(3.238.186.43) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/01 15:08
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:黃旭生
研究生(外文):Graduate : Hsiu-Sheng Huang
論文名稱:臺灣高中生英文寫作動詞句型錯誤分析
論文名稱(外文):AN ANALYSIS OF ERRORS IN VERB FORMS AND VERB COMPLEMENTS IN TAIWANESE HIGH SCHOOLSTUDENTS’ ENGLISH COMPOSITION
指導教授:余光雄余光雄引用關係蘇碧瓊蘇碧瓊引用關係
指導教授(外文):Grover K. H. YuPi-chong Su
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:動詞補語學習策略限定動詞非限定動詞標示差異理論母語轉換逃避類推簡化過度修正以偏概全
外文關鍵詞:verb complementationlearning strategyfinite verbsnon-finite verbsMarkedness Differential HypothesisL1 transferavoidanceanalogysimplificationhypercorrectionovergeneralization
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:590
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:134
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:13
本論文研究目的在分析台灣高中學生在英語動詞形式與動詞補詞句型所犯的錯誤型態及各類型之錯誤頻率。以便能找出在英語動詞領域上的學習困難。本研究的要旨在鑑定可能造成犯錯的各種因素,了解學生在學習與寫作過程中所採用的策略,並探討不同程度之學生在寫作上所犯錯誤之類型與犯錯誤頻率之差異,以便能提供改進英文語法與英文寫作教學的適當方法。研究對象為1,076位台灣高中學生。總共有1,076篇短篇作文被收集,其中948篇被挑選為分析用的寫作資料。所有文章皆經由兩位參加過聯考批改英文作文,經驗豐富的老師交換批閱,評定為三個不同寫作能力的等級。  所有語料所發現的錯誤分成三個主要類型:限定動詞之錯誤,非限定動詞之錯誤及動詞補語句型之錯誤。然後該三主要類型再依序分成次要類型。錯誤分析重點集中於限定動詞的四個系統--時態、狀態、語態與語氣;非限定動詞三個領域--不定詞、動名詞與分詞;以及六個動詞補語句型--純不及物動詞型,單賓動詞型,雙賓動詞型,複合不及物動詞型,複合及物動詞型以及雙字或多字動詞型。  分析結果顯示目標語言在較複雜及具變化傾向的形式及句型,得到相對較高的錯誤頻率,也對學習英語的台灣學生較具困難度。顯然這種結果與艾克曼(Eckman)所提出的標示差異理論(Markedness Differential Hypothesis )相互符合。該理論聲明假如目標語言的形式不同於母語之對應形式,或者目標語言形式是變化型或較具變異性,而母語之對應形式是基本型或較不具變異性,則這種目標語言之形式較難學習。   分析結果亦顯示:母語干擾是導致犯錯的重要因素。然而語言間之差異並非二語學習犯錯的唯一原因。有些錯誤是由於目標語言動詞型、語法規則、語意內涵之複雜性所造成的。有些錯誤則由於學生在學習寫作過程所應用的策略造成的,這種學習寫作策略包括逃避、類推、簡化、過度修正、以偏蓋全...等。還有一些錯誤則是學生缺乏練習或老師在課堂上不當舉例或不當訓練方法所造成的。   不同程度各組間多重比較分析結果顯示:在大部份動詞類型裡,高程度的學生與中程度的學生其犯錯頻率有顯著差異,而中程度學生與低程度學生亦如此。分析結果同時顯示:具較高語文能力的學生比具較低語文能力的學生顯然在大部份表層次的動詞型遭遇相對低的難度。   本研究最後依分析結果,提出相關的教學建議及減少各類錯誤的適當方法,希望本研究能鼓舞英語教學界同行們一起朝該目標努力,以期突破,有效解決動詞形式與動詞補語句型教學上的問題。 關鍵詞 : 動詞補語,學習策略,限定動詞,非限定動詞,標示差異理論,母語轉換,逃避,類推,簡化,過度修正,以偏概全。
This study is basically pedagogical. It aims to analyze the error types of the English verb forms and verb complementation patterns committed by Taiwanese EFL students in order to find out the students’ difficulties with this area of grammar learning. Its purpose is to identify the possible factors for committing such kinds of errors, to understand the strategies taken by the EFL students in the process of writing, to investigate the differences between the error frequencies made by students with different levels of language proficiency, and to suggest a proper way to improve or adjust the grammar and composition teaching in EFL classrooms. The subjects were composed of 1,076 Taiwanese EFL students. A total of 1,076 short essays were collected, and for data analysis 948 compositions were selected. They were assessed through inter-rater grading and then divided into three groups with different levels of writing ability or language proficiency. All the errors found in the corpus were classified into three main categories: errors with finite verbs, errors with non-finite verbs, and errors with verb complementation patterns. Then these three major error types were sub-classified into subcategories. The analysis work focused on four points of the finite verbs: tense, aspect, voice, and mood; three areas of non-finite verbs: infinitives, gerunds and participles; and six major verb complementation patterns: intransitive verb patterns, monotrasitive verb patterns, ditransitive verb patterns, complex-intransitive or copular verb patterns, complex-transitive verb patterns, and multi-word verb patterns. The analysis results show that the forms and patterns that have complex rules or are more marked in the target language (TL) enjoy relatively higher error frequencies and are generally more difficult for Taiwanese EFL writers. Such results appear to conform to Eckman’s Markedness Differential Hypothesis (Eckman, 1977), which says that a TL form will be difficult to learn if it is different from the corresponding L1 form, and if the TL form is marked or more marked while the L1 form is unmarked or less marked. The analysis results also show that L1 transfer appears to be one of the most important factors for committing writing errors. However, cross-linguistic influence is not the sole factor for EFL learners’ errors. Some errors probably are due to the intralingual complexities of the verb system, the syntactic rule, and the semantic implication of the target language. Other errors seem to be caused by the learning or communication strategies employed by the EFL writers, including avoidance, analogy, simplification, hypercorrection, and overgeneralization. Still others are probably caused by students’ insufficient practice or induced by improper ways in which EFL teachers give examples and arrange practice opportunities. Multiple comparisons among the error frequency counts across groups show that students with high-level language proficiency made significantly lower error frequencies than those with middle-level proficiency, who in turn made significantly lower error frequencies than those with low-level proficiency in most categories and subcategories of verb constructions. Analysis results indicates that EFL writers with higher language proficiency encountered relatively less difficulty with most surface-level forms and patterns than those with lower proficiency. Finally, pedagogical implications were provided, and proper ways of reducing each error type were suggested. It is hoped that the present study will encourage all the fellow EFL instructors to move in the same direction so that we can achieve a final breakthrough in our efforts to solve the problem of the learning in both verb forms and verb complements. Key Words: verb complementation, learning strategy, finite verbs, non-finite verbs, Markedness Differential Hypothesis, L1 transfer, avoidance, analogy, simplification, hypercorrection, overgeneralization
