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研究生:謝國榮
研究生(外文):Hsieh, Kuo-Jung
論文名稱:非正規高齡教育機構英語學習者溝通恐懼、自我導向學習傾向與學習滿意度關係之研究
論文名稱(外文):Research on the relationship among communication apprehension, self-directed learning readiness and learner’s satisfaction of English learners in nonformal senior educational institutions
指導教授:王政彥王政彥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wang, Cheng-Yen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:成人教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:成人教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:251
中文關鍵詞:溝通恐懼自我導向學習傾向學習滿意度高齡學習非正規高齡教育機構
外文關鍵詞:communication apprehensionself-directed learning readinesslearner’s satisfactionelder learningnonformal senior educational institutions
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本研究係以非正規高齡教育機構英語學習者為研究對象,進行其溝通恐懼、自我導向學習傾向、學習滿意度的研究,旨在探討高齡英語學習者這三個心理知覺的概況和之間的關係,以供非正規高齡教育機構規劃辦理英語學習活動和高齡者參與非正規英語學習活動之參考。為達到此一目的,本研究採問卷調查與半結構式訪談法進行研究,以「高齡英語學習者溝通恐懼、自我導向學習傾向與學習滿意度調查問卷」蒐集量化資料,該問卷的信、效度均相當良好;並以t考驗、單因子變異數分析、皮爾遜積差相關分析、雙因子變異數分析等統計方法,進行資料分析與考驗研究假設。另外,也以半結構式訪談大綱取得質性資料,以強化研究論述之依據。

本研究有效樣本共計378位,包括在臺北市長青學苑、臺中曉明長青大學、臺南生活美學館附設長青社會大學、高雄市長青學苑參與英語課程的高齡者。經統計分析與資料整理編目後獲致十一項結論:
(一) 整體而言普遍具有略低的溝通恐懼,且在「兩人互動」上的知覺程度最高。
(二) 整體而言普遍具有偏高的自我導向學習傾向,且在「持續學習」上的知覺程度最高。
(三) 整體而言普遍具有略高的學習滿意度,且在「自我成長」上的知覺程度最高。
(四) 影響溝通恐懼的因素,包括性別、年齡、英語學習經驗、自覺健康狀況及自覺經濟狀況。
(五) 影響自我導向學習傾向的因素,包括自覺健康狀況、自覺經濟狀況及居住狀況。
(六) 影響學習滿意度的因素,包括性別、年齡、英語學習經驗、自覺經濟狀況、居住狀況、教育機構及英語課程類型。
(七) 溝通恐懼與學習滿意度之間呈現低度負相關。
(八) 自我導向學習傾向與學習滿意度之間呈現低度至中度正相關。
(九) 溝通恐懼與自我導向學習傾向之間呈現低度負相關。
(十) 年齡和溝通恐懼在學習滿意度的知覺上有顯著之交互作用。
(十一) 年齡和自我導向學習傾向在學習滿意度的知覺上有顯著之交互作用。

本研究對非正規高齡教育機構的建議為:
(一) 提供更多符合高齡者學習需求的英語課程,以促進不同社經背景的高齡者參與。
(二) 重視個別高齡英語學習者的需求,改善使其產生溝通恐懼的學習環境。
(三) 健全與高齡英語學習者雙向溝通機制,並參酌其意見設計課程,使其能真正自我瞭解、喜愛學習,獲致最高的學習滿意度。

本研究對非正規高齡教育機構英語學習者本身的建議:
(一) 破除傳統迷思,勇於依照個人興趣參與學習活動。
(二) 增加和同學懇談的機會,儘可能避開讓自己產生溝通恐懼的情境。
(三) 瞭解自己的能力範圍與問題所在,並衡量健康與經濟狀況,務實參與喜愛之英語課程。
(四) 摒除成績表現和進步時程等壓力,以提升自我的學習滿意度。
The research mainly focuses on English learners of nonformal senior educational institutions, dealing with their communication apprehension, self-directed learning readiness, and learner’s satisfaction. Meanwhile, the gist is to probe into the state of the three psychological perceptions mentioned above and the relationship among them, so as to be the references for nonformal senior educational institutions and nonformal senior English learners. With a view to achieving it, the research adopts the manners of questionnaire survey and semistructured interview. Besides, the researcher uses the instrument “Questionnaire for the Investigation of Senior English Learners’ Communication Apprehension, Self-directed Learning Readiness, and Learner’s Satisfaction ” to get quantitative data; the validity and reliability of this questionnaire are both good. Then, the researcher execute statistical analyses, inclusive of t-tests, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and two-way ANOVA in order to analyze the data and test the hypotheses. On the other hand, the research also uses “Semistructured Interview Outline” to collect qualitative data, making the discussion stronger.

There are 378 sample elders in all, including those at Taipei Senior Educational Institute, Taichung Stella Matutina Senior College, Tainan Senior Social College and Kaohsiung Senior Educational Institute. After statistically analyzing and coding, the research gets 11 conclusions:
1. Overall, the English learners have slightly low communication apprehension; and the tendency of “speaking in dyads” is the most obvious.

