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研究生:翁嘉孜
研究生(外文):Chia-Tzu Wong
論文名稱:高中生對話日誌寫作對英語寫作能力、反省、焦慮及動機之效益研究
論文名稱(外文):Effects of dialogue journal writing on writing proficiency, reflection, anxiety, and motivation of senior high school students
指導教授:廖明姿廖明姿引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Tzu Liao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:155
中文關鍵詞:對話日誌寫作能力寫作反省寫作動機寫作焦慮
外文關鍵詞:Dialogue journal writingwriting proficiencywriting reflectionwriting motivationwriting anxiety
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論文摘要:本研究主旨在探討對話日誌對高中生英文寫作之效益。此研究檢測對話日誌對於高中生英文寫作能力及自我成長反省的提升。此外,本研究探討寫作焦慮及內在動機對英文寫作的影響。 最後,本研究進一步探討受試者對於對話日誌的反應。 本研究以國立中山大學附中四十一位高一學生為研究對象。在為期十二週的對話日誌課程中,受試者必須每週撰寫一篇自定主題的文章及一篇情境文章。研究者再根據其內容給予回應。在對話日誌課程前後,所有學生必須接受前測及後測寫作測驗,其目的在檢視學生的英文寫作能力。此外,學生還必須接受前測及後測問卷調查,此目的乃在檢測學生對英文寫作反省、焦慮及動機的反應。最後,四位寫作測驗成績分別居高與低的學生參加後續訪談。在資料分析上,除了收集、統計及量化分析前測及後測兩次作文成績與五點式問卷之外,學生的前後兩篇日誌也會收集、統計及量化分析字數長短,並針對在後測問卷及訪談中詢問學生對於自我成長及對話日誌課程的開放性問題做質化分析。 本研究的主要發現摘述如下: 一、對話日誌課程正向提升學生寫作能力。學生在寫作內容、組織及字彙上都有顯著進步。 二、對話日誌課程正向提升學生寫作流暢度。學生後兩篇日誌的長度較前兩篇有明顯增長。 二、透過對話日誌課程,學生在英文寫作及自我成長的反省覺察強化了。學 生描述透過對話日誌課程更多反省學業及人際關係,對自我了解及成長 有助益。 三、對話日誌課程減低學生的寫作焦慮並同時提升學生的內在寫作動機。 四、學生整體對對話日誌課程持正面的肯定。 根據以上研究結果,研究者提出四點有關對話日誌在高中生英文寫作教學上的建議: 一、 英語寫作教師可以將對話日誌課程融入英文寫作教學中以增進學生的寫作能力及流暢度。 二、 英語寫作教師可以將對話日誌課程融入英文寫作教學中以培養學生在英語寫作及個人成長的反省覺察。 三、 英語寫作教師可以將對話日誌課程融入英文寫作教學中以發展學生英語寫作信心及降低其對批改的恐懼。 四、 透過對話日誌寫作應用,英語寫作教師可以提升學生寫作動機。
ABSTRACTThe purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of the dialogue journal writing (DJW) project on English proficiency of senior high school. Specifically, the influence of the DJW project on the students’ reflective awareness on English writing as well as on self-growth was explored. In addition, the effect of the DJW project on students’ writing anxiety as well as motivation was probed. Finally, the students’ responses to the DJW project were examined. The subjects of this study were 41 tenth-graders in National Sun Yet-san University Affiliated Kuo Kwang Middle School in Kaohsiung. During the twelve-week DJW project in writing, all of the students had to keep one free-topic writing and one situational reading and writing per week. Then the researcher commented on their writing based on the messages they carried. Before and after the DJW project, the students were required to take the pre-study and post-study English writing tests. In addition, the students were asked to take pre-study and post-study questionnaires so as to investigate their writing reflection, anxiety and motivation. Finally, four of the students whose writing scores ranked in higher and lower positions were invited to participate in the follow-up interviews. In data analysis, the results of the scores of the two writing tests, the word number of the first and last two entries, and the five-point scale questions were collected, computed and analyzed quantitatively. Moreover, the students’ responses to the reflections on English writing and self-growth, the DJW project, as well as the follow-up interviews were analyzed qualitatively. Based on the quantitative and qualitative data analyses, the findings of the present study are summarized as follows: 1. The implementation of the DJW project had a great influence on the subjects’ English writing proficiency. The subjects’ made progress in English writing in terms of content, organization and vocabulary. 2. The effect of the DJW project significantly affected the subjects’ writing fluency. The subjects’ writing word length in the first and last two journal entries reveal a significant difference. 3. The students’ reflective awareness on English writing and self-growth as learners and individuals was reinforced after the DJW project. The students reported that through the exchange of dialogue journals, they reflected more on their schoolwork, people skills and gradually developed in self-understanding and self-growth. 4. The DJW project helped reduce the students’ writing anxiety and in the meantime promote their intrinsic writing motivation. They stated that English writing was not that fearful to them. Some even said that they wanted to write down what they observed in English. 5. The students held positive attitudes toward the DJW project in enhancing their writing ability and fluency as well as reducing their anxiety in writing. Following the research findings, some pedagogical implications were provided for EFL writing teachers. 1. EFL writing teachers can incorporate the DJW project into their English writing instruction to help students with their writing proficiency and fluency 2. EFL writing teachers can implement the DJW project into their English writing instruction to develop students’ reflective awareness on English writing and individual growth. 3. EFL writing teachers are recommended to use the DJW project to build up students’ writing confidence and reduce their fear of evaluation. 4. EFL writing teachers can elicit the most of students’ intrinsic motivation through the incorporation of the DJW project. .
