(18.210.12.229) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/01 06:31
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:蔡中文
論文名稱:不同飼料原料之瘤胃消化率與過瘤胃後實驗室試管消化率
論文名稱(外文):Study of different feed ingredients in rumen digestibility and by-pass rumen digestibility by laboratory tube digestion test
指導教授:夏良宙夏良宙引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:畜產系所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:消化率甲硫胺酸飼料原料瘤胃
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:363
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究目的主要探討常用之過瘤胃蛋白質來源之各種不同飼料原料,利用in situ尼龍袋法探討瘤胃之消化率及實驗室試管法(in vitro)探討其於過瘤胃後之消化率。試驗一將4頭設置瘤胃簍管之乳牛,以尼龍袋法試驗各種原料之瘤胃消化率,結果顯示不同原料間之乾基、粗蛋白、能量上有顯著差異(P<0.001),而各種原料所含礦物質(銅、鋅、鐵、鈣、磷)之瘤胃降解率也有顯著差異(P<0.001)。試驗二以6頭體重相近之瘤胃廔管肉用山羊作試驗一相同瘤胃消化率試驗與過瘤胃後消化率之試驗,結果顯示,不同原料間之瘤胃乾基消化率有顯著差異(P<0.01),粗蛋白、能量也有顯著差異(P<0.001);而大豆處理組與魚粉和棉子粕之瘤胃消化率也有顯著差異。而過瘤胃後之試管消化率於不同飼料原料間之乾基、粗蛋白、能量上有顯著差異(P<0.001),礦物質(磷、錳、銅、鋅)(P<0.001),鈣為顯著差異(P<0.01),鐵、鉀、鎂有顯著差異(P<0.05),而鈉則為差異不顯著(P>0.05)。而甲硫胺酸與瘤胃保護甲硫胺酸之瘤胃消化率與過瘤胃後之試管消化率,因甲硫胺酸已全部於瘤胃中消化,故為顯著差異(P<0.001)。由此試驗得知使用不同原料除了需要注意其瘤胃消化率外,也需考慮其於過瘤胃後之小腸消化率,才可以提高原料之利用率,而甲硫胺酸需要經過保護才能達到小腸消化吸收。

關鍵詞:消化率、甲硫胺酸、飼料原料、瘤胃。
目錄
摘要.……………………………………………………………………..I
Abstract...…………………………………………………………………….II
謝誌…………………………………………………………………….IV
目錄…………………………………………………………………….V
圖表目錄…………………………………………………………………… IX
縮寫索引………………………………………………………………….XI
壹、前言…………………………………………………………………….1
貳、文獻探討……………………………………………………………….2
一、反芻動物蛋白質................……………………………………………….2
(一)飼料中粗蛋白之化學、型態與功用….………..……………………2
(二)瘤胃蛋白質之應用………………………………………………….3
1.瘤胃蛋白質營養系統研究之演進..…….………………………...3
2.瘤胃蛋白質之分類 … …………………………………………...3
3.瘤胃氮之來源.......………………………………………………...8
(三)蛋白質於瘤胃中的降解機制….…………………………………..10
1.瘤胃微生物與蛋白質降解之關係..……………………………..10
2.瘤胃未降解蛋白(RUP)之評估…………………………………13
(1)蛋白質降解率測定方法與其優缺點……………………….13
A.實體測定法(in vivo)………………………………………13
B.原位測定法(in situ)……………………………………….13
C.以氮的溶解性測定法..…………………………………….14
D.實驗室以簡單試管試驗測定蛋白質消化率(in vitro)… ...15
E.實驗室以人工瘤胃測定氨氣濃度之測定法(invitro)...…...15
(2)原位測定法(in situ)與實體(in vivo)及實驗室測定法(in vitro)之比較...……...……...……...……...……...……...…………..16
A.比較in situ及in vivo方法..…….……...……...……...……16
B.比較in situ及in vitro方法..…….……...……...……...……16
3.影響蛋白質降解率之因素...……...……...……...………………16
(1)瘤胃因子...……...……...……...……...……...……...………16
A.動物個體間的差異..……...…….……...……...……...……16
B.採食量多寡.……...……...……...……...……...……...……17
C.瘤胃pH值...……...……...……...……...……...……...……17
(2)飼糧因子... ...……...…………..……...……...……...………17
A. 飼料原料與所含蛋白質的種類與特性…...……...……17
B. 飼糧的精粗料比..……...……...……...……...……...……17
C.飼料加工與儲存...……..……...……...……...……...……18
D.芻料收割與儲存...……...……...……...……...……...……18
E.化學處理方法...……...……...……...……...……...………18
(3)其他因子...……...……...……...……...……...……...………18
( 四)未降解蛋白質(RUP)系統之應用...……...……...……...…….19
1.提高產乳性能...……...……...……...……...……...……...……...19
2.減少蛋白質浪費.……...……...……...……...……...……...…….20
3.降低繁殖障礙提生產乳性能...……...……...……...……...…….20
(五)CP、RDP、RUP之相互關係...……...……...……...……...…….22
(六)未降解蛋白應用之瓶頸...……...……...……...……...………..24
1.不同蛋白質來源應用之差異...……...……...……...……………24
(1)大豆……...……...……...……...……...……...……...………24
(2)魚粉……...……...……...……...……...……...……...………24
(3)棉籽……...……...……...……...……...……...……...………24
(4)其他動植物副產品…...……...……...……...……...………..25
2.日糧中其他營養含量與消化率之影響…...……...……...……...25
(1)能量或碳水化合物供應不足...……...……...……...………26
(2)降解之蛋白質之必需胺基酸不符合泌乳所需...…………..26
(3)未降解蛋白之消化吸收較差...……...……...……...………26
(4)餵飼過量之未降解蛋白.……...……...……...……...………27
二、大豆之加工與應用...……...……...……...……...……...……...………..28
(一)大豆粕之營養特性與反芻動物之營養關係…...……...………….28
(二)提升大豆粕過瘤胃蛋白質比例之處理方法…...……...………….30
1.化學方法..……...……...……...……...……...……...……...…….30
2.物理方式..……...……...……...……...……...……...……...…….30
(1)烘烤……...……...……...……...……...……...……...………30
(2)擠壓……...……...……...……...……...……...……...………31
(3)壓榨……...……...……...……...……...……...……...………31
(4)木質硫酸液處理..……...……...……...……...……...………32
(三)熱處理對大豆粕中蛋白質與胺基酸之影響…...……...………….35
1.對蛋白質之影響.……...……...……...……...……...……...…….35
2.小腸蛋白質與胺基酸消化率之影響..……...……...……...…….35
(四)加熱程度之分析法….……...……...……...……...……...………...37
1.分光計法..……...……...……...……...……...……...……...…….37
2.蛋白質分散指數(PDI)..……...……...……...……...……...…….37
3.酸性溶劑不溶解氮(ADIN)及胃蛋白酶不溶解氮(APIN)...…37
(五)以熱處理大豆粕為過瘤胃蛋白質來源對泌乳牛之影響.………..38
1.對泌乳量之影響.……...……...……...……...……...……...…….38
2.使用熱處理大豆粕之瓶頸…...……...……...……...……...…….40
3.其他處理大豆粕對泌乳牛之影響...……...……...……...………40
三、瘤胃保護胺基酸之應用…...……...……...……...……...……...…….41
(一)胺基酸的功用...……...……...……...……...……...……...………..41
(二)必需與非必需胺基酸..……...……...……...……...……...………..42
(三)乳牛常飼糧胺基酸的含量...……...……...……...……...…………42
(四)乳牛之限制胺基酸...……...……...……...……...……...………….45
1.測定胺基酸的需要量的方法...……...……...……...……...…….45
(1)直接測定法...……...……...……...……...……...………......45