2. Overall, the English learners have rather high self-directed learning readiness; and the tendency of “future orientation” is the most obvious.
3. Overall, the English learners have slightly high learner’s satisfaction; and the tendency of “self-fulfillment” is the most obvious.
4. The factors that affect the English learners’ tendency towards communication apprehension are sex, age, English learning experience, self-perception of health and economy.
5. The factors that affect the English learners’ tendency towards self-directed learning readiness are self-perception of health, self-perception of economy and style of dwelling.
6. The factors that affect the English learners’ tendency towards learner’s satisfaction are sex, age, English learning experience, self-perception of economy, style of dwelling, educational institution and type of English course.
7. The English learners’ communication apprehension and learner’s satisfaction are lowly counter-correlated.
8. The English learners’ self-directed learning readiness and learner’s satisfaction are lowly or moderately correlated.
9. The English learners’ communication apprehension and self-directed learning readiness are lowly counter-correlated.
10. The reciprocation between the English learners’ age and level of communication apprehension on their learner’s satisfaction is obvious.
11. The reciprocation between the English learners’ age and level of self-directed learning readiness on their learner’s satisfaction is obvious.

The researcher addresses some suggestions to the nonformal senior educational institutions as follows:
1. It’s necessary to give more English courses meeting the senior’s learning needs, so as to promote the participation of the senior from different kinds of background.
2. Lay emphasis on every single elder’s special learning needs, and improve the learning environments which make him/her communication apprehensive.
3. Increase two-way communication opportunities with the senior English learners; furthermore, take their opinions into consideration when arranging courses. Then, they can really realize themselves, love to learn, and get the highest learner’s satisfaction.

The researcher also addresses some suggestions to the English learners in nonformal senior educational institutions as follows:
1. Extirpate traditional myths; have the courage to attend learning activities in accordance with your interests.
2. Grasp every chance to talk to your classmates; keep away from the environments that will make you raise communication apprehension as possible as you can.
3. Try to realize your ability and problems; judge your condition of health and economy, and take the English courses you love pragmatically.
4. Remove the pressure of academic performance and progression deadline, so that you can heighten your learner’s satisfaction.
第一章 緒 論 …………………………………………………………..….. 1
第一節 研究背景與重要性 …………………………………………………………………… 2
第二節 研究動機與目的 ……………………………………………………………………… 8
第三節 研究問題 ………………………………………………….………………………...... 11
第四節 名詞釋義 …………………………………………………………………………….. 12
第五節 研究範圍與限制 ………………………………………………………………….. 17

第二章 文獻探討 ……………………………………………………………….. 20
第一節 非正規高齡教育機構英語學習概況分析 ……………………………………….. 20
第二節 溝通恐懼相關理論與研究 ……………………………………………………….. 39
第三節 自我導向學習傾向相關理論與研究 …………………………………………….. 54
第四節 學習滿意度相關理論與研究 …………………………………………………….. 70
第五節 溝通恐懼、自我導向學習傾向與學習滿意度關係之分析 …………………….. 79

第三章 研究設計與實施 ……………………………………………………... 83
第一節 研究架構 ………………………………………………………………………….. 84
第二節 研究假設 ………………………….…………………………………………….. 86
第三節 研究方法 ………………………………………………………………………….. 89
第四節 研究對象 ………………………………………………………………………….. 91
第五節 研究工具 ………………………………………………………………………….. 95
第六節 實施程序 ……………………….………………………………………………….... 117
第七節 資料處理 …………………………………………………………………………….. 120

第四章 研究結果與討論 ……………………………………………………… 123
第一節 受試者基本資料分析 ……………………………………………………………….. 123
第二節 受試者溝通恐懼、自我導向學習傾向及學習滿意度之現況分析 …….………....... 129
第三節 不同社會人口變項在溝通恐懼、自我導向學習傾向與學習滿意度上之差異分
析 ………………………….………………………………………………………..… 133
第四節 受試者溝通恐懼、自我導向學習傾向、學習滿意度之相關分析 …………….….. 177
第五節 不同社會人口變項和溝通恐懼及自我導向學習傾向在學習滿意度上交互作用
之差異分析 …………………….………………………………………………..….. 181

第五章 結論與建議 ….………………………………………………………… 193
第一節 主要研究發現 ……………..…..………………..………………………………….... 193
第二節 結論 ………………..………………………………………………………………… 200
第三節 建議 ………………………………………………………………………………….. 205

參考文獻 ….…………………………………………………………………… 214

附 錄 ………………………………………………..……………………… 230
附錄一 高齡英語學習者溝通恐懼、自我導向學習傾向與學習滿意度調查問卷初稿 …….. 230
附錄二 高齡英語學習者溝通恐懼、自我導向學習傾向與學習滿意度調查問卷預試問卷… 237
附錄三 高齡英語學習者溝通恐懼、自我導向學習傾向與學習滿意度調查問卷正式問卷… 242
附錄四 半結構式訪談大綱 …………………………………………………………………… 247
附錄五 半結構式訪談內容重點 ………………………………………..…………………… 248
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