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研究生:王育芳
論文名稱:不同英語成就之高雄市高中生在一位外籍教師授課情境下英語焦慮之研究
論文名稱(外文):The English Anxiety of EFL Senior High School Students with Different Achievements in a Foreign Teacher's English Classes
指導教授:張玉玲張玉玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ye-ling Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:外籍教師高英語成就者低英語成就者英語焦慮英語焦慮來源
外文關鍵詞:foreign teachershigh English achieverslow English achieversEnglish anxietysources of English anxiety
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本研究旨在調查不同英語成就之高中生在一位外籍教師授課情境下之英語焦慮。尤其是比較高低英語成就者英語焦慮程度及焦慮來源的差別,藉以探討外籍教師應如何協助高低英語成就者降低其英語焦慮。
本研究以高雄市立小港高中三個班其中八十位學生為研究對象,所有研究對象皆受教於同一位外籍教師超過一年,高低英語成就者之區分以前一學期學生之在校英語總成績為依據。本研究針對高低英語成就者在外籍教師授課情境下之英語焦慮程度與來源進行問卷調查,並依據問卷所得資料進行質化及量化分析。
本研究主要發現摘述如下:
一、 在外籍教師授課情境下,高低英語成就者之英語焦慮程度並無顯著差異,然高英語成就者對學業表現的自我要求與對英語能力的自我評價高於低英語成就者。此外,高英語成就者對英語口試的焦慮感低於低英語成就者。
二、 整體而言,高低英語成就者在外籍教師授課情境下之焦慮來源並無顯著差異。高英語成就者與低英語成就者對於「教師點人回答問題」、「在全班面前進行英語口說」、「單獨進行英語發表或接受口說測試」以及「無法事先準備的英語發表或測試」同樣感到焦慮。
三、 高低英語成就者對本研究中七類焦慮來源之反應並無顯著差異,然而低英語成就者對口說練習與錯誤指正之焦慮高於高英語成就者。
四、 高低英語成就者分別指出許多個人的焦慮來源及他們喜愛的教學方式。高英語成就者與低英語成就者對於無法聽懂外籍教師之英語授課內容同樣感到焦慮,他們也對外籍教師參與小組討論與小組輪流上台教學表示喜愛。此外,低英語成就者期望外籍教師給予他們與高英語成就者相同之關注與練習機會。
以上之研究結果顯示,在外籍教師授課情境下,高低英語成就者對某些學習活動的確產生不同程度之英語焦慮。外籍教師必須了解這些差異,藉此調整對不同英語成就者之教學方法,提升英語教學的成效。
This study investigates the anxiety caused by learning English -- herein referred to as “English anxiety” -- and its sources for senior high school students with different English achievements in foreign teachers’ English classes. In particular, the high English achievers’ (HEA’s) and the low English Achievers’ (LEA’s) English anxiety levels and sources were compared to explore how foreign English teachers can treat HEA and LEA differently to help reduce the students’ English anxiety. Eighty students from three classes of Hsiao Kang Senior High School in Kaohsiung City participated in this study. All the students had been taught by the same foreign English teacher for more than one year. The subjects’ final English grades for the previous semester were used as a criterion for grouping them as the HEA or the LEA. Data were collected through two questionnaires designed to investigate the subjects’ English anxiety and its sources in a foreign teacher’s English classes. After that, the collected data were analyzed and compared quantitatively and qualitatively. Based on the data analyses, the major findings of the study are summarized as follows:

1. There is no significant difference between the HEA and the LEA in their levels of English anxiety for the foreign teacher’s English classes. However, there are significant differences in their responses to five items of the modified FLCAS. The HEA tended to set higher performance standards for themselves and have higher self-perceptions of their English abilities than the LEA.
2. Generally speaking, the HEA and the LEA did not differ in their sources of English anxiety in the foreign teacher’s English classes. Both the HEA and the LEA were anxious about being called on to answer questions, doing presentations in front of the class, doing presentations or taking tests alone, and about being given no preparation time before they were required to do presentations or tests.
3. There is no significant difference in the HEA’s and the LEA’s responses to the seven types of English anxiety sources in the study. However, the LEA tended to be more anxious about oral practice activities and the teacher’s error correction than the HEA.
4. Both the HEA and the LEA were anxious about being unable to comprehend what the foreign teacher said. On the other hand, they all liked the foreign teacher to join their group discussions and enjoyed teaching their classmates in English. Besides, the LEA expressed their wish to be given equal attention by the teacher and be given opportunities to practice speaking English.