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background and Motivation 1 Statements of the Problem 6 Purposes of the Study 8 Research Questions 9 Significance of the Study 9 Limitations of the Study 10 Definition of Terms 11 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Writing Instruction 13 The Product-oriented Writing Approach 14 The Process-oriented Writing Approach 15 Free Writing 17 Dialogue Journal Writing 18 The Origin of Dialogue Journals 18 The Benefits of Dialogue Journals 19 Dialogue Journals and Writing Fluency 20 Writing Fluency 21 Dialogue Journals in Enhancing Writing Fluency 22 Reflections 24 Building Knowledge 24 Reflective Writing 25 Reflections through Journal Writing 26 Writing Apprehension 29 The Tendency of High and Low Apprehensive Students 30 The Causes of Students’ Writing Apprehension 31 Dialogue Journal Writing in Reducing Writing Apprehension 32 Motivation 33 Learning Motivation 34 Environmental Events on Intrinsic Motivation 35 Motivation through Dialogue Journal Writing 36 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY Subjects 37 Instruments 38 The Pre-study and Post-study Tests 39 Questionnaires 40 Follow-up Interviews 41 The subjects’ Journal Entries 42 The Subjects’ First and Last Two Journal Entries 43 Study Procedures 43 Data Analysis 45 A Quantitative Analysis 46 A Qualitative Analysis 47 CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Effects of the DJW Project on the Students’ English Writing Proficiency 48 Comparison of the Students’ Overall English Writing Performance Before and After the DJW Project 49 Comparison of the Students’ English Writing Proficiency in Terms of Content, Organization and Vocabulary 50 Effects of the DJW Project on the Students’ Writing Fluency 51 Comparison of the Students’ Writing Fluency in Word Number 51 Effects of the DJW Project on the Students’ Reflective Awareness on English Writing 52 Comparison of the Students’ Overall Reflective Awareness on English Writing Before and After the DJW Project 52 Comparison of Each Item of the Students’ Reflective Awareness on English Writing Before and After the DJW Project 53 Effects of the DJW Project on the Students’ Writing Anxiety 55 Comparison of the Students’ Anxiety on Overall English Writing Before and After the DJW Project 56 Comparison of Each Item of the Students’ Anxiety on English Writing Before and After the DJW Project 56 Effects of the DJW Project on the Students’ Intrinsic Writing Motivation 60 Comparison of the Students’ Overall Intrinsic Motivation on English Writing Before and After the DJW Project 60 Comparison of Each Item of the Students’ Intrinsic Motivation on English Writing Before and After the DJW Project 61 Students’ Responses to the DJW Project 64 Students’ Responses to the DJW Project 64 Students’ Feeling About the Exchange of Dialogue Journals 67 Results of Open-ended Questions 70 Students’ Reflections on English Writing 71 Students’ Reflections on Strengths and Weaknesses in English Writing Before and After the DJW Project 71 Students’ Reflections on Improvement or Need to be Improved in English Writing 72 Students’ Reflections on Dealing with Difficulties in English Writing 73 Discussions of the Students’ Reflections on English Writing 73 Students’ Reflective Awareness on Self-growth After the DJW Project 74 Students’ Reflective Awareness on Self-growth Through the Exchange of Dialogue Journals 74 Students’ Reflective Awareness on Self-growth Through Situational Reading and Writing 76 Students’ Responses to Keeping Dialogue Journals 77 Students’ Feelings Toward Dialogue Journal Before and After the Studies 77 Students’ Preference Toward the Two Different Writing Activities 79 DJW Project as a Tool for Personal Growth and Self-understanding 80 Follow-up Interviews 82 Discussions of the Follow-up Interviews 85 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS Conclusions 88 Pedagogical Implications 90 Suggestions for Future Research 92 REFERENCES 94 APPENDIX Appendix A-1: English Writing Test I 114 Appendix A-2: English Writing Test II 116 Appendix B-1: A Pre-study Questionnaire on Students’ English Writing Reflections, Apprehension and Motivation (Chinese Version) 118 Appendix B-1: A Pre-study Questionnaire on Students’ English Writing Reflections, Apprehension and Motivation (English Version) 121 Appendix B-2: A Post-study Questionnaire on Students’ Writing Reflections, Apprehension, Motivation and Students’ Responses to the DJW Project (Chinese Version) 125 Appendix B-2: A Post-study Questionnaire on Students’ Writing Reflections, Apprehension, Motivation and Students’ Responses to the DJW Project (English Version) 133 Appendix C: Follow-up Interviews 141 Appendix D: Sample Scoring Criteria 142 Appendix E: The Checking List of the Dialogue Journal Writing Project 144 Appendix F: Two Samples of Advanced students’ writing 146 Appendix G: Two Samples of the students’ first and last writing entries 148 Appendix H: Two Samples of the students’ pre-study and post-study tests 152 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1. Comparison of the Students’ Overall English Writing Proficiency Before and After the DJW Project 49 2. Comparison of the Students’ English Writing Proficiency in Content, Organization and Vocabulary 50 3. Comparison of the Students’ Writing Fluency in Word Number 52 4. Comparison of Students’ Overall Reflective Awareness on English Writing Before and After the DJW Project 53 5. Comparison of Each Item of the Students’ Reflective Awareness on English Writing Before and After the DJW project 54 6. Comparison of the Students’ Overall Anxiety on English Writing Before and After the DJW Project 56 7. Comparison of Each Item of the Students’ Anxiety on English Writing Before and After the DJW Project 57 8. Comparison of the Students’ Overall Intrinsic Motivation on English Writing Before and After the DJW Project 60 9. Comparison of Each Item of the Students’ Intrinsic Motivation on English Writing Before and After DJW Project 62 10. Students’ Responses to the DJW Project 65 11. Students’ Feeling About the Exchange of Dialogue Journals 67 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1. A Chart of the study procedures 45
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