(2)乳腺動靜脈血液差(A-V difference)...……...……...………45
2.不同基礎日糧、泌乳期與對乳腺功能之限制胺基酸..................46
(1)不同基礎日糧之限制胺基酸...……...……...……...………46
(2)不同泌乳期之限制胺基酸... ...……..……...……...………47
(3)對乳腺功能之限制胺基酸...……...….……...……...………47
(五)保護胺基酸之形式...……...……...……...……...……...………….49
1.包覆型保護胺基酸…...……...……...……...……...……...…….49
2.含甲硫胺酸之異構物(analogs)...……...……...……...…………50
(六) 保護胺基酸之應用...……...……...……...……...……...………...51
1.提升乳量與乳固形物...……...……...……...……...……...…….51
(1)乳量……...……...……...……...……...……...……...………51
(2)固形物…...……...……...……...……...……...……...………51
2.促進體內胺基酸之平衡及減少氮之排放...……...……...……...52
3.牛隻長期健康之維護...……...……...……...……...……...…….53
參、材料與方法…...……...……...……...……...……...……...……...……...55
一、試驗動物 ..……...……...……...……...……...……...……...……55
二、試驗地點...……...……...……...……...……...……...……...………...55
三、試驗設計...……...……...……...……...……...……...……...……….56
四、試驗動物飼養管理.……...……...……...……...……...……...………63
五、測定項目及方法...……...……...……...……...……...……...……….67
六、統計分析...……...……...……...……...……...……...……...………...71
肆、結果與討論..…...……...……...……...……...……...……...……...…….72
一、不同飼料原料之瘤胃消化率…...……...……...……...……...………72
(一)不同飼料原料之乾基、粗蛋白、能量、礦物質之比較(試驗
一)…...……...……...……...……...……...……………………….72
1.乾基、粗蛋白、能量之比較..……...……...……...……...………..72
2.不同飼料原料礦物質銅、鋅、鐵、鈣、磷之比較...……………….73
3.不同飼料原料與不同保護甲硫胺酸之乾基、粗蛋白、能量之
比較 … ..…... ..…......……...……...……...……...……………..74
(二)不同飼料原料之乾基、粗蛋白、能量、礦物質之比較(試驗二) ....……...……...……...……...……...……...……………… 81
1.乾基、粗蛋白、能量之比較.……...……...……...……...………...81
2.不同飼料飼料原料礦物質:磷、錳、銅、鋅、鐵、鉀、鈣、
鈉、鎂瘤胃消化率之比較...……...……...……...…………….......83
二、不同飼料原料之過瘤胃試管(in vitro)消化率.……...……...………88
(一)乾基、粗蛋白、能量之比較…...……...……...……...……………...88
(二)不同飼料原料之礦物質:磷、錳、銅、鋅、鐵、鉀、鈣、鈉
、鎂之比較…...……...……...……...……………………………...91
伍、結論…...……...……...……...……...……...……...……...……...………94
參考文獻…...……...……...……...……...……...……...……...……...……..96
作者簡介…...……...……...……...……...……...……...……...……...……121

圖表目錄
圖1 利用硼酸-磷酸與中洗及酸洗洗劑之蛋白質分餾分析………...……..6
圖2 瘤胃蛋白質降解有關之酵素與產物……...………...………...……12
圖 3 大豆粕之製造流程……...………...………...………...………...……29
圖 4 尼龍袋與試驗原料……...………...………...………...………...……62
圖 5 洗衣袋與固定裝置……...………...………...………...………...……62
圖 6 羊隻欄舍與與芻料……...………...………...………...………...……66
圖 7 分光光度計…...………...………...………...………...………...……69
圖 8 原子吸收光譜儀………...………...………...………...………...……69
圖 9 恆溫水浴槽…...………...………...………...………...………...……70
圖 10 凱氏氮分析儀..………...………...………...………...………...……70
圖 11 不同飼料原料與不同甲硫胺酸乾基、粗蛋白與能量在瘤胃中48
小時之消化率條狀圖..………...………...………...………………..78
圖 12 不同飼料原料之銅、鋅、鐵、鈣、磷在瘤胃中48小時之消化率
之條狀圖...………...………...……....................................................80
圖 13 不同飼料原料與甲硫胺酸之乾基、粗蛋白與能量在瘤胃中24小
時之消化率之條狀圖(試驗二)...………...………...………...……..85
圖 14 不同飼料原料與瘤胃保護甲硫胺酸之礦物質在瘤胃中24小時之
消化率之比較條狀圖(試驗二)...………...………...………...……..87
圖 15 不同飼料原料與瘤胃保護甲硫胺酸之乾基、粗蛋白與能量過瘤
胃後消化率之比較條狀圖(試驗二)…...………...………...……….90
圖 16 不同原料與瘤胃保護甲硫胺酸之礦物質過瘤胃後消化率之比較
條狀圖(試驗二).………...………...………...………...………...…..93










表1飼料原料中氮的分類及蛋白質之分類…...…...……...……...……........7
表2全脂黃豆烘烤溫度與時間對過瘤胃蛋白率與可利用離氨酸含量的
影響...………...………...………...………...………...………...………33
表3烘烤全脂黃豆出爐溫度與餘溫加熱時間對過瘤胃蛋白質率與可利
離氨酸含量的影響……...………...………...………...……….............34
表 4 大豆粕與其他油籽粕之胺基酸組成份…...………...………...……35
表5 餵飼不同熱處理黃豆對泌乳牛產乳表現與乳成分的影響…...……39
表 6 牛乳細菌蛋白與蛋白質補充物之離胺酸與甲硫胺酸之含量比較...44
表 7 試驗動物之基本資料...………...………...………...………...……55
表 8 TMR配方…...………...………...………...………...………...……58
表 9 試驗期間飼養管理流程(試驗一)………...………...………...…….64
表 10 試驗期間飼養管理流程(試驗二)………...………...………...…….65
表 11 不同飼料原料之乾基、粗蛋白與能量在瘤胃中48小時之消化率
之比較...………...………...………...………...………...…………...75
表 12 不同飼料原料與不同甲硫胺酸之乾基、粗蛋白與能量在瘤胃中
48小時之消化率之比較………...………...………...………...……76
表13 不同飼料原料與不同處理甲硫胺酸之乾基在瘤胃中48小時之消
化率之比較………...………...………...…………………………...77
表 14 不同飼料原料礦物質銅、鋅、鐵、鈣、磷在瘤胃中48小時之消
化率之比較…...………...………...………...……………………….79
表 15 不同飼料原料與甲硫胺酸之乾基、粗蛋白與能量在瘤胃中24小
時之消化率之比較(試驗二)…...………...………...………...……..84
表 16 不同飼料原料與瘤胃保護甲硫胺酸之磷、鐵、鎂、鉀、鈣、鈉
、錳、銅、鋅在瘤胃中24小時之消化率之比較(試驗二)…...……...86
表 17 不同飼料原料與不同甲硫胺酸之乾基、粗蛋白與能量過瘤胃後
之消化率之比較(試驗二).………...………...………...………...….89
表18 不同飼料原料與瘤胃保護胺基酸之磷、鐵、鎂、鉀、鈣、鈉、錳
、銅、鋅過瘤胃後消化率之比較(試驗二) ..………...………...…….92
參考文獻
白火城、林仁壽與黃森源。1996a。家畜臨床血液生化學。立宇出版社。台南市。
邱文石。1997。探討乳牛及能量系統。中國畜牧學會會誌(增刊)。第二十六期:37。
洪 平。1986。飼料原料要覽。台灣養羊雜誌社編印。
徐阿里。1985。酵素速測法預測豬對飼料蛋白質的消化率。畜產研究18(1):89-97。
張菊犁、曾清雲、李素真、陳志毅、黃鈺嘉、李世昌、張秀鑾與吳明哲。2001。台灣乳牛群性能改善計畫。畜產研究34(4):285-295。
楊价民。1997。瘤胃生態系統與反芻動物養分的利用。藝軒出版社。台北。
陳明造。1994。肉品加工理論與應用。藝軒出版社編印。台北。
陳明造。1999。高蛋白黃豆粕之特性。美國黃豆協會印。
詹德芳。1991。飼料製造學。國立中興大學。台中市。
黃瓊芬。2001。熱擠壓大豆粕與飼糧蛋白質水準對熱環境下荷蘭乳牛血漿尿素氮濃度、瘤胃及生產性狀之影響。國立中興大學,碩士論文。台中市。
AAFCO. 1997. Offical publication. pp266. AAFCO, Atlanta, GA.
Abe, M., T. Irili, and M. Funaba. 1997. Lysine deficiency in postweaned calves fed corn and corn gluten meal diets. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1974-1982.
