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研究生:蕭叔勉
研究生(外文):Shu Mien Hsiao
論文名稱:酚類化合物對火龍果果皮色素穩定性及抗氧化力之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of phenolic compounds on the stability and antioxidant activity of pitaya peel pigment
指導教授:蔡碧仁
指導教授(外文):Pijen Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:食品科學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:火龍果果皮甜菜色素酚類化合物穩定性抗氧化力
外文關鍵詞:Pitaya peelbetaninphenolic compoundsstabilityantioxidant capacity
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甜菜色素是自然界植物中色彩鮮豔的色素之一,並具有抗氧化、抗癌和抗發炎等生理活性。但甜菜色素在熱加工上及pH值的不穩定,限制了其應用性。而文獻指出,添加酚類化合物於花青素中產生共色作用可增加花青素的穩定性,因此本研究也試著探討不同結構的酚類化合物對於甜菜色素穩定性的影響,期待能找到有效穩定甜菜色素之方法。以白肉種火龍果果皮色素為材料,其是以甜菜色素為主要色素,萃取後相當不穩定,在90℃加熱1.5小時後就褪色殆盡。由於甜菜色素在加熱後會有再生現象產生,故本研究利用80℃加熱1小時之熱處理並再生24小時後的色澤為基礎,分別就pH 4 和pH 6模擬系統,探討添加不同種類酚類化合物 (如黃烷醇類 (兒茶素)、苯甲酸、羥基苯甲酸 (沒食子酸) 以及肉桂酸和羥基肉桂酸 (香豆素和漂木酸) ),對火龍果果皮色素加熱再生後,色澤穩定性及抗氧化力之影響。該色素系統之貯藏穩定性及二氧化硫穩定性,亦一併討論。分析項目包括色素殘留率、裂解指數 (DI value)、色澤品質 (Hunter L a b、色相角Hue 值、色彩度chroma和ΔE) 及抗氧化力 (DPPH自由基清除能力和FRAP還原能力)。
結果顯示,整體而言,以pH 4樣品的色澤品質較pH 6者為佳。加熱再生後,以添加兒茶素和苯甲酸者,有較高的色素殘留量和色澤品質。但經15℃和35℃貯藏後,只有添加兒茶素者,具有最高的色素殘留量和半衰期。在抗氧化力方面,經加熱再生後,pH 4樣品的 DPPH自由基清除能力,高於pH6者;而FRAP 還原能力,則以添加兒茶素、漂木酸和沒食子酸者較高。至於貯藏過程中,抗氧化力的變化,則依添加酚類化合物的種類而有不同。若由熱裂解活化能來看,添加兒茶素具有較高的活化能,苯甲酸次之。二氧化硫穩定性方面,以兒茶素的效果最佳,漂木酸和香豆素次之。且隨著兒茶素的濃度提高,甜菜色素對二氧化硫穩定性也隨之增加。以HPLC分析後,得知添加兒茶素,於再生後有新複合物形成,推測為甜菜色素-兒茶素複合物,經LC/MS分析後,仍無法確定其結構,尚待進一步鑑定。綜合上述,添加兒茶素對火龍果果皮色素具有保色效果,並可增加系統中FRAP 還原能力。


Betanin is one of the colorful pigments of the plants in nature and exhibits beneficial biological properties such as antixiodative, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammati effects. However, the unstability of betanin under the thermal and pH treatment limits its application in food industry. Rasearches indicated that anthocyanin copigmentation with phenolic compounds with different structure on the betanin and hope to find a way to stability the betanin afficiently. The betanin pigment used in this study was extracted from pitaya peel and quality unstable. They totally faded after being heated at 90℃ for 1.5 hr. Because betanin would be regenerated after heating, their color after regeneration was used as standard to compare the differentes among treatments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of phenolic compounds (flavan (catechin), benzoic acid, hydrobenzoic acid (gallic acid), cinnamic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid (coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid)) on the batanin stability and their antioxidant capacities after heat regeneration at pitaya peel pigment model systems (pH 4 and pH 6). The storage stability of the pigment system and SO2 resistantance were also investigated. Analyses include pigment retention (%), degradation index (DI value), color qualities ( Hunter L a b, Hue angle, chroma and ΔE) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH scavenging ability and FRAP reducing power).
Result showed that the color qualities of betanin at pH 4 were better than that at pH 6. Catechin and benzoic acid exhibited the pigment retention and color qualities after heat regeneration. But during storage at 15℃ and 35℃,only catechin samples showed the best pigment retention and longest half-life. As to the antioxidant capacities, DPPH scavenging activity was higher at pH 4 samples than that at pH 6 samples after heat regeneration. Catechin, chlorogenic acid and gallic acid addition may increase the FRAP reducing power of the pigment system. However, the antioxidant capacities of the systems during storage varied and depended on the phenolic compounds added. As to the activation energy for thermal degradation of the pigment, catechin exhibited the highest activation energy followed by benzoic acid. Catechin also showed the best SO2 resistance followed by bezoic acid and coumaric acid. The SO2 resistance of betanin was increased as catechin concentration increased. HPLC analysis confirmed existence of a new compound after heat regeneration, which might be betanin-catechin complex. Since the LC/MS analysis can not confirm its structure perfectly, future identification is needed. In conclusion, addition of catechin may protect the pitaya peel pigment and increased the FRAP reducing power of the system.


