實驗材料 28
二、實驗方法 31
(一)石柿柿葉一般組成分析 31
(二)石柿柿葉萃取物之相關活性成分分析 34
(三)石柿柿葉萃取物之抗氧化分析 35
(四)不同製程之石柿柿葉茶之製備 38
(五)石柿柿葉茶湯分析 40
(六)統計分析方法 43
伍、結果與討論 44
一、新鮮石柿柿葉之ㄧ般組成份 44
二、不同採摘期石柿柿葉之甲醇萃取物之萃取率 44
三、採摘期對石柿柿葉抗氧化活性成分含量之影響 45
(一) 採摘期對石柿柿葉之總酚化合物含量變化 45
(二) 採摘期對石柿柿葉之類黃酮化合物含量變化 45
(三) 採摘期對石柿柿葉之抗壞血酸含量變化 46
四、採摘期對石柿柿葉及抗氧化活性之影響 46
(一) 採摘期對石柿柿葉之清除DPPH自由基能力 46
(二) 採摘期對石柿柿葉之螯合亞鐵離子能力 47
(三) 採摘期對石柿柿葉之還原力 48
(四) 採摘期對石柿柿葉之抑制亞麻油酸自氧化能力 49
五、製茶製程處理對其抗氧化活性及抗氧化活性成分含量影響 50
(一)、不同乾燥溫度,揉捻及殺菁處理石柿柿葉茶之熱水萃取率 50
(三)、揉捻與殺菁處理對石柿柿葉茶熱水萃取物之總酚類,類黃酮和抗壞血酸含量的影響 52
(四)、乾燥溫度、揉捻和殺菁處理對石柿柿葉茶之抑制亞麻油酸氧化能力 53
五、探討石柿葉茶湯之理化性質及感官品評 53
(一)石柿柿葉茶湯之可溶性醣含量 53
(二)石柿柿葉茶湯之單寧含量 54
(三)石柿柿葉茶湯之游離胺基酸含量 55
(四)石柿柿葉茶之茶湯水色和pH值 55
(五)石柿柿葉茶茶湯及市售產品的感官品評 58
陸、結論 59
柒、參考文獻 60
捌、表 73
玖、圖 84
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