Abe, M., T. Irili, M. Funaba, and S. Onda. 1998. Limiting amino acids for a corn and soybean meal diet in meaned calves less then three months of age. J. Anim. Sci. 76:628-636.
Adesogn, A. T., D. I. Givens, and E. Owen. 1998. Prediction of in vivo digestibility of whole crop wheat from vitro digestibility, chemical composition, in stiu rumen degradability in vitro gas production and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 74:259-272.
Aharoni, y., A. Arieli, and H. Tagari. 1993. Lactation response dairy cows to change of degradability of dietary protein and organic matter. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3514-3522.
Akayezu, J. M., W. P. Hansen, D. E. Otterby, G. D. Marx , and B. A. Cooker. 1994. Response of Holstein dairy cows to dietary fish meal or meat and bone meal duering early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 77(Suppl. 1):237(Abstr.).
Aldrich, J. M., L. D. Muller, G. A. Varga, and L. C. Griel, Jr. 1993. Nonstructural carbohydrate and protein effect on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow, and performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:1091-1105.
Annexstad, R. J., R. M. DeGregorio, B. L. Miller, and D. W. Anderson. 1990. Effect of lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal on milk yield and composition. J. Dairy. Sci. 73(Suppl. 1 ):170(Abstr.).
AOAC. 1984. Office Methods of Analysis. 14th ed. Association of office analytical chemists. Washington. D. C.
Arieli, A., I. Bruckental, and E. Smoler. 1989. Prediction of duodenal nitrogen supple from degradation or organic and nitrogenous matter in situ. J. Dairy Sci. 72:2532-2553.
Armentano, L. E., S. J. Bertis, and G. A. Ducharme. 1997. Response of lactating cows to methionine or methionune plus high protein diets based on alfalfa and heated soybeans. J. Dairy. Sci. 80:1194-1199.
Armentano, L. E., S. J. Bertis, and J. Riester. 1993. Lack of response to addition of degradable protein to a low protein diet fed to midlactation dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3755-3762.
Atwal, A. S. and J. D. Erfly. 1992. Effects of feeding fish meal to cows on digestibility, milk production, and milk composition. J. Dairy Sci. 75:502-507.
Atwal, A. S., S. Mahadevan, and M. S. Wolynetz, and Y. Yu. 1995. Increased milk production of cows in early lactation fed chemically treated soybean meal. J. Dairy Sci. 78:595-603.
Baker, L. D., J. D. Ferguson and W. Chalupa. 1995. Responses in urea and ture protein of milk to difference protein feeding schemes for dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77:2424-2434.
Bergen, W. G. 1979. Free amino acid in blood of ruminants-philosophical and nutritional regulation. J. Anim. Sci. 49:1577-1589.
Bergman, E. N., R. S. Reid, M. G. Murray, J. M. Brockway, and F. G. Whitelaw. 1965. Interconversion and production of volatile fatty acid in sheep rumen. Biochem. J. 97:53-58.
Bernard, J. K., J. D. Quigley III, H. H. Dowlen and K. C. Lamar. 1995. Supplemental niacin and heat-treated whole soybeans for Jersey cows during early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 78:2016-2023.
Bertics, S. J., and R. R. Grummer. 1999. Effect of fat and methionine hydroxyl analog on prevention or alleviation of fatty liver induced by feed restriction. J. Dairy. Sci. 82:2731-2736.
Blethen, D. B., J.E. Wohlt, D. K. Jasaitis, and J. L. Evans. 1990. Feed protein factions: relationship to nitrogen solubility and degradability. J. Dairy Sci. 73:1544-1551.
Blum, J. W., R. M. Bruckmaier, and F. Jans. 1999. Rumen-protected methionine fed to dairy cows: bioavailability and effects on plasma amino acid pattern and plasma metabolite and insulin concentrations. J. Dairy Sci. 82:1991-1998.
Broderick, G. A. 1986. Relative value of solvent and expeller soybean meal for lactating dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2948-2958.
Broderick, G. A. 1992. Relative value of fish meal versus solvent soybean meal for lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa silage as sole forage. J. Dairy Sci. 75:174-183.
Broderick, G. A. 1998. Can cell-free enzymes replace rumen microorganisms to model energy and protein supply. Pages 99-114 in vitro Techniques for Measuring Nutrient Supply to Rumeniants. E. R. Deaville, E. Owens, A. T. Adesogan, C. Rymer, J. A. Huntington, and T. L. J. Lawance (eds.) Occasional publication No. 22, British Society of Animal Sciences, Edinburgh.
Broderick, G. A., and G. T. Lane. 1978. Lactactional, in vitro, and chemical evaluation of untreated and formaldehyde-treated casein supplements. J. Dairy Sci. 61:932-939.
Broderick, G. A., D. B. Ricker, and L. S. Driver.1990. Expeller soybean meal and corn by-products versus solvent soybean meal for lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa silage as sole forage. J. Dairy Sci. 76:165-174.
Broderick, G. A., R. J. Wallace, and E. R. Orskov. 1991. Control of rate and extent of protein degradation. Pages 541-592 in physiological Aspects of Digestion and Metabolism in Ruminants. T. Tsuda, Y. Sasaki, and R. Kawashima (eds.) Academic Press, Orlando, FL.
Bruckental, I., D. Dori, M. Kaim, H. Lehrer, and Y. Folman. 1989. Effect of source and level of protein on milk yield and reproductive performance of high-producing primiparous and multiparous dairy cows. Anim. Prod.
48:319-329.
Bruckental, I., I. Ascarelli, B. Yosif, and E. Alumot. 1991. Effect of duodenal proline infusion on milk production and composition in dairy cows.
Anim. Prod. 53:299-303.
Burris, W. R., J. A. Boling, N. W. Bradley, and A. W. Young. 1976. Abomasal lysine infusion in steers fed a urea supplemented diet. J. Anim. Sci. 42:699-705.
Burroughs, W. A., D. K. Nelson, and D. R. Mertens. 1975. Protein physiology and its application in the lactating cows: The metabolizable protein feeding standard. J. Anim. Sci. 41:933-944.
Butler, W. R. 1998. Rewiew: Effect of protein nutrition on ovarian and uterine physiology in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2533-2539.
Calale, C. J., P. L. Burgess, L. D. Muller, and G. A. Varga. 1990a. Calcium salts of fatty acid in diets that differ in neutral detergent fiber: Effect on lactation performance and nutrient digestibility. J. Dairy Sci. 73:1031-1038.
Calnle, C. J., P. L. Burgess, L. D. Muller, and G. A. Varga. 1990a. Calcium salts of fatty acid in diets that differ in neutral detergent fiber: Effect on lactation performance and nutrient digestibility. J. Dairy Sci. 73:1031-1038.
Calsamiglia, S., D. D. Hongerholt, B. A. Crooker, M. D. Stern, G. F. Hartnell, and R. L. Hintz. 1992. Effect of fish meal and expeller-processed soybean meal fed to dairy cows feceiving bovine somatotropin (Sometribove). J. Dairy Sci. 75:2454-2462.
Cambell, M. H., J. K. Miller, and F. N. Schrick. 1999. Effect of additional cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc on reproduction and milk yield of lactating dairy cows receiving bovine somatotropin. J. Dairy Sci. 82:1019-1031.
Canale, C. J., L. D. Muller, H. A. McCahon, T. J. Whitsel, G. A. Varga. 1990b. Diteary fat and ruminally protected amino acid for high producing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 73:135-141.
Canfild, R. W., C. J. Sniffen, and W. R. Butler. 1990. Effects of excess degradable protein on postpartum reproduction and energy balance in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 73:2342-2349.
Casper, D. P., and D. J. Schingoethe. 1989. Model to describe and alleviate milk protein depression in early lactation dairy cows fed a high fat diet. J. Dairy. Sci. 72:3327-3335.
Castillo, A. R., E. Kebreab, D. E. Beever, J. H. Barbi, J. D. Sutton, H. C. Kirby, and J. France. 2001. The effect of protein supplementation on nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage diets. J. Anim. Sci. 79:247-253.
Chalupa, W. 1974. Rumen bypass and protection of proteins and amino acid. J. Dairy Sci. 58:1198-1218.
