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研究生:郭增武
研究生(外文):Tzen-Wu Guo
論文名稱:合作學習對國小學生英語學習效益之行動研究
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Elementary School Students in English Learning: An Action Research
指導教授:謝春美謝春美引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-Mei Shieh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東商業技術學院
系所名稱:應用外語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:182
中文關鍵詞:主動性低成就學生合作學習
外文關鍵詞:autonomylow-achieverscooperative learning
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本研究旨在探討合作學習法對於國小學生英語學習效果的影響。 在過程中教師兼研究者,採用合作學習的方式進行教學研究,從中觀察並解決學生學習的問題與狀況。本研究採質性的方法進行多元化地資料收集,其中包括:問卷、訪談、觀察記錄、學生檔案文件、研究者教學日誌,研究期間為四個月,研究對象是國小六年級30位學生,以異質分組方式,分成五組進行教學與研究。
本研究所要探討的重點有三點:
一、能否以合作學習的教學方式,帶動低成就學生之學習興趣,進而提升其英語學習成就?
二、能否以合作學習的教學方式,來提升個人學習的主動性?
三、能否以小組學習活動促使學生自動自發學習,來提升低成就學生英語學習成就?
本研究研究結果如下:
一、合作學習的教學方式,可以帶動低成就學生之學習興趣,進而提升其英語學習成就。
二、合作學習的教學方式,可以提升個人學習的主動性,並經由合作學習方式能使學生融入自動自發學習的觀念。
三、 學生透過小組學習活動能自動自發學習,並提升低成就學生英語學習成就。
The study is to explore the effects of cooperative learning on elementary school students in English learning. In the process, the teacher-as-researcher implemented cooperative learning methods to observe and solve some problems the students encountered in English learning. The study adopted qualitative approach to collect the diversified data, including questionnaire, interview, observation, portfolios of students, and teaching log of teacher-as-researcher. Duration of the study was four months. Subjects of the study were thirty grade six elementary school students divided into five groups in heterogeneous way.
Three aspects were discussed as follows:
1. How can cooperative learning lift low-achievers’ interests and their English learning achievements of learning English?
2. How can cooperative learning produce autonomy for each member in their English learning?
3. How can cooperative learning in each group initiate the autonomy of low-achievers and accelerate their interests and achievements in English learning?
The results of the study were as follows:
1. Cooperative learning can lift low-achievers’ interests of learning English and improve their English learning achievements.
2. Cooperative learning can produce autonomy of learning English for individuals in groups, and students have embedded the concepts of autonomy through cooperative learning.
3. Cooperative learning can initiate the autonomy of low-achievers and accelerate the achievements and interests in English learning.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract (Chinese)…………………………………………………….…………………..i
Abstract (English)……………………………………………………………………….. ii
Acknowledgements….. …………………………………………………………………..iv
Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………v
Tables……………………………………………………………….…………………….x


CHAPTER 1………………………………………………………………………………1
Introduction…………………..……………………………………………………..1
Background………………………………………………………………………….1
Purpose of the Study…………………..………………………………….…………5
Research Questions…………………….……………………………………………6
Significance of the Study………………….…..……………………………………..6
Limitation of the Study….………..………………………………………………….7
Definition of the Terms……………………………..……….……………………….9
CHAPTER 2……………………………………………….…….………….…………….11
Literature Review……………………………………………………..…………….11
Theoretical Foundations of Cooperative Learning……………...…………………..11
The Features of Cooperative Learning…………..………………………………….17
Cooperative Learning Methods……………………..…………....…………………22
The Effects of CL on Low Achievement Level of Group Members……….……….25
Ownership of Learning and Personal Awareness………………………….………..27
Cooperative learning and Group Autonomy………………………….…………….31
Action Research…………………………………………………….………………37
CHAPTER 3…………………………………………………………..……………..……46
Methodology………………………………………………………………..………46
The school…………………………………………………………………….…….46
The Subjects………………………………………….……………………………..47
The Teacher………………………………………………………………………....49
The Textbook and the Supplemental Materials……………………………………..50
The Instruments………………………………………………….………………….52
Research Procedure…………………………………………………………………57
Teaching Procedure…………………………………………………………………59
Data Collection……………………………………………………………………..67
CHAPTER 4……………………………………………………….………..……………..71
Findings……………………………………………………………………………..71
The Effects of Cooperative Learning on English Learning……………...…………71
How can Cooperative Learning lift up Low-Achievers’ English Learning Interests and their English Learning Achievement?................................................................71
How can Cooperative Learning lift-up the Autonomy for each Member in their English Learning?.....................................................................................................85
The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Group Self-initiated Learning Activities...94
CHAPTER 5……………………………………………………………………………100
Conclusions and Recommendations……………………………………………..100
Conclusions………………..…..…..………………………………….…………100
Pedagogical Implications……………………….…………………………………103
Limitations of the Study………………………….……………………………….104
Suggestions for further Study………………………………..……………………105









References..………………………………………………………………………………107
Appendix A: Role Assignment in Groups…………………………………..……………117
Appendix B: Role Assignment in After-Class Activities……………….……..…………120
Appendix C: Seat Arrangement of the Cooperative Learning Classroom… ….………123
Appendix D: Students’ English Academic Achievement Levels………………..…….…124
Appendix E: Group Observation & Evaluation Sheet…..……………………….………125
Appendix F: Group Observation & Evaluation Sheet..……………………….…………128
Appendix G: Personal Evaluation Sheet…….………………………………..….………132
Appendix H: The Automatic Plan of Group Members in English Learning….……….…134
Appendix I: The Nobel Prize for Excellent Members (for persons)……….…….………136
Appendix J: Super Stars for the Excellent Group Members (for group)..…….…………138
Appendix K: Questionnaire of Personal Feeling about Cooperative Learning and
English Learning……….……………………………………….…………140
Appendix L: Inventory of Motivational Belief in English Learning in Elementary School…………………….……………….……….………………………145
Appendix M: Questionnaire of English Learning Attitudes for Elementary School
Students……………………………………………………………...148
Appendix N: After-Class Interview with Group Members’ Parents.......……...…………151
Appendix O: After-Class Interaction Frequency of Group Members……………………153
Appendix P: Questionnaire of Students’ Autonomy in-and-out of Cooperative
Learning Activities………………………………………………..………155
Appendix Q: Worksheet (in-class)……….………………………………………………161
Appendix R: Worksheet (after-class)…….………………………………………………162
Appendix S: Work Sheet (in-class)………………………………………………………163
Appendix T: The Third Monthly Examination……………...……………………………164











Figure
Figure A: Stages of Action Research……………………………..………………………..41

































Tables
Table 1 Four Major Categories of Cooperative Learning………………..………………..12
Table 2 Summary of Cooperative Learning Strategies (adapted from Lyman, Foyle & Azwell, 1993)……………………………………………….…………..…………23
Table 3 Learner ownership in curriculum……………………………………….…….…..28
Table 4 Examples of Professional Needs (Adapted from Tomal, 2003)………..…………42
Table 5 Improvement Points from Quizzes…………………………………….…….……63
Table 6 The arrangement of Low-Achievers in Groups……………………….…….…….73
Table 7 The Result of “Motivational Belief Inventory of English Learning”…….….……78
Table 8 The Results of “Questionnaire of English Learning Attitudes for Elementary School Students about Cooperative Learning” ……..…………………….……..80
Table 9 Outcomes of Monthly Examination in this Semester………..……….……….81
Table 10 The Result of “Questionnaire of Students’ Autonomy in-and-out of
Cooperative Learning Activities……..…………………………………….……..93
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