中文摘要....................................................I
Abstract.................................................III
謝誌.......................................................V
目錄......................................................VI
圖表目錄...................................................IX
1. 前言....................................................1
2. 文獻回顧.................................................3
2.1 水溶性天然紅色素的特性...................................3
2.1.1 花青素的介紹..........................................3
2.1.2 甜菜色素的介紹........................................3
2.2水溶性紅色素的生理活性....................................6
2.2.1 花青素的生理活性.......................................7
2.2.2 甜菜色素的生理活性.....................................7
2.2.2.1抗氧化活性...........................................7
2.2.2.2抗腫瘤及抗發炎相關性研究...............................8
2.3. 水溶性天然紅色素的加工穩定性............................10
2.3.1 影響花青素穩定性的因子................................10
2.3.2 影響甜菜色素穩定性的因子..............................10
2.3.2.1 色素的含量及結構特性................................12
2.3.2.2 pH值..............................................12
2.3.2.3 水活性............................................13
2.3.2.4 光和氧氣...........................................13
2.3.2.5 溫度..............................................14
2.3.2.6 Betanin 的裂解途徑.................................14
2.3.3醯化色素穩定性........................................16
2.3.4常見食品添加物對色素穩定性的影響.........................18
2.3.5添加酚類對色素穩定性的影響..............................20
2.3.5.1 共色作用的介紹及特性................................20
2.3.5.2共色作用的機制......................................22
2.4 火龍果的介紹...........................................22
2.4.1 火龍果果皮色素介紹....................................24
3. 材料與方法..............................................27
3.1試驗材料................................................27
3.2試驗藥品................................................27
3.3試驗儀器................................................27
3.4 試驗設計...............................................28
3.4.1 火龍果果皮色素模擬系統中添加酚類化合物對其加熱前後及再生 色澤品質及抗氧化力之影響........................................28
3.4.2 添加酚類化合物對火龍果果皮色素貯藏與二氧化硫穩定性試驗....30
3.4.3 以HPLC分析貯藏過程中保色效果較佳的樣品,並利用LC/MS鑑定其結構.......................................................30
3.5試驗分析項目...........................................30
3.5.1 火龍果果皮色素的萃取.................................30
3.5.2 色澤品質分析........................................30
3.5.2.1色素殘留率測定.....................................30
3.5.2.3 Hunter L a b值的測定..............................34
3.5.3抗氧化能力分析........................................34
3.5.3.1 FRAP還原力測定....................................34
3.5.3.2 DPPH自由基清除能力測定.............................35
3.5.4高效能液相層析儀分析甜菜色素殘存率......................35
3.5.5 LC/MS..............................................35
3.5.6 統計分析.............................................36
4. 結果與討論..............................................37
4.1添加酚類化合物對於火龍果果皮色素加熱前後及再生之影響.........37
4.1.1 不同pH值和酚類化合物對甜菜色素殘留率及吸光值之影響........37
4.1.2 色澤品質分析.........................................40
4.1.3 色澤變化之相關性分析..................................47
4.1.4 抗氧化力分析.........................................47
4.1.4.1 FRAP還原能力......................................49
4.1.4.2 DPPH 自由基清除能力................................51
4.2添加酚類化合物對於火龍果果皮色素貯藏穩定性之影響............54
4.2.1 色素殘留率和裂解指數 .................................57
4.2.2色澤品質變化........................................ .64
4.2.3 抗氧化力變化.........................................73
4.2.5火龍果果皮甜菜色素熱裂解動力學..........................83
4.2.6 甜菜色素和酚類複合物對二氧化硫的穩定性..................85
4.3 甜菜色素-酚纇複合物分析.................................88
4.3.1 LC/MS分析甜菜色素-兒茶素複合物.........................93
5. 結論..................................................100
參考文獻..................................................101
作者簡介.................................................110


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