Chalupa, W. 1977. Manipulating rumen fermentation. J. Anim. Sci. 45:585-694.
Chalupa, W. 1984. Discussion of protein symposium. J. Dairy Sci. 58:1198-1218.
Chalupa, W., and C. J. Sniffen. 1996. Protein and amino acid nutrition of lactacting dairy cattle-tatay and tomorrow. Anim Feed Sci. Technol. 58:65-75.
Chamberlain, D. G., J. J. Choung, and S. Robertson. 1992. Protein nutrition of dairy cows receiving grass silage diets: effects of feeding a protein supplement of unbalanced amino acid composition. J. Sci. Food-Agric. Elsevier Applied Science. 60:(4) p.425-430.
Chandler, P. T. 1989. Achievement of optimum amino acid balance possible. Feedstuffs. 61(26):14-23.
Chandler, P. T., and C. E. Polan. 1972. Considerations in interpreations of serum amino acids in lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 55:709.(Abstr.).
Chapoutot, P., P. Schmidely, D. Sauvant, J. C. Robert, and B. Sloan. 1992. Influence of a ruminally protected blend of methionine and lysine (ML) on the dairy cow nutrition and production. J. Dairy Sci. 75(Suppl. 1) 199.(Abstr.).
Chase, L. E. 1994. Environmental considerations in developing dairy rations. pp.56-62 in Proc. Conell Nutr. Conf. Feed Manuf., Rochester, NY. Conell Univ. Ithaca, NY.
Chen, G. C. J. sniffen and J. B. Russell. 1987. Concentration and estimated flow of peptides from the rumen of dairy cattle: effects of protein quality, protein solubility and feeding frequency. J. Dairy Sci. 70:983-992.
Cherney, D. J. R., J. J. Volence, and J. H. Cherney. 1992. Protein solubility and degradation in vitro as influenced by buffer and maturity of alfalfa. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 37:9-20.
Chistensen, R. A., G. L. Lynch, and J. H. Clark. 1993. Influence of amount and degradability of protein on production of milk and milk components by Holsteins cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3490-3496.
Clark, J. H., and T. R. Overton. 1995. The dairy industry and dairy cattle nutrition in the 21st century. pp.4-59 in Proc. California Anim. Nutr. Conf., Fresno, CA. Califormia state Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA.
Clark, J. H., M. R.Murphy, and B. A. Crooker. 1987. Supplying the protein needs of dairy cattle from byproduct feeds. J. Dairy Sci. 70:1092-1109.
Clark, J. H., R. G. Derrig, C. L. Davis, and H. R. Spires. 1975. Metabolism of arginine and ornithine in the cow and rabbit mammary tissue. J. Dairy Sci. 58:1808-1813.
Clark, J. H., T. H. Klusmeyer, and M. R. Cameron. 1992. Microbial protein synthesis and flows of nitrogen fractions to the duodenum of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75:2304-2323.
Claypool, D. W., M. C. Pangborn, and H. P. Adams. 1980. Effect of dietary protein on high-producing dairy cow in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 63:833-837.
Cocimano, M. R., and R. A. Leng. 1967. Metabolism of urea in sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 21:353-355.
Coleman, G. S., and D. C. Sandford. 1979. Engulfment and digestion of mixed rumen bacteria and individual bacterial species by single and mixed species of rumen ciliate protozoa grown in vivo. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 92:729-738.
Colucci, P. E., L. E. Chase, and P. J. Van Soest. 1982. Feed intake, apparent diet digestibility, and rate of particulate passage in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 65:1445-1456.
Cotta, M. A., and R. B. Hespell. 1984. Protein and amino acid methabolism of rumen bacteria. Pages 122-136 in Control of Digestion and Metabolism in Ruminants. L. P. Milligan. W. L. Grovum and A. Dobson (ed.). Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs. NJ.
Crawford, R. J., W. H. Hoover, C. J. Sniffen, and B. A. Crooker. 1978. Degradation of feedstuff nitrogen in the rumen vs nitrogen solubility in three solvents. J. Anim. Sci. 46:1768-1775.
Dale, N. 1996. Variation in feed ingredient quality: oilseed meals. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 59:129-135.
Davis, S. R., and R. J. Collier. 1985. Mammary blood flow and requlation of substrate supply for milk synthesis. J. Dairy. Sci. 68:1041-1058.
DePeter, E. J., and J. P. Cant. 1992. Nutritional factors influencing the nitrogen composition of bovine milk: a review. J. Dairy Sci.
75:2043-2070.
DePeter, E. J., and S. J. Taylor. 1985. Effects of feeding corn or barley on composition of milk and diet digestibility. J. Dairy Sci. 68:2027-2032.
Dhiman, T. R., and L. D. Satter. 1995. Feeding heat treated cottonseed to
lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 78(Suppl. 1): 296(Abstr.).
Dinn, N. E., J. A. Shelford, and L. J. Fisher. 1998. Use of the conell net carbohydrate and protein system and rumen-protected lysine and methionine to reduce nitrogen excretion from lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81:229-237.
Donkin, S. S., G. A. Varga, T. F. Sweeney, and L. D. Muller. 1989. Rumen-Protected methionine and lysine : effects on animal performance, milk protein yield and physiological measures. J. Dairy Sci. 72:1484-1491.
Downes, A. M. 1961. On the amino acid essential for the tissues of the sheep. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 74:2233-2242.
Edwards, J. S., E. E. Bartely, and A. D. Dayton. 1980. Effects of dairy protein concentration on lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 63:243-248.
Egan, A. R. 1980. Host Animal-rumen relationships. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 39:79-85.
England, M. L., G. A. Broderick, R. D. Shaver, and D. K. Comds. 1997. Comparison of in situ and in vitro techniques for measuring ruminal degradation of animal by-product protein. J. Dairy Sci. 80:2925-2931.
Fairbairn, R., I. Alli, and B. E. Baker. 1988. Proteolysis associated with the ensiling of chopped alfalfa. J. Dairy Sci. 71:152-158.
Faldet, M. A., and L. D. Satter. 1991. Feeding heated-treated full soybeans to cows in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3047-3054.
Faldet, M. A., L. D. Satter and G. A. Broderick. 1992a. Determining optimal heat treatment of soybeans by measuring available lysine chemically and biologically with rats to maximize protein utilization by ruminants. J. Nutr. 122:151-160.
Faldet, M. A., V. L. Voss, G. A. Broderick, and L. D. Satter. 1991. Chemical, in vitro, and in situ evaluation of heat treated soybean protein. J. Dairy Sci. 74:2548-2544.
Federson, C. L., and W. G. Bergen. 1975. An assessment of essential amino acid requirements of growing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 41:1759-1766.
Fickler, J., J. Fontaine, and W. Heimbeck. 1996. The Amino Acid Compo-sition of Feedstuffs, Degussa Corporation, Ridgefield Park, NJ.
Firkins, J. L. Berger, L. L. Merchen, N. R., Fahey, G. C., and Nelson, D. R. 1986. Effects of feed intake and protein degradability on ruminal characteristics and site of digestion in steers. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2111-2123.
Fredeen, A. H. 1996. Considerations in the nutrition modification of milk composition. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 59:185-197.
Ganesh D., and D. G. Grieve. 1990. Effect of roasting raw soybeans at three temperatures on in situ dry matter and nitrogen disappearance in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 73:3222-3230.
Garcia, A.D., W. G. Olson, D. E. Otterby, J. G. Linn, and W. P. Hansen. 1989. Effect of temperatures, moisture, and aeration on fermentation of alfalfa silage. J. Dairy Sci. 73:3222-3230.
Garrett, J. E., R. D. Goodrich, J. C. Meiske and M. D. Stern. 1987. Influence of supplemental nitrogen source on digestion of nitrogen, dry matter and organic matter and in vivo rate of ruminal protein degradation. J. Anim. Sci. 64:1801-1812.
Gibson. J. P. 1984. The effects of frequency of feeding on milk production of dairy cattle: An analysis of published results. Anim. Prod. 38: 181-189.
Golelma, J. O., A. Smits, L. M. Vaessen, and A. Wemmers. 1999. Effects of pressure toasting, expander treatment and pelleting on in vitro and in situ parameters of protein and starch in mixture of broken peas, lupins and faba bean. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 78:109-126.