Based on the study findings, certain learning activities did arouse different levels of English anxiety in the HEA and the LEA in the foreign teacher’s English classes. Foreign English teachers should be aware of the differences between and adjust their teaching to the HEA’s and the LEA’s different needs. By doing so, they can provide students with a low-anxiety learning environment and achieve good teaching results.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background and Motivation 1
Purposes of the Study 6
Research Questions 7
Significance of the Study 7
Limitations of the Study 8
Definition 9

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
Affective Variables in Language Learning 10
Nature of Affective Variables in Language
Learning 10
Motivation in Language Learning 12
Self-confidence in Language Learning 13
Anxiety in Language Learning 15
Language Anxiety 16
Nature of Language Anxiety 16
Benefits and Limitations of Language Anxiety 18
Language Anxiety and Language Achievements 20
Foreign Language Anxiety 22
Nature of Foreign Language Anxiety 22
Sources of Foreign Language Anxiety 25
The Measurement of Foreign Language Anxiety 27

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
Subjects 30
Instruments 31
A Modified Version of Foreign Language
Classroom Anxiety Scale(FLCAS) 31
The Questionnaire on the Sources of English
Anxiety 33
Students’ Final English Grades for the
Previous Semester 34
Procedures 35
Data Analysis 36
A Quantitative Analysis 36
A Qualitative Analysis 36

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Comparison of English Anxiety Levels between the
HEA and the LEA 38
Sources of the HEA’s and the LEA’s English
Anxiety 43
The HEA’s Sources of English Anxiety 43
The LEA’s Sources of English Anxiety 50
Comparison of English Anxiety Sources between
the HEA and the LEA 53
Suggested Methods for Lowering English Anxiety
in the HEA and the LEA 57


CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS
Conclusions 68
Implications 71
Suggestions 73

REFERENCES 75

APPENDIXES 84
Appendix A An Original Version of the FLCAS 84
Appendix B A Modified Version of the FLCAS 86
Appendix C A Questionnaire on English Anxiety Sources
in Foreign Teachers’ English Classes
(QSEA) 88
Appendix D T-test Results of the Subjects’ Responses
to All the Items of the Modified
FLCAS 91
Appendix E The HEA’s Responses to All the Items of
the QSEA 94
Appendix F The LEA’s Responses to All the Items of
the QSEA 97
Appendix G T-test Results of the Subjects’ Responses
to All the Items of the QSEA 100
Appendix H Reliability of the Modified FLCAS 103
Appendix I Validity of the Modified FLCAS 104
Appendix J Reliability of the QSEA 105
Appendix K Validity of the QSEA 106




LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Table page
1. Three Categories of Foreign Language Anxiety the
FLCAS Assesses 32
2. T-test Results of the HEA’s and the LEA’s Overall
English Anxiety Levels and the Five Items with
Significant Differences 39
3. T-test Results of the HEA’s and the LEA’s
Responses to Speaking English in Class 43
4. The HEA’s English Anxiety Sources in Oral Practice
and Oral Presentation 45
5. The HEA’s English Anxiety Sources in Oral Question-
and-Answer, Oral Tests and Error Correction 48
6. The LEA’s English Anxiety Sources in Oral Practice
and Oral Presentation 50
7. The LEA’s English Anxiety Sources in Oral Question- and-Answer and Oral Tests 52
8. T-test Results of the HEA’s and the LEA’s
Responses to the Seven Types of English Anxiety
Sources 54
9. T-test Results of the HEA’s and the LEA’s
Responses to the Anxiety Source Type of Oral
Presentation 56
10. More Sources of English Anxiety for the HEA 58
11. More Sources of English Anxiety for the LEA 61
12. The HEA’s Suggested Methods for Lowering English
Anxiety 64
13. The LEA’s Suggested Methods for Lowering English
Anxiety 65


Figure
1. Inverted “U” relation between anxiety and
performance 19
2. A flow chart of the study procedures 35
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