Chapter Page 1. Introduction ……………………………………….………………………… 1 1.1. Background of the Study……………………………………………..… 2 1.2. Purposes of the Study ………………………………………………….. 6 1.3. Research Questions…………………………………………………….. 7 1.4. Delimitation and Generalizability…………….………………………… 7 1.5. Criteria for Identifying Errors …………………………………………. 7 1.6. Significance of the Study …………………………………………….... 10 1.7. Definition of Terms ……………………………………………………. 12 2. A Review of Related Literature ……………………………………………. 24 2.1. Structure and Classification of Verbs and Verb Phrases ………………. 24 2.1.1. Verb Classes ……………………………………………………. 30 2.1.2. Verb Forms ……………………………………………………... 32 2.1.3. Verb Systems …………………………………………………… 35 2.2. The Theories of Tense and Aspect Systems …………………………… 36 2.2.1. Various Accounts for Tense …………………………………….. 37 2.2.2. Controversies over Future Tense ……………………………….. 45 2.2.3. Various Accounts of Aspect …………………………………….. 49 2.2.4. The Tense-Aspect System in Mandarin Chinese ………………. 53 2.2.4.1. Grammatical Aspect in Mandarin Chinese ……………… 54 2.2.4.2. Lexical Aspect in Mandarin Chinese ……………………. 58 2.3. Theories of Modal System …………………………………………….. 61 2.3.1. Mood and Modality …………………………………………….. 62 2.3.2. Grammatical Types of Modality ……………………………….. 64 2.3.3. Linguistic Expression of Mood and Modality …………….……. 65 2.3.4. Types of Modality ………………………………………….…… 66 2.4. Theories of Voice in English and Chinese …..…………………….…… 68 2.4.1. Voice Constraints …………………………………………….…. 70 2.4.1.1. Verb Constraints ……………………………………….….. 70 2.4.1.2. Object Constraints …………………………………….….. 72 2.4.1.3. Agent Constraints ………………………………………… 73 3.4.1.4. Meaning Constraints ……………………………………… 74 2.4.2. Passive Classes …………………………………………………. 74 2.4.2.1. Agentive Passives …………………………………………. 75 2.4.2.2. Quasi-Passives ……………………………………………. 76 2.4.2.3. Non-Agentive Passives …………………………………… 77 2.4.3. The Passive Construction in Mandarin Chinese ………………... 77 2.4.3.1. Use and Function of the Passive in Mandarin Chinese …… 79 2.5. Verb Complementation Patterns………………………………………... 81 2.5.1. Complements vs. Adjuncts ……………………………………... 82 2.5.2. Verb Patterns and Sentence Structures …………………………. 85 2.6. Approaches to Writing and Studies of Teaching L2 Writing ………….. 92 2.6.1. Three Major Approaches to Writing ………………………….... 93 2.6.2. Studies of Second Language (L2) Writing ...…………………… 95 2.6.2.1. Studies of Contrastive Rhetoric and Writing Across Cultures …………………………………………. 96 2.6.2.2. Studies in Errors in L2 Writing ………………………….. 98 2.6.2.3. Studies of Errors and Error Analysis ……………………. 99 2.6.2.4. Studies of ESL and EFL Learners Systems ……………... 103 2.6.2.5. Studies of Error Correction and Effects of Correction Feedback …………………………………… 108 2.7. Studies of English Verbal Systems …………………..……………….. 109 2.8. Studies of VP Constructions in Taiwan …………………….………… 114 3. Methodology ……………………………………………………………….122 3.1. Subjects ………………………………………………………………. 122 3.2. Instruments …………………………………………………………… 124 3.2.1. English Writing Tasks …………………………………………. 125 3.2.2. Rubric of Holistic Writing Assessment ……………………….. 125 3.2.3. Inter-Rater Grading …………………………………………… 126 3.2.4. SPSS Software and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) ……… … 127 3.3. Procedures ……………………………………………………………. 127 3.3.1. Data Collection ………………………………………………... 128 3.3.2. Composition Grading …………………………………………. 129 3.3.3. Grouping ……………………………………………………… 129 3.4. Identification of Errors ………………………………………………. 131 3.5. Classification of Errors Types ……………………………………….. 132 3.6. Data Analyses and Statistics of Errors ………………………………. 140 4. Analysis and Discussion ……………………………………………………142 4.1. An Overall Description …………………………………….…………. 142 4.2. Error Scores ……………………………………………….………….. 144 4.3. Errors with Finite Verbs …………………………………….………… 146 4.3.1. Tense and Aspect Errors ……………………………….……….. 147 4.3.1.1. Errors with Simple Present Tense ………………………… 149 4.3.1.1.1. Errors with Subject-Verb Concord ………………… 149 4.3.1.1.2. Misuse of Tense Form …………………….……….. 156 4.3.1.1.3. Inappropriate Choice of Verbs …………….……….. 159 4.3.1.1.4. Errors in Spelling ………………………….………. 160 4.3.1.2. Errors with Simple Past Tense ……………………………. 161 4.3.1.2.1. Errors with Non-marking of Past Tense Verbs ….…. 163 4.3.1.2.2. Overgeneralization of Irregular Verbs as Regular Ones ……………………………………..... 165 4.3.1.2.3. Misuse of Tense Forms …………………………….. 166 4.3.1.2.4. Confusion or Misspelling of Past Tense Verbs …...... 167 4.3.1.2.5. Wrong Choice of Lexical Verbs ……………………. 168 4.3.1.2.6. Errors with Subject-Verb Concord …………………. 169 4.4.1.3. Errors with Present Perfect Tense …………………………. 169 4.3.1.3.1. Misuse of Other Tense Forms for Present Perfect …. 171 4.3.1.3.2. Confusion of Punctual Verbs with Durative Ones …. 177 4.3.1.3.3. Wrong Marking of Past Participles ………………… 179 4.3.1.3.4. Wrong Choice of Verbs ..…………………….……... 180 4.3.1.3.5. Errors with Subject-Verb concord ………………….. 181 4.3.1.4. Errors with Past Perfect Tense ……………………………... 182 4.3.1.4.1. Misuse of Other Forms for Past Perfect …………….. 183 4.3.1.4.2. Wrong Marking for Past Participle …………………. 186 4.3.1.5. Errors with the Present Progressive Aspect ………………... 187 4.3.1.6. Errors with the Past Progressive Aspect …………………… 189 4.3.1.7. Errors with Sequence of Tense …………………………….. 191 4.3.1.7.1. Errors with Natural Sequence of Tense …………….. 193 4.3.1.7.2. Errors with Attracted Sequence of Tense …………… 194 4.3.2. Voice and Transitivity Errors …………………………………….. 195 4.3.2.1. Confusion of the Transitivity of Verbs ……………………... 197 4.3.2.1.1. Misuse of Intransitive verbs for Transitive …………. 197 4.3.2.1.2. Misuse of Transitive Verbs for Intransitive …………. 198 4.3.2.1.3. Misuse of Monotransitive Verbs for Ditransitive …… 200 4.3.2.2. Errors with the Conjugation in Passive Construction ……… 201 4.3.2.3. Errors with Quasi-Passives ………………………………… 202 4.3.2.4. Errors in Voice Constraints ………………………………… 204 4.3.2.5. Errors with Redundant Objects ……………………………. 206 4.3.2.6. Errors with Subject-Verb Concord …………………………. 207 4.3.3. Errors with Mood and Modality …………………………………. 209 4.3.3.1. Errors with Modal Auxiliaries ……………………………... 210 4.3.3.2. Errors with Subjunctive Mood ……………………………... 213 4.3.3.2.1. Errors with the Unreal past Tense …………………... 216 4.3.3.2.2. Errors with the Unreal Past Perfect Tense ………….. 219 4.3.3.3. Errors with Imperative Mood ………………………………. 222 4.3.4. Miscellaneous Errors …………………………………………….. 223 4.4. Errors with Non-finite Verbs …………………………………………… 224 4.4.1. Infinitive Errors …………………………………………………. 225 4.4.1.1. Errors with Infinitive Marker to …………………………….. 225 4.4.1.2. Misuse of Other Forms for Infinitives ……………………… 227 4.4.1.3. Confusion of Infinitives with Clauses ………………………. 227 4.4.1.4. Wrong Use of Displaced Subjects ………………………….. 228 4.4.2. Gerund Errors …………………………………………………… 229 4.4.2.1. Misuse of Uninflected Base Forms with Gerunds ………….. 230 4.4.2.2. Confusion of Infinitives with Gerunds ……………………... 231 4.4.2.3. Inappropriate Substitution of Gerunds for Nouns …………... 232 4.4.2.4. Errors with the Voice of Gerunds …………………………… 232 4.4.2.5. Misuse of Finite Verbs for Gerunds ………………………… 233 4.4.3. Participle Errors ………………………………………………… 234 4.4.3.1. Misuse of Finite Verbs for Participles ……………………… 235 4.4.3.2. Confusion between Present and Past Participles …………… 236 4.4.3.3. Dangling Participles ………………………………………… 237 4.4.3.4. Ill-formed Participles ………………………………….......... 238 4.4.4. Miscellaneous Errors …………………………………………… 239 4.5. Errors with Verb Complementation Patterns …………………………... 239 4.5.1. Errors with Intransitive Verb Patterns …………………………... 241 4.5.1.1. Errors with Pattern V#.............................................................. 