Gordon, F. J. 1980. The Effect of silage type on the performance of lactating cows and the response to high levels of protein in the supplement. Anim. Prod. 30:29-37.
Grings, E. E., Roffler, R. E., Deitelhoff, D. P. 1991. Response of dairy cows in early lactation to additions of cottonseed meal in alfalfa-based diet. J. Dairy Sci. 74:2580-2587.
Grummer, R. R., and J. H. Caark. 1982. Effect of dietary nitrogen solubility on lactation performance and protein and dry matter degradation in situ. J. Dairy Sci. 65:1432-1444.
Grummer, R. R., M. L. Luck., and J. A. Barmore. 1994. Lactational performance of dairy cows fed raw soybean, with or without animal
by-product proteins, or roasted soybeans. J. Dairy Sci. 77: 1354 - 1359.
Harstad,O. M., and E. PrestlØkken. 2000. Effective rumen degradability and intestinal indigestibility of individual amino acids in solvent- extracted soybean meal(SBM) and xylose-treated SBM (Soypass) determined in
situ. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 83:31-47.
Hartnell, G. F., and L. D. Satter. 1979. Determination of rumen fill , retention time and ruminal turnover rates of ingest at different stages of lactation
in dairy cow. J. Anim. Sci. 48:381-392.
Harvayine, D. I., and J. L. Firkines. 2002. Lactation performance by dairy cows fed wet brewersgrains or whole Cottonseed to replace forage. J. Dairy Sci. 85:2662-2668.
Heger, J., and Z. Frydrych. 1989. Efficiency of utilization of amino acids. Pages31-56 in Absorption and Utilization of Amino Acids, Vol. 1. M. Friedman, ed, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
Hibbitt, K. G. 1988. Effect of protein on the health of dairy cows. Page 184 in Recent Developments in Ruminant Nutrition-2, Page Bros. Ltd., Norwich, Norfolk.
Higginbotham, G. E., J. T. Huber, M. V. Walletine, N. P. Johnson, and D. Andrus. 1989. Influence of protein percentage and degradability on performance of lactating cows during moderate temperature. J. Dairy Sci. 72:1818-1823.
Higginbotham, G. E., N. P. Johnson, D. D. Andrus, and J. T. Huber. 1984. Effect of non-protein nitrogen supplementation of highly insoluble dairy rations on the performance of high producing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 67(Suppl. 1):120(Abstr.)
Hill, G. M., J. A. Boling, and N.W. Bradley. 1980. Postruminal lysine and methionine infusion in steers fed urea-supplemented diet adequate in sulfur. J. Dairy. Sci. 63:1242-1247.
Hino, T., and J. B. Russell. 1988. Relative contributions of ruminal bacteria and protozoa to the degradation of protein in vitro. J. Amin. Sci. 64:261-270.
Hoffman, P. C., R. R. Grummer, R. D. Shaver, G. A. Broderick, and T. R. Brendel. 1991. Feeding supplement fat and undegraded intake protein to early lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3468-3474.
Holter, J. B., H. H. Hayes, W. E. Urban Jr., S. Ramsey, and H. Rideout. 1992. Response of Holstein cows to corn gluten meal used to increase undegradable protein in early or later lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 75:1495-1506.
Hooper, A. P. and Welch, J. G. 1985. Effect of particle size and forge composition on functional specific gravity. J. Dairy Sci. 68:1181-1188.
Hoover, W. H. 1986. Chemical factors involved in ruminal fiber digestion. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2755-2766.
Hoover, W. H. and Stokes. 1991. Balancing carbohydrates and proteins for optimum rumen microbial yield. J. Dairy. Sci. 74:3530-3644.
Hopkins, D. I., W. E. Kunkle, A. C. Hammond, D. B.Bates, and B. A. Reiling. 1999. Effects of bypass methionine on the performance of growing cattle fed bermudagrass hay supplemented with molass-based supplements. J. Anim. Sci.(Suppl.1):202(Abstr.)
Houpt, T. R. 1970. Transfer of urea and ammonia to rumen. The Physiology of digestion and metabolism in the ruminant. A. T. Phillioson, ed. Oriel Press, Newcastle upon Type, England. pp. 119.
Hsu, J. T. and L. D. Satter. 1995. Procedures for measuring the quality of heat-treated soybeans. J. Dairy Sci. 78:1353-1361.
Huber, J. T., and L. Kung, Jr. 1981. Protein and nonprotein nitrogen utilization in dairy cattle. J. Dairy. Sci. 64:1170-1195.
Hussein, H. S. and Jordan, R. M. 1991. Fish meal as a protein supplement in ruminant diets: a review. J. Anim. Sci. 69:2147-2156.
Hvelplund, T. 1984. Intestinal digestion of protein in dairy cows. Canadian J. Anim. Sci. Suppl. 64:193-194.
Ibbotson, C. F., M. C. Phillips, P. J. Turner, and M. Delaney. 1982. The alkali treatment of whole crop cereals. Part Ⅰ-Farm scale feasibility trail with barly. Experimental Husbandy. 38:154-162.
Johson H. E., N. L., Whitehouse, B. D. Garthwate, M. S. Piepenbrink, and C. G. Schwab. 1999. Supplementation of corn and barely-based diets of late gestation and early lactation cows with liquid methionine hydroxy analog(HMB). J. Dairy Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):65(Abstr).
Jordan, E. R. and L. V. Swanson. 1979. Effect of crude protein on reproductive efficiency, serum total protein, and albumin in the high producing dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci. 62:58-63.
Jouany, J. P., and K. Ushida. 1999. The role of protozoa in feed digestion. Review. AJAS 12:113-128.
Kennedy, P. M., R. J. Christopherson, and L. P. Milligan. 1982. The effect of cold exposure on feed protein degradation, microbial protein synthesis and transfer of plasma urea to the rumen of sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 47:521-535.
Kincaid, R. L., B. P. Chew, and J. D. Cronrath. 1997. Zinc oxide and amino acids as sources of dietary zinc for calves: effect on uptake and immunity. J. Dairy Sci. 80: 1381-1387.
King, K. J., J. T. Huber, M. Sadik, E. G. Bergen, A. L. Grant, and V. L.king. 1990. Influence of dietary protein sources on the amino acid profile available for digestion and metabolism in lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 66:227-234.
King, K. J., W. G. Bergen, C. J. Sniffen, A. L. Grant, D. B. Grieve, V. L. King and N. K. Ames. 1991. An assessment of absorbable lysine requirements in lactating cows. J. Dairy. Sci. 74:2530-2539.
Koeing, K. M., L. M. Rode, C. D. Knight, and P. R. McCullough. 1999. Ruminal escape, gastrointestinal absorption, and response of serum methionine to supplementation of liquid methionine hydroxyl analog in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:355-361.
Krishnamoorthy, U., T. V. Muscato, C. J. Sniffen, and P. J. Van Soest. 1982. Nitrogen fractions in selected feedstuffs. J. Dairy Sci. 65:217-225.
Krober, T. F., D. R. Kulling, H. Menzi, F. Sutter, and M. Kreuzer. 2000. Quantitative effects of feed protein reduction and methionine on nitrogen use by cows and nitrogen emission from slurry. J. Dairy. Sci.
83:2941-2951.
Kung, Jr. L., and Huber. 1983. Performance of high producing cows in early lactation feed protein of varying amounts, sources and degradability. J. Dairy Sci. 66:227-234.
Lehninger, A. B., D. Nelson and M. M. Cox. 1993. Chapter 26. Protein Metabolism. in: Principles of Biochemistry by Worth Publishers Inc., 33 Irving Place, New York. PP:916-922.
Leng, R. E., and J. V. Nolan. 1984. Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen. J. Dairy Sci. 67:1072-1089.
Licitra, G., T. M. Hernandez, and P. J. Van Soest. 1996. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Technol. 57:347-358.
Liu, C., D. J. Schingoete, and G. A. Stegeman. 2000. Corn distillers grains versus a blend of protein supplements without riminally protected amino acids for lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 83:2075-2084.
LjOkjel, K., O. M. Harstad, and A. Skrede. 2000. Effect of heat treatment of soybean meal and fish meal on amino acid digestibility in milk and dairy cows. Anim. Feed Technol. 84:83-95.
