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研究生:黃培銘
研究生(外文):Pei-Ming Huang
論文名稱:以DWT-SVD為基礎之影像分享浮水印機制
論文名稱(外文):Image Sharing Watermarking Scheme Base on DWT-SVD
指導教授:陳偉銘陳偉銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wei-Ming Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:資訊工程研究所碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:數位浮水印視覺密碼小波轉換奇異值分解秘密分享
外文關鍵詞:digital watermarkingvisual cryptographyDWTsingular value decompositionsecret sharing
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我們提出一種新型的數位浮水印技術,目的是提高浮水印的強韌性以及保障影像的版權所有者的權益。
這篇論文用不擴展的視覺密碼學產生兩張分享影像來做為浮水印,滿足了以往難以同時存在的兩個條件:公開驗證及保證浮水印的安全。
第一個分享影像利用小波轉換可提高浮水印的穩蔽性和強韌性的特點,以及奇異值分解有很好穩定性的特性,來抵抗各種攻擊,而且浮水印的抽取過程不需要原始圖像的參考,可提高效率也不需浪費儲存空間。抽取完成後,利用錯誤修正還原的技術,把經破壞後的pixel進行修復工作。
第二個分享影像則是使用Blakley秘密分享方法的觀念,把這些影像當成主金鑰,並分成數個次金鑰給一些持有人保管,若要回覆主金鑰則只要任兩個人拿各自的金鑰結合,即可算出分享影像的圖。
In this paper, one kind of new watermarking technology was proposed .It will improve robustness of the watermark. We use non-extend visual cryptography to produce two share images. Simultaneously it may also solve the existing conditions : public verification and watermark security.
In the first share image , we use the DWT and SVD transformation. And we can not only get the more robust and stabile watermark to resist all kinds of the attacks, but also we don’t need original image to extract watermark, so it can enhance quality and won’t waste storage. Finally, we can use same technology to recover extract’s watermark .
The other share image used by the idea of blakley secret sharing, just regards image as the main key. When reconstructing the original image, we just need to gather two shared images and calculate every two pixels from these .
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 1
1.3 研究方法 2
1.4 論文架構 2
第二章 文獻探討 3
2.1 浮水印概論(Watermark) 3
2.2 離散小波轉換(Direct Wavelet Transform ,DWT) 6
2.2.1 Haar離散小波轉換 7
2.3 視覺密碼學(Visual Cryptography) 9
2.4 Blakley 秘密分享 13
2.5 奇異值分解(Singular Value Decomposition ,SVD) 15
2.5.1 Liu 和 Tan’s 浮水印嵌入方法 16
2.5.2 Chandra’s 浮水印嵌入方法 17
2.6 Torus Automorphism 18
2.7 影像評估標準(Performance Measurement) 19
第三章 研究方法與步驟 21
3.1 嵌入演算法 22
3.2 取出演算法 33
3.3 秘密分享方法 39
3.4 秘密分享還原 43
第四章 實驗結果 47
4.1 Median Filter(7*7)攻擊測試 49
4.2 Mean Filter(7*7)攻擊測試 54
4.3 Salt & Pepper攻擊測試 58
4.4 Jpeg2000(50:1)壓縮測試 61
4.5 銳利化 64
4.6 Crop攻擊測試 67
第五章 結論與未來展望 69
5.1 結論 69
5.2 未來展望 70
參考文獻 71
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[2] Yusnita Yusof and Othman O. Khalifa, Member, IEEE, "Digital Watermarking For Digital Images Using Wavelet Transform " 14-17 May 2007 Page(s):665-669, IEEE CNF

[3] I. Hong, I. Kim, and S.S. Han, "A blind watermarking technique using wavelet transform", Proceedings on IEEE International Symposium of Industrial Electronics, Volume: 3, 2001, pp.1946-1950

[4] J.J. Chas, B.S. Manjunath, "A Robust Embedded Data from Wavelet Coefficients", Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,PP.1-10.

[5] M. Naor, and A. Shamir, "Visual Cryptography", Advances in Cryptology-Eurocrypt’94, Spring-Verlag, Berlin, 1995, pp.1-12.

[6] Stinson, D, "Visual cryptography and threshold schemes", Volume 18, Issue 1, Feb-Mar 1999 Page(s):13-16 , IEEE JNL

[7] Liguo Fang; Bin Yu, "Research on Pixel Expansion of (2,n) Visual Threshold Scheme", 3-5 Aug. 2006 Page(s):856-860 , IEEE CNF

[8] Chin-Chen Chang, Jun-Chou Chuang, Pei-Yu Lin, "Sharing a Secret Two-Tone Image in Two Gray-Level Images", Volume 2, 20-22 July 2005 Page(s):300-304 Vol. 2

[9] G. R. Blakley, "Safeguarding Cryptographic Keys, " AFIPS Conference Processing, 1979.

[10] Adi Shamir, "How to share a secret", Communications of the ACM, Volume 22 , Issue 11, Pages: 612 - 613 ,1979

[11] C.C. Thien and J.C. Lin, "Secret Image Sharing" Computers & Graphics, Vol.26, pp.765-770,2002

[12] Chien-Chang Chen and Wen-Yin Fu, "A Geometry-Based Secret Image Sharing Approach", Image and Vision Computing New Zealand, New Zealand, November, 2005

[13] 傅文殷,陳建彰"植基於多維空間的機密影像分享方法",玄奘大學,資訊管理碩士,2004

[14] R. Liu, T. Tan, "An SVD-Based watermarking scheme for protecting rightful ownership "IEEE Trans. On Multimedia, vol. 4, Page(s):121-128, No. 1, March 2002.

[15] Chandra, D.V.S.: Digital Image Watermarking Using Singular Value Decomposition. In: MWSCAS 2002. Proceedings of 45th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems,August 4-7, 2002, vol. 3, pp. 264-267 (2002)

[16] Rui Sun, Hong Sun and Tianren Yao , "A SVD-and Quantization Based Semi-fragile Watermarking Technique for Image Authentication" ,IEEE CNF, Signal Processing, 2002 6th International Conference on Volume 2, 26-30 Aug. 2002 Page(s):1592-1595 vol.2

[17] Gary Brimley Utah State University, "Robust and Fragile Image Adaptive Watermarking Using DWT and SVD", August 8, 2006

[18] Chin-Chen Chang , Yih-Shin Hu , and Chia-Chen Lin , "A Digital Watermarking Scheme Based on Singular Value Decomposition", ESCAPE 2007: 82-93
[19] Xinzhong Zhu, Jianmin Zhao and Huiying Xu, "A Digital Watermarking Algorithm and Implementation Based on Improved SVD", Volume: 3, On page(s): 651-656,IEEE CNF,2006

[20] Liu Liang; Sun Qi, "A new SVD-DWT composite watermarking", IEEE CNF , Volume 4,16-20 2006

[21] Chin-Chen Chang, Ju-Yuan Hsiao and Chi-Lung Chiang, "An Image Copyright Protection Scheme Based on Torus Automorphism", 6-8 Nov. 2002 Page(s):217-224, IEEE CNF
[22] Tung-Shou Chen、Jian-Guo Chen, " A simple and efficient watermark technique based on JPEG2000 Codec", Volume 10, Number 1, June 2004
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