242 4.5.1.2. Errors with Pattern V+Adverbial Adjunct ….……………….. 243 4.5.1.3. Errors with Pattern V+Particle ..……………………………. 246 4.5.2. Errors with Monotransitive Verb Patterns ………………………. 246 4.5.2.1. Errors with Pattern V+NP ………..…………………………. 248 4.5.2.2. Errors with Pattern V+Non-Finite Clause ………….………. 251 4.5.2.3. Errors with Pattern V+Finite Clause ……………….………. 257 4.5.3. Errors with Ditransitive Verb Patterns ………………………….. 260 4.5.3.1. Errors with Pattern V+O+Prep.+ O …………….………….. 262 4.5.3.2. Errors with Pattern V+O+that-/wh-Clause …..……………... 264 4.5.3.3. Errors with Pattern V+O+(Conjunctive)+to-Infinitive ……... 265 4.5.3.4. Errors with Pattern V+Prep.+ O+that-/wh-Clause …….…… 265 4.5.4. Errors with Complex-Intransitive or Copular Verb Patterns …… 266 4.5.4.1. Errors with Pattern VCs ..……………………………………. 269 4.5.4.1.1.Errors with Pattern V+AdjP/NP……....………………. 269 4.5.4.1.2.Errors with Pattern V+AdjP+Post-Modification …….. 270 4.5.4.1.3.Errors with Anticipatory Subject It …………………… 271 4.5.4.1.4.Improper Omission of Complementizer That ………… 272 4.5.4.2. Errors with Pattern VA ………………………………..……... 273 4.5.5. Errors with Complex-Transitive Verb Patterns …………………. 274 4.5.5.1. Errors with Pattern VOC ……………………………………. 276 4.5.5.1.1.Errors with Pattern V+O+AdjP/NP …..………………. 276 4.5.5.1.2.Errors with Pattern V+O+Bare Infinitive …………….. 277 4.5.5.1.3.Errors with Pattern V+O+Present Participle ..…….…. 279 4.5.5.1.4.Errors with Pattern V+O+Past Participle …….……… 280 4.5.5.2. Errors with Pattern VOA .…………………………………… 281 4.5.6. Errors with Multi-Word Verb Patterns …………..……………… 282 4.5.6.1. Errors with Prepositional Verb Patterns …………………….. 283 4.5.6.2. Errors with Phrasal Verb Patterns …………………………... 284 4.5.6.3. Errors with Phrasal-Prepositional Verb Patterns ……………. 285 4.5.7. Miscellaneous Errors …………………………………………….. 286 4.6. Multiple Comparisons among Error Frequencies across Groups ………. 286 4.7. Results and major Findings of the Study ……………………………….. 291 4.7.1. Error Frequency Counts and Hierarchical Difficulty ……………. 291 4.7.2. Factors for Errors Committed …………………………………… 293 4.7.3. Differences among Error Frequencies and Difficulty Extents in Relation to Proficiency Levels ………………………………….. 296 5. Conclusion …………………………………………………………………... 298 5.1. Summary of the Study ………………………………………………….. 298 5.2. Indications of the Analysis ……..………………………………………. 299 5.2.1. Indications of Error Frequency Counts ……..…………………... 300 5.2.2. Indications of Different Error Frequencies in Relation to Proficiency Levels …………………………………………………………… 305 5.3. Implications for Grammar and Composition Instruction in EFL Classrooms ……………………………………………………………... 308 5.4. Recommendations for Further Studies …………………………………. 318 Notes …………………………………………………………………………… 320 References ……………………………………………………………………… 326 Appendix A: Writing Tasks ……………………………………………………340 Appendix B: A Rubric for Holistic Scoring of ESL Essays ………………….. 341 Appendix C: An Example of Error Identification and Error Classification ….. 342 Appendix D: Error Types Committed …………….………………………….. 344 Appendix E: Examples of Students’ Compositions and Error Corrections ….. 376 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1.1. Dynamic Use and Stative Use of Verbs Compared ……………………… 17 1.2. Lexical Aspect 1 …………………………………………………………. 20 1.3. Lexical Aspect 2 …………………………………………………………. 20 2.1. Inflectional Forms of Verbs ……………………………………………... 25 2.2. Inflectional Forms of the Verb Following Auxiliaries …………………... 29 2.3. The Basic Paradigm for the Verb TAKE ………………………………… 32 2.4. The Paradigm of the Verb TAKE by Huddleston ………………………... 33 2.5. Verb Forms ………………………………………………………………. 34 2.6. Verb Systems …………………………………………………………….. 36 2.7. The Tense System Based on GT Grammar ……………………………… 49 2.8. Semantic Features of Vendler’s Aspectual Categories …………………... 52 2.9. Lexical Aspectual Categories in Mandarin Chinese …………………….. 60 2.10. Epistemic and Deontic Modality Compared …………………………… 68 2.11. Forms of the Active and Passive VPs ………………………………….. 69 3.1. Distribution of the Subjects …………………………………………….. 122 3.2. Selected Students and Grouping Components ………………………….. 130 4.1. Number of Verbs Produced in the Selected Compositions …….……….. 143 4.2. Numbers and Percentages of Errors Found in the Compositions ……… 144 4.3. Number and Percentage of Each Error Type in Relation to the Total Errors………………………………………………………. 145 4.4. Numbers and Percentages of Errors with Finite Verbs in Relation to the Actual Occurrences of Verbs …………………………………………… 146 4.5. Distribution and Percentage of Each Error Type with Tense and Aspect... 148 4.6. Distribution of Errors Found with Simple Present Tense ………………. 149 4.7. Distribution of Errors Found with Subject-Verb Concord in the Area of Simple Present Tense………………………………………………… 151 4.8. Distribution of Errors Found with Simple Past Tense ………………….. 163 4.9. Distribution of Errors Found with Present Perfect Tense ………………. 171 4.10. Distribution of Errors with Past Perfect Tense ………………………... 183 4.11. Distribution of Errors with Sequence of Tense ………………………… 193 4.12. Distribution and Percentage of Errors with Voice and Transitivity …… 196 4.13. Distribution and Percentage of Errors with the Transitivity of Verbs …. 197 4.14. Number and Percentage of Each error Type with Mood and Modality… 210 4.15. Form and Meaning of the Unreal Tense in Contrast ………………….. 214 Table Page 4.16. Number and Percentage of Errors Found with Subjunctive Mood …..….. 215 4.17. Distribution of Errors Found with the Unreal Past Tense ……………… 216 4.18. Distribution and Percentage of Each Error Type with the Unreal Past Perfect Tense …………………………………………………………... 220 4.19. Distribution of Errors with Non-finite Verb constructions …………….. 224 4.20. Distribution and Percentage of Each Error Type with Infinitives …….... 225 4.21. Distribution and Percentage of Each Error Type with Gerunds ………… 229 4.22. Distribution and Percentage of Each Error Type with Participles ………. 234 4.23. Distribution and Percentage of Errors with Verb Complementation Patterns ………………………………………………………………… 240 4.24. Distribution and Percentage of Each Error Type with Intransitive Verb Patterns ………………………………………………………………… 242 4.25. Distribution and Percentage of Each Error Type with Monotransitive Verb Patterns ………………………………………………………………… 247 4.26. Distribution and Percentage of Each error Type with Ditransitive Verb Patterns ………………………………………………………………… 262 4.27. Distribution and Percentage of Each Error Type with Complex-Intransitive Verb Patterns ……………………………………………………………. 268 4.28. Distribution and Percentage of Each Error Type with Complex-Transitive Verb Patterns …………………………………………………………….. 275 4.29. Distribution and Percentage of Each Error Type with Multi-Word Verb Patterns ……..…………………………………………………………… 283 4.30. ANOVA of Three Major Error Types across Groups …………………….. 287 4.31. ANOVA of errors with Finite Verbs ……………………………………… 288 4.32. ANOVA of Errors with Non-finite Verbs ………………………………… 289 4.33. ANOVA of Errors with Verb Complementation Patterns ………………… 290 5.1. Relative Frequency of Each Error Type with Finite Verb Constructions .…. 302 5.2. Relative Frequency of Each Error Type with Non-Finite Verb Construction ………………………………………………………………. 302 5.3. Relative Frequency of Each Error Type with Verb Complementation Patterns …………………………………………………………………… 303 5.4. Relative Frequency of Each Error Type Made by Three Groups’ Students …………………………………………………………………... 305