Llano,C. A. and E. J. DePeters. 1985. Apparent digestibilities of diets varying in rations of forage to concentrate and quality of forage at two intakes by dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 68:1189-1197.
Lynch, G. L., Berger, L. L., Merchen, N. R., Fahey, G. C. and Baker, E. C. 1987. Effects of ethanol and treatments of soybean meal and infusion of sodium chloride into the rumen on ruminal degradation and escape of soluble and total soybean meal protein in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 65:1617-1625.
Madsen, J., and Hvelpund. 1990. Protein degradation in the rumen. Pages 103-124 in A study of the Quantitative Nitrogen Metabolism in the Gastro-intestinal Tract, and the Resultant New protein Evaluation Systen for Ruminants. The AAT-BPV Systen. T. Hvelpund and J. Madsen, eds. Institute of Animal Science, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhangen.
Mahadevan, S., J. D. Erfle, and F. D. Sauer. 1980. Degradation of soluble and insoluble protein by Bacteroides amylophilus protease and by rumen microorganisms. J. Anim. Sci. 50:723-728.
Mangan, J. L. 1972. Quantitative studies on nitrogen metabolism in bovine rumen. The rate of proteolysis of casein and ovalbumin and the release and metabolism of free amino acids. Br. J. Nutr. 27:261-283.
McCarthy, R. D., G. A. Porter, and L. C. Griel, Jr. 1968. Bovine ketosis and depressed fat test in milk: a problem of methionine metabolism and serum lipoprotein aberration. J. Dairy Sci. 51:459-462.
McCarthy, R. D., JR., T. H. Klusmeyer, J. L. Vicini, J. A. Clark, and D. R. Nelson. 1989. Effects of source of protein and carbohydrate on ruminal fermentation and passage of nutrients to the small intestine of lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72:2002-2016.
McCormick, M. E., D. D. French, T. F. Brown, G. J. Cuomo, A. M. Chapa, J. M. Fermandez, J. F. Beatty, and D. C. Blouini. 1999. Crude protein and rumen undegradable protein effects on reproduction and lactation performance on Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:2697-2708.
Mehrez, A. Z., and E. R. Orskov. 1977. A study of artifical fiber bag technique for determining the digestibility of feeds in the rumen. J. Agric. Sci. 88:645-650.
Meijer,G. A. L., J. van der Meulen, J. G. M. Bakker, C. J. van der Koelen and A. M. van Vuuren. 1995. Free amino acid in plasma and muscle of high yielding dairy cow in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 78:1131-1141.
Mepham, T. B. 1982. Amino acid utilization by lactating mammary gland. J. Dairy Sci. 65:287-298.
Nakamura, T., T. J. Klopfenstein, F. G. Owen, R, A. Britton, R. J. Grant, and T. S. Winowiski. 1992. Nonenzymatically browned soybean meal for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75:3519-3523.
National Research Council. 1978. Nutrient Requirement of Dairy Cattle. 6th rev. ed. Natl Acad. Sci. Washington, D.C.
National Research Council. 1985. Ruminant Nitrogen Usage. Natl. Acad. Saci., Washington, D.C.
National Research Council. 1988. Nutrient Requirement of Dairy Cattle. 6th rev. ed. Natl Acad. Sci. Washington, D.C.
National Research Council. 1989. Nutrient Requirement of Dairy Cattle. 6th rev. ed. Natl Acad. Sci. Washington, D.C.
National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient Requirement of Dairy Cattle. 7th rev. ed. Natl Acad. Sci. Washington, D.C.
Neal, R. M. and E. C. Tigemeyer. 1992. Mainipulation of amino acid supply to the growing ruminants. J. Amin. Sci. 70:3238-3247.
Netmeyer, D. T., L. J. Bush, and F. N. Owens. 1980. Effect of particle size of soybean meal on protein utilization in steers and lactation cows. J. Dairy Sci. 63:574-578.
Nichols, J. R., D. J. Schingoethe, H. A. Maiga, M. J. Brouk, and M. S. Piepenbrink. 1998. Evaluation of corn distillers grains and ruminally protected lysine and methionine for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81:482-491.
Nishimuta, J. F., D. G. Ely, and J. A. Boling. 1973. Nitrogen metabolism in lambs fed soybean meal treated with, formalin andtannic acid. J. Nutr. 103:49-53.
Nocek, J. E. 1988. In situ and other methods to estimate ruminal protein and energy digestibility: A review. J. Dairy Sci. 71:2051-2069.
Nocek, J. E. and J. B. Russel. 1988. Protein and energy as an integrated system. Relationship of ruminal protein and carbohydrate available to microbial synthesis and milk production. J. Dairy Sci. 71:2070-2107.
Nocek, J. E. and S. Tamminga. 1991. Site of digestion of starch in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows and its effect on milk yield and composition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3598-3629.
Nocek, J. E. and A. L. Grant. 1987. Cracterisation of in situ nitrogen and fiber digestion and bacteria nitrogen contamination of hay crop forages preserved at different dry matter percentages. J. Anim. Sci. 64:552-564.
Oldham, J. D. 1984. Protein-energy relationships in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 67:1090-1114.
Oltjen, R. R. 1969. Effects of feeding ruminants non-protein nitrogen as the only nitrogen source. J. Anim. Sci. 28:673-682.
Onodera, R. 1993. Methionine and Lystne metabolism in the rumen and the possible effects of their metabolites on the nutrition and physiology of ruminants. Amino Acids. 5:217-232.
Opstvedt, J., R.Miller, R. W. Hardy and J. Spinelli. 1984. Heat-induced changes in sulfhydrl groups and disulfide bonds in fish protein and their effect on protein and amino acid digestibility in rainbow trout. J. Agric. Food Chem. 32:929-935.
Ørskov, E. R. 1982. Dynamics of nitrogen of rumen. Page 41 in Protein Nutrition in Ruminants. Academic Press. London, Engl.
Ørskov, E. R., G. W. Reid and C. A. G. Tait. 1987. Effect of fish meal on the mobilization of body energy in dairy cows. Anim. Prod. 45:345-348.
Ørskov, E. R., M. Hughers-Jones and I. McDonald. 1980. Degradability of protein supplements and utilization of undegraded protein by high-protein by high-producting dairy cows. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nuttition. Pp85. W. Haresign, ed. Butterworth & Co. London, U.K.
Owen, F. G. and L. L. Larson. 1991. Corn distillers dried grains versus soybean meal in lactation diets. J. Diary Sci. 74:972-979.
Papas, A. M., C. J. Sniffen, and T. V. Muscato. 1984. Effectiveness of rumen-protected methionine for delivering methionine postruminally in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 67:545-552.
Patton, R. A., R. D. McCarthy, and L. C. Griel, Jr. 1969. Lipid synthesis by rumen microorganisms II. Futher characterization of the effects of methionine. J. Dairy. Sci. 53:460-464.
Pell, A. N. 1992. Does ration balancing affect nutrient management? pp. 23-31 in Proc. Conell Nutr. Conf. Feed Manuf., Rochrster, NY. Conell Univ., Ithaca, NY.
Pena, F., H. Tagari, and L. D. Satter. 1986. The effect of heat treatment of whole cottonseed on site and extent of protein digestion in dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci. 62:1423-1433.
Petit, H. V., and D. M. Veira. 1991. Effect of grain level and protein source on ruminal fermentation, degradability, and digestion in milking cows fed silage. J. Dairy Sci. 74:2256-2267.
Piepenbrink, M. S., T. R. Overton, and J. H. Clark. 1996. Response of cows fed a low crude protein diet to ruminally protected methionine and lysine. J. Dairy. Sci. 79:1638-1646.
Pisulewski, P. M., H. Rulquin, J. L. Peyraud, and R. Verite. 1996. Lacta-tional and systemic responses of dairy cows to postruminal infusions of increasing amounts of methionine. J. Dairy Sci. 79:1781-1791.
Pleege, S. D., L. L. Berger, and F. G. Owen. 1982. Effect of roasting on utilization of soybean meal by ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 55:454-461.
