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研究生:吳雪芬
研究生(外文):Hsueh-Fen Wu
論文名稱:米糠蠟應用於水果塗佈用乳化蠟之開發
論文名稱(外文):Application of rice bran wax in the development of emulsified wax for fruits coatings
指導教授:劉展冏劉展冏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chan-Chiung Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:食品科學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:米糠蠟乳化蠟乳化劑微胞穩定性田口法多重品質損失平均法水果塗佈
外文關鍵詞:rice bran waxemulsified waxemulsifiermicellestabilityTaguchi’s methodProportion of quality loss reduction (PQLR)fruit coating
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所謂乳化蠟 (emulsified wax),是指將蠟與液體經乳化混合,在這兩種物質中,有一方為連續相 (continuous phase),另一方為分散相 (dispersed phase),主要使分散相能形成微胞 (micelle),均勻地分散於連續相中,形成一個比較安定之乳化液 (emulsion),而在乳化蠟中幫助其乳化所添加的第三種成份稱為乳化劑 (emulsifier)。現今全球的石油儲量逐漸減少,石油相關的產物價格也愈來愈高;而米糠蠟是米糠油在精煉的過程中得到的廢棄副產物,為一種可與巴西棕櫚蠟媲美的天然植物蠟。而且稻米又是東南亞地區的主要農作物,在中國大陸的產量更是盛多,因此本研究欲利用米糠蠟來取代石蠟,研發以米糠蠟為基底之乳化蠟,其主要成分為水、蠟及乳化劑等三種物質所組成的水中油滴型 (O/W) 乳化液。在乳化蠟中會影響其安定性之因素眾多,所以本研究使用田口法來設計實驗,以田口法中L18(35) 直交表作為設計,因子設定為乳化劑含量、總蠟量、米糠蠟在總蠟中的比例、加熱溫度、攪拌速率等5個,而每個因子有3個水準,檢測乳化蠟在穩定性、乳液黏度、接觸角、表面張力、微胞顆粒大小等望小品質特性之最佳水準組合,再以田口法中的多重品質損失平均法計算品質特性因子之平均主效果,得到一個最佳參數水準組合為乳化劑12%、總蠟3%、米糠蠟在總蠟的比例為70%、加熱溫度60℃、攪拌速度5000 rpm。最後以此最佳配方製成的乳化蠟應用於國產水果塗佈上,測定塗佈乳化蠟後對水果 (香蕉和木瓜) 的物化與生理反應之影響。主要水果檢測分析項目有失重率、呼吸速率、乙烯釋放率、硬度、顏色、可溶性固形物及可滴定酸的變化情形。結果顯示果實貯藏在25℃及15℃六天後,經SAS統計分析,可發現無塗蠟與有塗蠟之間有顯著性的差異:塗佈乳化蠟的果實,相對於不塗蠟者,的確能有效地防止水分的揮發、減少重量損失、降低CO2的產生與乙烯的釋放量、延緩果實硬度的軟化速率、減緩生理斑的生成速度,以及降低顏色的變化速率、抑制果實的生理酵素活性。另外亦可發現如葡萄糖、果糖、檸檬酸和蘋果酸等單醣及有機酸的生成量減少。研究成果顯示塗佈米糠蠟為基底之乳化蠟,能有效地抑制果實的物化及生理反應,以延緩果實後熟速率,增加果實櫉架壽命。
Emulsified wax is defined as the mixing via emulsification of wax and polar solvent. One of the components forms continuous phase while the second constitutes the dispersed phase, and the emulsifier designates the third component to facilitate the emulsification. The reservoir of global petroleum supply is dwindling, and the prices of related petrochemicals skyrocket day by day. Rice bran wax is the underutilized byproduct generated during the refining of rice bran oil. Southeast Asia and China both have plenty supply of low-price rice bran wax. This study aimed at developing an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsified wax based on rice bran wax. There are abundant factors affecting the stability and application of emulsified wax. This investigation utilized the Taguchi’s method for experimental design. Orthogonal array of L18 (35) was employed, with the factors chosen as the content of emulsifier, total wax content, percentage of rice bran wax in total waxes, heating temperature, and stirring rate. Each factor has 3 levels. The smaller-the-better quality attributes including emulsion stability, emulsion viscosity, contact angle, surface tension, and micelle size were analyzed to optimize the processing conditions.