Aarts, B. & Meyer, C. F. (eds.) (1995). The verb in contemporary English; Theory and description. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Abraham, W. & Kulikov, L. (1999). Tense-aspect, transitivity and causativity. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Aitken, R. (1997). Teaching tense. Essex: Longman Group Ltd. Akmajian, A., Steele, S. M. & Wasow, T. (1979). The category of AUX in universal grammar. Linguistic Inquiry 10, 1-64. Allerton, D. J. (1982). Valency and the English verb. London: Academic Press. Amberb, J. S. (1984). Comparison of grammatical errors of developmental English and ESL advanced level students. ERIC Document Reproductive Service, ED 248 711. Anderson, R. W. (1986). The development of verbal morphology in Spanish as a second language. In J. M. Meisel (Ed.), Adquisition de Languaje [Acquisition of Language]. Frankfurt: Vervuert. ________ (1989). The acquisition of verb morphology. Unpublished manuscript, University of California, Los Angeles. ________ & Shirai, Y. (1994). Discourse motivation for some cognitive acquisition principles. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 16, 133-156. Azar, B. S. (1989). Understanding and using English grammar (2nd ed.). Taipei: Caves Books/Prentice Hall Regents. Baker, M. (2003). Lexical categories: Verbs, nouns and adjectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Barber, C. (1993). The English language: A historical instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bardovi-Harlig, K. (1992). The relation of form and meaning: a cross-sectional study of tense and aspect in the interlanguage of learners of English as a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics 13, 253-278. _________ (1996). Acquisition of tense and aspect in second language and foreign language learner narratives in ESL and FFL. Canadian Modern Language Review 52, 308-330. _________ (1997). Another piece of puzzle: the emergence of present perfect. Language Learning 47, 375-422. _________ (2000). Tense and aspect in second language acquisition: Form, meaning, and use. Blackwell Publishers. Bhat, D.N.S. (1999). The prominence of tense, aspect and mood. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Biber, D. (1986). Spoken and written textual dimensions in English. Language 62, 384-414. _______ (1988). Variation across speech and writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Binnick, R. I. (1991). Time and the verb: A guide to tense and aspect. New York (and Oxford): Oxford University Press. Bitchener, J., Young, S. & Cameron, D. (2005). The effect of different types of corrective feedback on ESL student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing 14, 191-205. Bizzell, P. (1992). Academic discourse and critical consciousness. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Bley-Vroman, R. (1989). What is the logical problem of foreign language learning? in S. Gass and J. Schachter (Eds.), Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ________ (1990). The logical problem of foreign language learning. Linguistic Analysis 20, 3-49. Bloom, L., Lifter, K. & Hafitz, J. (1980). Semantics of verbs and development of verb inflection in child language. Language 56, 386-412. Brinton, L. J. (1988). The development of English aspectual systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ________(2000). The structure of modern English: A linguistic introduction. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co. Brick, J. (2004). China: A handbook in intercultural communication. Sydney, NSW: National Center for English language Teaching and Research MacQuarie University. Brodisky, L. (2001). Does language shape thought? Mandarin and Engllish speakers’ conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology 43, 1-22. Brooks, Nelson (1964). Language and language learning. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc. Bull, W. E. (1960). Time, tense, and the verb: A study in theoretical and applied linguistics, with particular attention to Spanish. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press. Burt, M. K. & Kiparsky, C. (1976). Global and local mistakes, in Schumann, John H. and Nancy Stenson (eds.) New frontiers in second language learning. Rowley, Ma.: Newbury House Publishers. Campbell, C. (1998). Teaching second-language writing: Interacting with text. Toronto: Heinle & Heinle Publishers. Carter, R. and M. McCarthy (2006). Cambridge grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chao, Yu-Chuan J. (2003). Contrastive rhetoric, lexico-grammatical knowledge, writing expertise, and metacognitive knowledge: An integrated account of the development of English writing by Taiwanese students. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Chao, Yen-Ren (1968). A grammar of spoken Chinese. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Chen, Chin-Cheng (1979). An error analysis of English composition written by Chinese students in Taiwan. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. Chen, Doris C. H. and Lily L. J. Liu (1998). Language transfer and the acquisition of the passive construction in English. A paper presented in the 7th international symposium on English teaching. Taipei: the Crane Publishing Co. Ltd. Chen, Y. C. (2005). Chinese speakers’ use of tense and aspect in an English past-time context. English Teaching & Learning 29(4), 87-105. Chiang, Tai-Hui (1981). Error analysis: A study of errors made in written English by Chinese learners. Unpublished master thesis, National Taiwan Normal University. Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic structures. The Hague: Mouton. ________ (1965). Aspect of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ________ (1971). Deep structure, surface structure, and semantic interpretation. In D. Steinberg and L. Jakobobits (Eds.), Semantics: An interdisciplinary reader in philosophy, linguistics, and psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press. _________ (1981). Lectures on government and binding. Dordrecht: Foris. _________ (1986). Knowledge of language: Its nature, origin, and use. New York: Praeger. _________(1991). Some notes on economy of derivation and representation. In R. Freidin (Ed.), Principles and parameters in comparative grammar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ________ (1992). A minimalist program for linguistic theory. In Hale, K and Keyster, S. J. (Eds.), The view from building 20: Essays in linguistics in honor of Syvain Bromberger. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Chomsky, N. & Lasnik, H. (1993). The theory of principles and parameters. In Jacobs, J., von stewchow, A., Sternefeld, W. and Vennemann, T. (Eds.), Syntax: an international handbook of contemporary research. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Christensen, M. (1990). The punctual aspect in Chinese: A study of the perfective and inchoative aspect markers in Mandarin and Cantonese. Unpublished master thesis, Ohio State University. Chu, C. C. (1973). The passive construction: Chinese and English. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 1(2), 437-470. Chung, S. & Timberlake, A. (1985). Tense, aspect, and mood. In T. Shopen (Ed.), Language typology and syntactic description 3: Grammatical categories and the lexicon. 205-258. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Clahsen, H. (1988). Critical phases of grammar development: a study of the acquisition of negation in children and adults. In P. Jordens and J. Lalleman (Eds.), Languag development. Dordrecht: Foris. Close, R. A. (1975). A reference grammar for students of English. London: Longman Group Ltd. Collins, L. (1999). Marking time: The acquisition of tense and grammatical aspect by French speaking learners of English. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Concordia University, Canada. ________ (2002). The roles of L1 influence and lexical aspect in the acquisition of temporal morphology. Language Learning 52(1),43-94. Comrie, B. (1976). Aspect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. _______ (1985). Tense. Cambridge: Cambridge university Press. Connor, U. (2002). New directions in contrastive rhetoric. TESOL Quarterly 36, 493-510. Cowper, E. (1992). A concise introduction to syntactic theory. Chicago and London: Chicago University Press. Cook, V. J. (1988). Chomsky’s Universal Grammar: An introduction. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Corder, S.P. (1967). The significance of learners’ errors. IRAL 5, No. 5. ______ (1971). Idiosyncratic dialects and error analysis. IRAL 9, No. 2. ______ (1973). Introducing applied linguistics. Harmondsworth: Penguin. ______ (1981). Error analysis and interlanguage. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crystal, D. (2003). The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cumming, A. H. (1990). Expertise in evaluating second language compositions. Language Testing 7, 31-51. _______ (2003). Experiences ESL/EFL writing instructors’ conceptualization of their teaching: curriculum options and implications. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Exploring the dynamics of second language writing (pp. 71-92). New York: Cambridge University Press. Curme, G. O. (1947). English grammar. New York: Barnes and Noble. Dagut, M. & Laufer, B. (1985). Avoidance of phrasal verbs: A case for contrastive analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 7(1), 73-79. Dahl, O. (1985). Tense and aspect systems. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Darwin, C. M. & Gray, L. S. (1999). Going after phrasal verbs: An alternative approach to classification. TESOL Quarterly 33(1), 65-83. DeCarrico, J. S. (1986). Tense, aspect, and time in the English modality system. TESOL Quarterly 20(4), 665-682. Demirdache, H. & Uribe-Etxebrarria, M. (2004). The syntax of time adverbs. In J. Gueron and J. Lecarme (Eds.), The syntax of time. Camridge, MA: The MIT Press. Diab, R. L. (2005). ESL university students’ preferences for error correction and teacher feedback to writing. TESL Report 38(1), 27-51. ________(2006). Error correction and feedback in the EFL writing classroom: comparing instructor and student preferences. English Teaching Forum 3, 2-9. Dixon, R. M. W. (1991). A new approach to English grammar, on semantic principles. New York: Oxford University Press. Dufley, P. J. (1992). The English infinitive. London: Longman. Dulay, H. C. & Burt, M. K. (1974). You can’t learn without goofing. In J. C. Richards (Ed.), Error analysis: Perspectives on second language Acquisition. London: Longman. Eckman, F. (1977). Markedness and the contrastive analysis hypothesis. Language Learning 27(2), 315-30. Edge, J. (1989) Mistakes and correction. London: Longman. Elbow, P. (1998). Writing with power: Techniques formMastering the writing process. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ferris, D. R. (1995). Student reaction to teacher response in multiple-draft composition classrooms. TESOL Quarterly 29, No.1: 33-53. ________(1999). The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1990). Journal of Second Language Writing 8, 1-11. ________ (2004). The ‘grammar correction’ debate in L2 writing: Where are we and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?). Journal of Second Language Writing 13, 49-62. Flower, L., & Hayes, J. R. (1981). A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communication 32, 365-387. Flynn, S. (1987). A parameter setting model of L2 acquisition. Dordrecht: Reidel. Fries, C. C. (1945). Teaching and learning English as a foreign language. Ann Arbor: University Of Michigan Press, 9. Gardener, D. & Davies, M. (2007). Pointing out frequent phrasal verbs: a corpus-based analysis. TESOL Quarterly 41(2), 339-359. Gass, S. M. & L. Selinker, L (eds.). (1992). Language transfer in language learning. (Rev. ed.). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Giegerich, H. J. (1992). English phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Giorgi, A. & Pianesi, F. (1997). Tense and aspect: From semantics to morphosytax. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Greenbaum, S. (ed.). (1977). Acceptability in language. The Hague: Mouton. _______ (1988). Good English and the grammarian. London: Longman. Greenbaum, S. & Quirk, R. (1990). A student’s grammar of the English language. Essex, UK: Longman Group UK Limited. Grotjahn, R. (1983). On the use of quantitative methods in the study of interlanguage. Applied Linguistics 4(3), 235-241. Gueron, J. & Lecarme, J. (eds.). (2004). Syntax of time. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Haegeman, L. (1994). Introduction to government &binding theory (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Haegeman, L. and J. Gueron (1999). English grammar: A generative perspective. Oxford: Blackwell. Halliday, M. A. K. (1994). An introduction to functional grammar (2nd ed.). London: Edward Arnold. Halliday, M. A. K. & Hasan, R. (1989). Language, contest and text: Aspects of language in a social semiotic perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hinkel, E. (1992). L2 tense and time reference. TESOL Quarterly 26(3), 557-571. Hinrichs, E. (1986). Temporal anaphora in discourses of English. Linguistics and Philosophy 9, 63-82. Hirose, K. (2006). Pursuing the complexity of the relationship between L1 and L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing 15, 142-146. Ho, I. (1998). Relationship between motivation/attitude, effort, English proficiency, and socio-cultural educational factors and Taiwan Technology University/Institute students’ learning strategy Use. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Aubum University. Ho, W. K. (1973). An investigation of errors in English composition of some pre-university students in Singapore. RELC Journal 4(1), 48-65. Hofmann, T. R. (1993). Realms of meaning: An introduction to semantics. UK: Longman. Holisky, D. (1981). Aspect theory and Georgian aspect. In Tedeschi & Zaenen (Eds.), Tense and aspect. New York: Academic Press. Holt, J. (1943). Etudes d’aspect. Acta Jutlandica 15.2. Hornby, A. S., Gatenby, E. V. & Wakefield, H. (1963) The advanced learner’s dictionary of current English. London: Oxford University Press. Horrocks, G. (1987). Generative grammar. London and New York: Longman. Hsin, Ai-Li (1990). The formation and function of passive in Mandarin Chinese and English: A contrastive analysis. English Teaching and Learning 56, 60-67 & 57, 76-83. Hsu, Chian-Le (1974). On the relationship between the active and the passive in Chinese. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 2(2), 172-179. Hu, G. (2002). Potential cultural resistance to pedagogical imports: The case of communicative language teaching in China. Language, Culture and Curriculum 15, 93-105. Huang, P. Y. (2003). Lexical aspect in the interlanguage of Taiwan English learners. Unpublished master thesis. Tamkang University. Huang, Shih-Jen (2005). Investigating the validity of the aspect hypothesis in terms of EFL learning of English aspect. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation. National Kaohsiung Normal University. Huang, Shiao-Ling. (2001). Error analysis and teaching composition. Unpublished master thesis. National Tsing Hua University. Huang, T. L. (1988). Performance analysis and teaching EFL composition: A general teaching model. Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co., Ltd. Huang, Tsan-Sui (1974). A contrastive analysis of the syntactic errors in English made by Chinese Students and its implications for the teaching of English syntax to Chinese. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Huddleston, R. (1969). Some observations on tense and deixis in English. Language 45, 777-806. ________ (1976). Some theoretical issues in the description of the English verb. Lingua 40, 331-83. ________ (1984). Introduction to the grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Huddleston, R. & Pullum, G. K. (2002). The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ________(2005). A student’s introduction to English grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hudson, R. (1990). English word grammar. Oxford: Blackwell. Hughes, A. & Trudgill, P. (1979). English accents and dialects: An introduction to social and regional varieties of British English. Baltimore: University Park Press. Huntley, H. S. (1992). Feedback strategies in intermediate and advanced second language composition. A discussion of the effects of error correction, peer review, and student-teacher conferences on student writing and performance. Washington DC. Education Resources Information Center. ERIC Database ED355809. Hyland, K. (1998). Hedging in scientific research articles. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. ________ (2002). Teaching and researching writing. London: Pearson Education Limited. ________ (2003). Second language writing. New York: Cambridge University Press. Jackendoff, R. (1977). X’-syntax: A study of phrase structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Jackson, H. (1990). Grammar and meaning: A semantic approach to English grammar. New York: Longman Inc. Jakobovits, L. (1970). Foreign language learning: A psycholinguistic analysis. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers. James, C. (1998). Errors in language learning and use: Exploring error analysis. London and New York: Addison Wesley Longman Limited. Jespersen, O. (1924). The philosophy of grammar. London: Allen and Unwin. Jia, G. & Fuse, A. (2007). Acquisition of English grammatical morphology by native Mandarin-speaking children and adolescents: Age-related differences. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 50, 1280-1299. Joos, M. (1964). The English verb: Form and meaning. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Khafaji, A. R. (1975). A formal-functional approach for contrastive linguistics. English Language Teaching 29, No. 2: 90-96. Kaluza, H. (1977). Systematic definitions of the persent, present perfect, and preterite tense. English Teaching Forum 15(3), 15-18. ___ (1979). Time and tense in English. IRAL 17, 139-143. Kamp, H. and U. Reyle (1993). From discourse to logic. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Kellerman, E. (1977). Towards the characterization of the strategy of transfer in second language learning. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin 2(1), 58-146. Kellerman, E. & Smith, S. M. (eds.). (1986). Crosslinguistic influence in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon. King, H. (1969). Punctual versus durative as convert categories. Language Learning 19, 183-190. Klein, W. (1992). The present perfect puzzle. Language 68(3), 525-552. Kubota, R. & Lehner, A. (2004). Toward critical contrastive rhetoric. Journal of Second Language Writing 13, 7-27. Ladefoged, P. (1993). A course in phonetics (3rd ed.). Orlando: Harcourt Brace& Company. Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics accross culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Lee, Eun-Joo (2001). Interlanguage development by two Korean speakers of English with a focus on temporality. Language Learning 51(4), 591-633. Leech, G. (1971). Meaning and the English verb. London: Longman. Leki, I. (1991). The preference of ESL students for error correction in college-level writing classes. Foreign Language Annals 24, 203-218. Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Li, C. N. & Thompson, S. A. (1981). Mandarin Chinese: A functional reference grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press. Li, D. & Duff, P. (2002). The acquisition and use of perfective aspect in Mandarin. In R. Salaberry and Y. Shirai (Eds.), The L2 acquisition of tense and aspect morphology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Li, P. (1990). Aspect and Aktionsart in child Mandarin. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Leiden University, the Netherlands. Li, P. & Bowerman, M. (1998). The acquisition of lexical and grammatical aspect in Chinese. First Language 18, 311-350. Li, P. & Shirai, Y. (2000). The acquisition of lexical and grammatical aspect. Berlin Walter de Gruyter. Li, X. (1996). “Good writing” in cross-cultural context. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. Liao, Y. D. & Fukuya, Y. J. (2004). Avoidance of phrasal verbs: the case of Chinese learners of English. Language Learning 54(2), 193-226. Lyons, J. (1968). Introduction to theoretical linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. _______ (1977). Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. MaCarthey, S. J., Guo, Y. H. & Cummins, S. (2005). Understanding changes in elementary Mandarin students’ L1 and L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing 14, 71-104. McKay, S. L. (1989). Topic development and written discourse accent. In D. M. Johnson & D. H. Roen (Eds.), Richness in writing: Empowering ESL students. New York: Longman. Matthews, P. H. (1981). Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Meziani, A. (1988). The English tense system: A pedagogic analysis. IRAL 26(4), 281-294. Miao, Y., Badger, R. & Zhen, Y. (2006). A comparative study of peer and teacher feedback in a Chinese EFL writing class. Journal of Second Language Writing 15, 179-200. Millward, C. M. (1996). A biography of the English language (2nd ed.). Orlando: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Moon, R. (1997). Vocabulary connection: Multi-word items in English. In N. Schmitt and M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, acquisition and pedagogy (pp. 140-155). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Murray, D. (1985). A writer teaches writing (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Nehls, D. (1975). Thesystem of tense and aspect in English: A structural-functional approach. IRAL 13, 275-290. Nemser, W. (1971). Approximate system of foreign language learners. IRAL 9(2), 115-124. Nystrand, M. (1989). A social interactive model of writing. Written Communication 6, 66-85. Odlin, T. (1989). Language transfer: Cross-linguistic influence in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Olshtain, E. (1979). The acquisition of the English progressive: A case study of a seven-year-old Hebrew speaker. Working Papers in Bilingualism 18, 81-102. Olson, C. B. & Land, R. (2007). A cognitive strategies approach to reading and writing instruction for English language learners in secondary school. Research in the Teaching of English 41, 269-303. Palmer, F. R. (1986). Mood and modality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ________ (1987). The English verb (2nd ed.). London: Longman. Pavlenko, A. & Jarvis, S. (2002). Bidirectional transfer. Applied Linguistics 23, 190-214. Perkins, M. R. (1983). Modal expressions in English. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Perl, S. (1980). Understanding composing. College Composition and Communication 31, 363-370. Phinney, M. (1987). The pro-drop parameter in second language acquisition. In T. Roeper and E. Williams (Eds.), Parameter Setting. Dordrecht: Reidel. Poulisse, N. & Bongaerts, T. (1994). First language use in second language production. Applied Linguistics 15(1), 36-57. Politzer, R. (1968). Toward psycholinguistic models of language instruction. TESOL Quarterly 2(3), 151-157. Postal, P. M. (1974). On raising. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Quirk, R. (1988). The question of standards in the international use of English. In P. H. Lowenberg (Ed.), (1988), 229-241. ___ ____ (1989). Language Varieties and standard language. JALTJ 11, 14-25. Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. & Svartvik, J. (1972). A grammar of contemporary English. London: Longman. ________ (1985). A comprehensive grammar of the English language. New York: Longman. Radford, A. (1988). Transformational grammar: A first course. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ________ (1997). Syntactic theory and the structure of English: A minimalist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Raimes, A. (1985). What unskilled ESL students do as they write: A classroom study of composing. TESOL Quarterly 19, 229-254. _________ (1991). Out of the woods: Emerging traditions in the teaching of writing. TESOL Quarterly 37, 407-430. Ramsay, V. (1990). Developmental stages in the acquisition of the perfective and the imperfective aspects by classroom L2 learners of Spanish. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon. Rao, Z. (2007). Training in brainstorming and developing writing skills. ELT Journal 61, 100-106. Reichenbach, H. (1947). Elements of symbolic logic. New York: Collier-Macmillan. Repr. New York: The Free Press (1966). Richards, J. C. (1971). A non-contrastive approach to error analysis. English Language Teaching XXV, 204-219. _______ (Ed.). (1974). Error analysis: Perspective on second language acquisition. London: Longman Group, Ltd. Richards, J. C. & G. P. Sampson, G. P. (1974). The study of learner English. In J. C. Richards (Ed.), Error analysis: Perspective on second language acquisition. London: Longman. Richards, J. C., Platt, J. & Platt,H. (1998). Longman dictionary of language teaching & applied linguistics. Hong Kong: Addison Wesley Longman China Ltd. Roberts, P. (1954). Understanding grammar. New York: Harper & Row, Publisher, Inc. Robison, R. E. (1990). The primacy of aspect: aspectual marking in English interlanguage. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 12, 315-330. _______ (1995). The aspect hypothesis revisited: A cross-sectional study of tense and aspect marking in interlanguage. Applied Linguistics 16, 344-370. Rohde, A. (1996). The aspect hypothesis and the emergence of tense distinctions in naturalistic L2 acquisition. Linguistics 34, 1115-1137. Schachter, J. (1988). Second language acquisition and its relationship to Universal Grammar. Applied Linguistics 9, 219-235. Schmitt, N. (ed.) (2004). Formulaic sequences. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Schachter, J. & Celce-Murcia, M. (1977). Some observations concerning error analysis. TESOL Quarterly 11, No. 4. Schumann, J. H. & Stenson, N. (eds.) (1974). New frontiers in second language learning. Rowley, MA.: Newbury House Publishers. Schwartz, B. (1987). The modular basis of second language acquisition. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation. University of Southern California. Selinker, L. (1969). Language transfer. General Linguistics 9(2), 67-92. ________ (1972). Interlanguage. IRAL 10, No.3. Shih, Z. Q. (1990). Decomposition of perfectivity and inchoativity and the meaning of the particle le in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 18, 95-123. Shirai, Y. (1998). The acquisition of tense-aspect marking in Japanes as a second language. Language Learning 48(2), 245-279. Silva, T. & Matsuda, P. K. (eds.) (2001). On second language writing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Siyanova, A. & Schmitt, N. (2007). Native and nonnative use of multi-word vs. one-word verbs. IRAL 45, 119-139. Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York: Macmillan. Slabakova, R. (2000). L1 transfer revisited: The L2 acquisition of telicity marking in English by Spainish and Bulgarian native speakers. Linguistics 38, 739-770. Smith, C. S. (1983). A theory of aspectual choice. Language 59, 479-501. ________ (1991). The parameter of aspect. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic. ________ (2004). The domain of tense. In J. Gueron and J. Lecarme (Eds.), The syntax of time. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Smith, C. S. & Erbaugh, M. S. (2005). Temporal interpretation in Mandarin Chinese. Linguistics 43(4), 713-756. Sommers, N. (1980). Revision strategies of student writers and experienced adult writers. College Composition and Communication 31, 378-388. Spack, R. (1997). The rhetorical construction of multilingual students. TESOL Quarterly 31, 765-774. Stenson, N. (1983). Induced error. In B.W. Robinett and J. Schachter (Eds.), Second language learning: Contrastive analysis, error analysis and related aspects. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Sun, G. Z. (2002). Acquiring English tense and aspect: Effects of differences and similarities between L1 and L2. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching 10, 69-89. Syamala, V. (1991) Acquisition of English syntax by non-native speakers: A case study of ESL learning by Malayalee children. ERIC Document Reproductive Service, ED 338 080. Tallerman, M. (2005). Initial syntax and modern syntax: did the clause evolve from the syllable? In M. Tallerman (Ed.), Language origins: Perspectives on evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Taylor, C. V. (1976). Sources of error in foreign language teaching. English Language Teaching 30(3), 190-195. Teng, Shou-Hsin (1975). A semantic study of transitivity relations in Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press. Tenny, C. L. (1994). Aspectual roles and the syntax-semantics interface. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Thelin, N. B. (ed.) (1990). Verbal aspect in discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Thomas, W. P. & V. P. Collier, V. P. (2003). The multiple benefits of dual language. Educational Leadership 61, 61-64. Tse, J. K. P. (2004). Pedagogical grammar for EFL teachers. Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co., Ltd. Tsiouris, E. (1990). ‘Contrastive analysis’ versus ‘Error analysis’ with reference to verb tenses in English and Greek. ERIC Document Reproductive Service, ED 323 811. Truscott, J. (1996). The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning 46(2), 327-369. Tung, J. C. (1985). Time frames of English sentences. Taipei: Student Book Co. Vendler, Z. (1967). Verbs and times. In Vendler (Ed.), Linguistics and philosophy. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. Verkuyl, H. J. (1994). A theory of aspectuality: The interaction between temporal and atemporal structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. von Wright, E. H. (1951). An essay in modal logic. Amsterdam: North Holland. Wang, L. (2003). Switching to first language among writers with different second-language proficiency. Journal of Second Language Writing 12, 347-375. Wang, W. & Wen, Q. (2002). L1 use in the L2 composing process: An exploratory study of 16 Chinese EFL writers. Journal of Second Language Writing 11, 225-246. Wardhaugh, R. (1970). The contrastive analysis hypothesis. TESOL Quarterly 4(2), 123-30. Weigle, S. (2002). Assessing writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wekker, H. C. (1976). The expression of future time in contemporary British English. Arnsterdam: North-Holland. White, E. (1994). Teaching and assessing writing (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. White, L. (1988). Universal Grammar and language transfer. In J. Pankhurst, M. Sharwood Smith, and P. Van Buren (Eds.), Learnability and second languages:A book of reading. Dordrecht: Foris. _______ (1989). Universal Grammar and second language acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. _______ (1992). Universal Grammar: Is it just a new name for old problems? In S. M. Gass and L. Selinker (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Johnn Benhamins. Williams, J. (2005). Teaching writing in second and foreign language classrooms. Taipei: McGraw-Hill Education, International Editions. Wray, A. (2000). Formulaic sequences in second language teaching: Principle and practice. Applied Linguistics 21, 463-489. Wray, A. & Perkins, M. R. (2000). The function of formulaic language: An integrated model. Language and Communication 20(1), 1-28 Wu, C. H. F. (1994). “If Triangles Were Circles,…”—A Study of Counterfactuals in Chinese and in English. Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co. Ltd. Wu, S. & Rubin, D. (2000). Evaluating the impact of collectivism and individualism on argumentative writing by Chinese and North American college students. Research in the Teaching of English 35, 148-178. Wyss, R. (2003). Putting phrasal verbs into perspective. TESOL Journal 12, 37-38. Yang, Ching-mai & Tseng, Yen-pei (1986). Tunghua contemporary English grammar. Taipei: Tung Hua Book Co. Yu, Hsueh-Ying (1997). A study on the use of English tense-aspect forms in narrative compositions by Taiwan college students and its pedagogical implications. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, National Taiwan Normal University. Zamel, V. (1982). The process of discovering meaning. TESOL Quarterly 16, 95-208. ________ (1983). The composing processes of advanced ESL students: Six case-studies. TESOL Quarterly 17, 165-187. ________(1985). Responding to writing. TESOL Quarterly 19, 79-101. Zemach, D. (2007). The process of learning process writing. Essential Teacher 4, 12-23. Zobl, H. (1989). Canonical typological structures and ergativity in Englis L2 acquisition. In S. Gass and J. Schachter (Eds.), Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