Pleege, S. D., L. L. Berger, and G. C. Fahey, Jr. 1985. Effect of roasting temperature on the propotion of soybean meal nitrogen escaping degradation in the rumen. J. Anim. Sci. 61:1211-1218.
Polan, C. E., K. A. Cummins, C. J. Sniffen, T. V. Muscato, J. L. Vicini, B. A. Crooker, J. H. Clark, D. E. Otterby, B. Guillaume, L. D. Muller, G. A. Varga, R. A. Murray, and S. B. Peirce-Sandner. 1991. Responses of dairy cows to supplemental rumen-protected forms of methionine and lysine. J. Dairy. Sci. 74:2997-3013.
Polan, C. W., C. N. Miller, M. L. McGilliard. 1976. Variable dietary protein and urea for intake and production in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 59:1910-1914.
Power, W. J., H. H. Van Horn, B. J. Harris, and C. J. Wilcox. 1995. Effect of variable sources of distillers dried grains plus solubles on milk yield and composition. J. Dairy Sci. 78:388-396.
PresstlOkken, E. 1999. In situ ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility of dry matter and protein in expanded feedstuffs. Anim. Feed Technol. 71:1-23.
Richardson, C. R., and E. E. Hatfield. 1978. The limiting amino acid in growing cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 46-740-745.
Robert, J. C., and P. E. V. Williams. 1997. Influence of forage type on the intestinal availability of methionine from a rumen protected form. J. Dairy Sci. 80(Suppl.):248(Abstr.).
Robinson, P. H., A. H. Fredden, W. Chalupa, W. E. Julien, H. Sato, T. Fujieda and H. Suzuki. 1995. Ru,inally protected lysine and methionone for lactating dairy cows fed a diet designed to meet requirements for microbial and postruminal protein. J. Dairy. Sci. 78:582-594.
Roffler., R. E., and D. L. Thacker. 1983. Influence of reducing dietary crude protein from 17 to 13.5% on early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 66:51-58.
Rogers. J.A., U. Krishnamoorthy, and C. J. Sniffen. 1987. Plasma amino acids and milk protein production by cows fed rumen protected methionine and lysine. J. Dairy Sci. 70:789-798.
Rogers. J.A., S. B. Peirce-Sandner,A. M. Polan, C. J. Sniffen, T. V. Muscato, C. R.Staples, and J. H. Clark. 1989. Production response of dairy cows fed various amounts of rumen-protected methionine and lysine. J. Dairy Sci. 72:1800-1817.
Ropstad, E. and A. O. Refsdal. 1987. Herd reproducetive performance related to urea concentrateion in bulk milk. Acta Vet. Scand. 28:55-63.
Roseler, D. K., J. D. Ferguson, C. J. Sniffen and J. Herrema. 1993. Dietary protein degradability effects on plasma and milk urea nitrogen and milk nonprotein nitrogen in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:525-534.
Ruegsegger, G. J., and L. H. Schultz. 1985. Response of high producing dairy cows in early lactation to the feeding of heat-treated whole soybeans. J. Dairy Sci. 68:3272-3279.
Rulquin, H., and L. Develop. 1997. Effects of the energy balance of dairy cows on lactational responses to rumen-protected methionine. J. Dairy. Sci. 80:2513-2522.
Rulquin, H., and Verite. 1993. Amino acid nutrition of dairy cows: proruction effects and animal requirements. Pages 55-77 in Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. P. C. Garnsworthy and D. J. A. Cole, eds. Nottingham University Press.
Russell, J. B., C. J. Sniffen, and P. J. Van Soest. 1983. Effect of carbohydrate limitation on degradation and utilization of casein by mixed rumen bacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 66:763-775.
Rymer, C. 2000. The measurement of forage digestibility in vivo. In: D. I. Givens, E. Owen, R. F. E. Axford , and H. M. Omed(ed). Forage Evaluation in Ruminant Nutrition. PP:113-134. CABI International. UK.
A 12-year literature review. J. Dairy Sci. 81:3182-3213.
Sahlu, T., D. J. Schingoethe, and A. K. Clark. 1984. Lactational and chemical evalution of soybean meals heat-treated by two methods. J. Dairy Sci. 67:1725-1738.
Sanchez, J. M. and D. W. Claypool. 1983. Canola meal as a protein supplement in dairy rations. J. Dairy Sci. 66:80-85.
Santos, F. A. P., J. E. P. Santos, C. B. Theurer, and J. T. Huber. 1998a. Effect ofrumen-undegradable protein on dairy cow performance:
Santos, F. A. P., J. T. Huber, C. B. Theurer, and R. S. Swingle, J. M. Simas, K. H. Chen, and P. Yu. 1998b.Milk yield and composition of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum and graded concentrations of ruminally degradable protein. J. Dairy Sci. 81:225-230.
Santos, K. A., M. D. Stern, and L. D. Satter. 1984. Protein degradation in the rumen and amino acid absorption in the small intestine of lactating dairy cattle fed various protein sources. J. Anim. Sci. 58:244-245.
Satter, L. D., J. T. Hsu, and T. R. Dhiman. 1993. Evaluating the quality of roasted soybean. In: Proc. Advanced Dairy Nutrition Seminar for Feed Professionals. Wisconsin Dell, WI.
Satter, L. D., J. T. Hsu, and T. R. Dhiman. 1993. Evaluating the quality of roasted soybeans. In: Proc. Advanced Dairy Nutrition Seminar for Feed Professionals. Wiscosin Dells, WI.
Satter, L. D., M. A. Faldet, and T. R. Dhiman. 1991. Feed whole soybeans, soyhulls and soybean meal. In: Proc. Alternative Feed for Dairy and Beef Cattle. St. Loius, MO. pp22.
Scheifinger, C., N. Russell, and W. Chalupa. 1976. Degradation of amino acids by pure cultures of rumen bacteria. J. Anim. Sci. 43:821-827.
Schingoete, D. J., M. J. Brouk, and C. P. Birkelo. 1999. Milk production and composition from cows fed wet corn distillers grains. J. Dairy Sci. 82:574-580.
Schingoethe, D. J. 1991. Protein quality and amino acid supplementation in dairy cattle. Pages 101-106. in Proc. Southwest Nutr. Manage. Conf. Tempe, AZ. Dep. Anim. Sci. Univ. Arizona. Tucson.
Schingoethe, D. J. 1996a. Balancing the amino acid needs of dairy cow. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 60:153-160.
Schingoethe, D. J. 1996b. Dietary influence on protein level in milk and milk yield in dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 60:181-190.
Schingoethe, D. J., and Ahrar. 1979. Protein solubility, amino acid composition, and biological value of regular and heat-treated soybean and sunflower meal. J. dairy Sci. 62:925-931.
Schingoethe, D. J., D. P Casper, C. Yang, D. J. Illg. J. L. Sommerfeldt, and C. R. Mueller. 1988. Lactational response to soybean meal, and extruded soybeans with ruminally protected methionine. J. Dairy. Sci. 71:173-180.
Schwab, C. G. 1996a. Amino acid nutrition of the dairy cow:Current status. Proc. Cornell Nutr. Conf., Ithaca, NY. PP184-198.
Schwab, C. G., C. K. Bozak, N. L. Whitehouse, and M. M. A. Mesbah. 1992. Amino acid limitation and flow to the duodenum at four stages of lactation. I. Sequence of lysine and methionine limination. J. Dairy. Sci. 75:3486-3502.
Schwab, C. G., L. D. Satter, and A. B. Clay. 1976. Response of lactating dairy cows to abomasal infusion of amino acid. J. Dairy Sci. 59:1254-1270.
Schwab, C. G., T. P. Tylutki, R. S. Ordway, C. Sheaffer, and M. D. Stern 2003. Characterization of protein in feeds. J. Dairy Sci. 86(E. Suppl.): E88-E103.
Shaver, R. D. Nytes, A. J., Satter, L. D., and Jorgenson, N. A. 1986. Influence of amount of feed intake and forage physical form on digestion and passage of prebloom alfalfa hay in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 69:1545-1559.
Shaver, R. D. Nytes, A. J., Satter, L. D., and Jorgenson, N. A. 1988. Impact of forage fiber content on digestion and digesta passage in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 71:1556-1565.