Average main effect of each factor and the optimized combination of factors were acquired from the proportion of quality loss reduction (PQLR) of Taguchi’s method. Optimized processing conditions were determined as: 12% of emulsifier, 3% of total wax content, 70% of rice bran wax in total waxes, heating temperature set at 60°C, and stirring rate at 5000 rpm. Fruit coating was conducted on banana and papaya using the optimized recipe of emulsified wax. Physicochemical and physiological reactions such as weight loss, respiration rate, released ethylene, hardness, color, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, etc., were monitored during storage. The results concluded that wax-coated fruit would generally have smaller weight loss, lower respiration rate, less ethylene released, retarded hardness reduction, better color maintaining, and less change on soluble solid content. The emulsified wax coating was also found to inhibit the enzyme activity, and resulted in less amounts of monosaccharide and organic acid formation. All differences between wax-coated fruits and uncoated fruits were tested to show significance by SAS. This proved that application of emulsified wax based on rice bran wax would effectively retard the ripening of fruit it protects, thus increases the shelf-life of fruit.
摘 要 II
Abstract IV
謝 誌 VI
目 錄 VII
圖表目錄 X
第1章 前言 1
第2章 文獻回顧 2
2.1 乳化液 2
2.2 乳化的定義 2
2.3 乳化形成之機制 3
2.4 乳化劑之介紹 4
2.4.1界面活性劑分類 5
2.4.2 親水親油平衡值 8
2.4.3 相轉變溫度對乳化劑的影響 10
2.5 影響乳化穩定性的因素 10
2.6 乳化液不穩定現象 12
2.7 界面特性 13
2.8 表面現象 13
2.9 接觸角 13
2.10 蠟 17
2.10.1 米糠蠟 17
2.10.2 石蠟 18
2.10.3 微晶蠟 21
2.11 乳化蠟的歷史 22
2.12 乳化蠟的應用 22
2.12.1 塗蠟的功用 23
2.12.2 乳化蠟應用產品 24
2.13 可食膜 26
2.13.1 可食膜的功能與特性 27
2.13.1.1 減緩水分遷移速率 27
2.13.1.2 減緩氣體O2、CO2之擴散速率 27
2.13.1.3 減緩油脂遷徙 28
2.13.1.4 減緩內部成分溢出,分隔內部不同成分 28
2.13.1.5 改善食品的物理特性 28
2.13.1.6 保留香味成份 28
2.13.1.7 作為食品添加物之載體 28
2.14 田口法 29
2.14.1 田口直交表 29
2.14.2 多重品質特性實驗之最佳化參數設計 30
2.14.2.1 多重品質特性最佳化參數水準組合與近似解 31
第3章 材料與方法 32
3.1 實驗樣品及藥品 32
3.2 儀器設備 33
3.3 實驗設計 34
3.4 乳化蠟配方實驗設計 35
3.5 乳化蠟物化分析 38
3.5.1 乳液穩定性 (h/H) 分析 38
3.5.2 接觸角測定 38
3.5.3顆粒粒徑分佈 38
3.5.4 黏度測定 38
3.5.5 表面張力測定 39
3.5.6 田口方法 39
3.6 水果貯藏試驗 40
3.6.1 果實重量損失 40
3.6.2 果實色澤變化 40
3.6.3 果實硬度變化 40
3.6.4 果實可滴定酸含量 40
3.6.5 果實可溶性固形物含量 41
3.6.6 果實乙烯釋放與CO2產生率之測定 41
3.7 統計分析 42
第4章 結果與討論 43
4.1 乳化蠟微胞顆粒大小之最佳水準組合 43
4.2 乳化蠟穩定性 (h/H) 之最佳水準組合 50
4.3 乳化蠟表面張力之最佳水準組合 57
4.4 乳化蠟黏度之最佳水準組合 64
4.5 乳化蠟對接觸角之最佳水準組合 71
4.6 乳化蠟之最佳因子水準組合 78
4.7 水果貯存試驗 82
4.7.1 失重率 82
4.7.2 CO2的產生量 84
4.7.3 乙烯的釋放 86
4.7.4 顏色的變化 88
4.7.5 硬度的變化 88
4.7.6 可滴定酸的變化 90
4.7.7 可溶性固形物的變化 93
第5章 結論 95
參考文獻 96
作者簡介 106
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