Sloan, B. K. and P. Rowlinson. 1988. The influence of a formulated excess of rumen degradable protein or undegradable protein on milk production in dairy cows in early lactation. Anim. Prod. 46:13-22.
Smith, R. H. 1975. Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen and the composition and nutritive value of nitrogen compounds entering the duodenum. Digestion and metabolism in the ruminant. I. W. McDonald and A. C. I. Warner, ed. Univ. New Engl. Publ. Unit, Armide, Australia. PP. 399.
Sniffen, C. J., J. D. O’Connor, P. J. Van Soest, D.G. Fox, and J. B. Russell. 1992. A net carbohydrate and proten system for evaluating cattle diets: II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3562-3577.
Soares, J. 1995a. Calcium bioavailability. pp. 95-113 in Bioavailability of Nutrients for Animals. C. B. Ammerman, D. H. Baker, and A. J. Lewis, eds. New York: Academic Press, Inc.
Socha, M. 1991. Effect of feeding heat-processed whole soybeans on milk production, milk composition, and milk fatty acid profile. M. S. Thesis, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison, WI.
Soder, K. J., and L. A. Holden. 1999. Lymphocyte proliferation response of lactating dairy cows fed varying concentration of rumen-protected methionine. J. Dairy Sci. 82:1935-1942.
Solomon, R., L. E. Chase, D. Ben-Ghedalia, and D. E. Bauman. 2000. The effect of nonstructural carbohydrate and addition of full fat extruded soybeans on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in the milk fat of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 83:1322-1329.
Spain, J. N., C. E. Alvarado, C. E. Polan, C. N. Miller and M. L. McGilliard. 1990. Effect of protein source and energy on milk compositeon in midlactation dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 73:445-452.
Stanford, K., T. A. McAllister, Z. Xu, M. Pickard, and K. J. Cheng. 1995. Comparison of lignosulfonate-treated canola meal and soybean meal as rumen undegradable protein supplements for lamds. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 75:371-378.
Stern, M. D., L. D. Rode, R. W. Prange, R. H. Stauffacher, and L. D. Satter. 1983. Ruminal protein degradation of corn glutein meal in lactating dairy cattle fitted with duodenal T-type cannulae. J. Anim. Sci. 56-194-205.
Stern, M. D.,G. A. Varga., J. H. Clark., J. L. Firkins., J. T. Huber., and D. L. Palmqist. 1994. Evaluation of chemical and physical properties of feeds that affect protein metabolism in the rumen. J. Dairy Sci. 77:2762-2782.
Stokes, S. R., W. H. Hoover, T. K. Miller and R. Blauweikel. 1991. Ruminal digestion and microbial utilization of diets varying in type of carbohydrate and protein. J. Dairy Sci. 74:871-881.
Storm, E., and E. R. Ørskov. 1983. The nutritive value of rumen micro-organism in ruminants. 1. Large scale isolation and chemical composition of rumen micro-organism. Br. J. Nutr. 50:463-470.
Storm, E., and E. R. Ørskov. 1983. The nutritive value of rumen micro-organisms. Br. J. Nutr. 50:463-470.
St-Pierre, N. R., and C. S. Thraen. 1999. Animal grouping strategies, Sources of variation, and economic factors affecting nutrient balance on dairy farms. J. Dairy Sci. 82(Auppl.2):72-83.
Strobel, H. J., and J. B. Russell. 1986. Effect of PH and energy spilling on bacterial protein synthesis by carbohydrate liminted cultures of mixed rumen bacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2941-2947.
Tamminga, S. 1979. Protein degradation in the forestomachs of ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 49:1615-1630.
Targari, H., A. Arieli, S. Mabjeesh, I. Bruckental, S. Zamwell, and Y. Aharoni. 1995. Assessment of duodenal amino acid profile in dairy cows by the in situ method. Livest. Prod. Sci. 42:13-20.
Tice, E. M., M. L. Eastridge, and J. L. Firkins. 1993. Raw soybeans and roasted soybeans of different particle size. 1. Digestility and utilization by lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:224-235.
Tigemeyer, E. C., N. R. Merchen, and L. L. Berger. 1989. Evaluation of soybean meal, corn gluten meal, blood meal and fish meal as sources of nitrogen and amino acids disappearing from the small intestine of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 67:262-275.
Tilley, J. M. A. and R. A. Terry. 1963. A two-satge technique for the digestion of forage crops. J. Br. Grassl. Soc. 18:104-111.
Tung, R. S. and L. Kung. Jr. 1993. In vitro effects of thiopeptide and monensin on ruminal fermentation of soluble carbohydrate. J. Dairy Sci. 76:1083-1090.
Tyrrel, H. C., and P. W. Moe. 1975. Effect of intake on digestive efficiency. J. Dairy Sci. 58:1151-1163.
Van Horn H. H., C. A. Rometa, C. J. Wilcox, S. P. Marshall, and B. Harris, Jr. 1979. Complete rations for dairy cattle. Ⅷ. Effect of percent and source of protein on milk yield and ration digrestibility. J. Dairy Sci. 62:1086-1093.
Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutrition Ecology of The Ruminant. Second Edition. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Van Straalen, W. M., M. D. Tamminga. 1990. Protein degration of ruminant diet. Page 55 in Feed Evaluation. J. Wiseman and D. J. A. Cole, ed. Butterworth, London, Engl.
Varel, V. H. 1997. Use of urease inhibitos to control nitrogen loss from livestock waste. Bioresource Technol. 62:11-17.
Varga, G. A. and E. C. Prigge. 1982. Influence of forage species and level of intake on ruminal turnover rate. J. Anim. Sci. 55:1498-1504.
Visek, W. J. 1984. Ammonia: its effects on biological systems, metabolic hormones, and reproduction. J. Dairy Sci. 67:481-498.
Wallace, R. J. 1985. Adsorption of soluble proteins to rumen bacteria and the role of adsorption in proteolysis. Br. J. Nutr. 53:399-408.
Wallace, R. J. 1996. Ruminal microbial metabolism of peptides and amino acid. J. Nutr. 126:1326-1334.
Wallace, R. J., and C. A. Munro. 1986. Influence of the rumen anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis on the proteolytic activity of a defined mixture of rumen bacteria growing on a solid substrate. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 3:23-26.
Waltz, D. M. and M. D. Stern. 1989. Evaluation of various methods for protecting soya-bean protein form degradation by rumen bacteria. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 25:111-117.
Waltz, D. M., M. D. Stern, and D. J. Illg. 1989. Effect of ruminal protein degration of blood meal and feather meal on the intestinal amino acid supply to lactating coes. J. Dairy Sci. 72:1509-1518.
Wang, Y., T. A. McAllister, D. R. Zobell, M. D. Pickard, L. M. Rode, and K. J. Cheng. 1999. Effect of micronizing full fat canola seed on amino acid disappearance in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:537-544.
Ward, J. D., and J. W. Spears. 1992. Effect of trace mineral source on mineral metabolism, performance and immune response in stressed cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 70(supp. 1): 300(Abstr.).
Weakley, D. C., M. D. Stern, and L. D. Satter. 1983. Factors affecting disappearance of feedstuffs from bags suspended in the rumen. J. Anim. Sci. 56:493-507.
Welch, J. G. 1982. Rumination, particle size and passage from the rumen. J. Anim. Sci. 54:885-894.
Windchitl, P. M. and M. D. Stern. 1988. Evaution of calcium lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal as a source of rumen protected protein for dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 71:3310-3318.
Wohlt, J. E., C. J. Sniffen, W. H. Hoover., L. L. Johnson and C.K. Walker. 1976. Nitrogen metabolism in weathers as affected by dietary protein solubility and amino acid profile. J. Anim. Sci. 42:1280-1289.
Wohlt, J. E., S. L. Chmiel, P. K. Zajac, L. Backer, D. B. Belthen, and J. L. Evans. 1991. Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, and nitrogen use in Holstein cows fed soybean, fish, or corn gluten meals. J. Dairy Sci. 74:1609-1622.
Zaman, M. S., M. A. McNiven, B. Grimmelt, and J. A. MacLeod. 1995. Effect of roasting of lupins (Lupinus albus ) and high protein variety of soybeans (AC proteus) on chemical composition and in situ dry matter and nitrogen disappearance cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 51:329-335.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