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研究生:陳家鴻
論文名稱:‘玉荷苞’及‘黑葉’荔枝果實採收後生理及保鮮技術之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on the post-harvest physiology and preservation techniques of'Yuh Her Bau'and 'Hei Yeh' litchi(litchi chinensis sonn.)
指導教授:柯立祥柯立祥引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:農園生產系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:荔枝呼吸率乙烯產生率非更年性果實包裝藥劑處理品質貯藏壽命
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本研究主要是針對屏東縣萬巒地區所栽種的‘玉荷苞’(Yuh Her Bau)及‘黑葉’(Hei Yeh)兩栽培種荔枝(Litch chinensis Sonn.)果實為材料,探討荔枝在不同溫度之採收後基本呼吸及乙烯產生行為並利用不同包裝方式(裸果、PVC盒、PVC盒外加PE袋抽氣密封、PVC盒外加PE袋不抽氣密封、PE發泡布包覆果實+PE袋密封外加PVC盒、PE袋密封、打孔PE袋、禮盒紙箱)、不同厚度(0.03mm、0.05mm)PE塑膠帶包裝處理、不同延緩果皮褐化之藥劑處理及不同抑菌等處理來瞭解對果實採後生理、貯藏壽命、品質及果實褐化腐敗之影響。結果顯示,‘玉荷苞’及‘黑葉’荔枝果實,在不同貯藏溫度(0-25℃)下,均無出現明顯的呼吸峰及乙烯高峰,顯示荔枝為典型非更年性果實。
‘玉荷苞’及‘黑葉’荔枝果實利用不同包裝於不同貯藏溫度下,皆以裸果處理之貯藏壽命最短,以PVC盒外加PE袋(0.03mm)抽氣密封包裝能有效延長果實貯藏壽命,‘玉荷苞’荔枝於0-5℃貯藏之果實貯藏壽命為26-27天,而‘黑葉’荔枝為25-26天。貯藏期間之品質變化隨貯藏天數增加,果實之可溶性固形物、可滴定酸及維生素C含量均呈下降之趨勢,而pH值則呈上升之趨勢。荔枝果皮顏色方面,隨著貯藏時間增加,‘玉荷苞’荔枝色相角度呈下降趨勢,而‘黑葉’荔枝則呈上升之趨勢。另外,以厚度較厚(0.05mm)之PE塑膠袋包裝也能延長荔枝貯藏壽命,利用PE袋(0.05mm)內附乙烯吸收劑密封包裝處理並搭配適合的貯藏溫度(5℃),可獲得最長的貯藏壽命,約28-30天之間。

‘玉荷苞’及‘黑葉’荔枝果實利用不同藥劑處理對果皮褐化之影響上,結果顯示,以1%HCl處理及6%NaHSO3+4%HCl處理配合低溫(5℃)之延緩果皮褐化效果最顯著,尤其是6%NaHSO3+4%HCl處理後貯藏期間果皮呈均一之粉紅色果皮,有效延緩荔枝果皮褐化。另外,在不同抑菌處理對果實腐敗上,以二氧化氯(ClO2)處理貯藏30天後果實腐敗率較低,抑菌效果最顯著。
中文摘要........................................I
Abstract.......................................III
謝誌............................................V
目錄............................................VI
圖表目錄........................................VIII
壹、 前言......................................1
貳、 前人研究...................................3
ㄧ、荔枝果皮褐化之原因.........................3
二、荔枝採後保鮮技術..........................7
(一) 二氧化硫(SO2)燻蒸處理 ............7
(二) 浸泡酸液............................8
(三) 熱處理..............................8
(四) 幾丁聚糖處理.........................9
三、果實呼吸率與乙烯產生率.....................10
四、採後氣調、氣變貯藏及包裝技術之應用.......... 11
(一) 氣調貯藏............................11
(二) 氣變貯藏及包裝技術...................12
參、 試驗材料與方法.............................15
ㄧ、荔枝果實(‘玉荷苞’及‘黑葉)’在不同貯藏溫度之呼吸率及乙
烯產生率之變化............................15
(一) 乙烯產生率測定......................15
(二) 二氧化碳含量之測定...................16
二、包裝及貯藏溫度對果實品質及貯藏壽命之影響.....16
(一) 包裝及溫度處理.......................16
(二) 果實品質測定方式.....................17
(三) 貯藏壽命判定.........................18
三、不同厚度PE塑膠袋包裝於不同貯藏溫度下對果實品質及貯
藏壽命之影響...............................19
(一) 包裝及溫度處理.......................19
(二) 果實品質測定方式.....................19
(三) 貯藏壽命判定.........................19
四、不同藥劑處理對荔枝果實品質及果皮褐化之影響....20
(一) 第一年試驗...........................20
(二) 第二年試驗...........................20
(三) 果實品質測定方式......................20
(四) 果皮褐化率及等級之判定.................20
五、不同抑菌處理對荔枝果實腐敗及品質之影響........22
(一) 果實品質測定方式......................22
(二) 果實腐敗率及等級之判定.................23
六、數據統計分析與圖表繪製......................23
肆、 結果.......................................24
ㄧ、荔枝果實在不同貯藏溫度之呼吸率及乙烯產生率之變化.24
二、不同包裝方式及不同貯藏溫度對果實之影響........27
(一) 包裝及貯藏溫度對果實品質及貯藏壽命之影響.27
(二) 不同厚度PE塑膠袋包裝於不同貯藏溫度下對果實品
質對果實品質及貯藏壽命之影響..............47
三、不同藥劑處理對荔枝果實品質及果皮褐化之影響.....59
(一) 第一年試驗............................59
(二) 第二年試驗............................74
四、不同抑菌處理對荔枝果實腐敗及品質之影響.........87
伍、 討論........................................98
ㄧ、荔枝果實在不同貯藏溫度之呼吸率及乙烯產生率之變化.98
二、包裝及貯藏溫度對果實品質及貯藏壽命之影響.......99
三、不同厚度PE塑膠袋包裝於不同貯藏溫度下對貯藏壽命之
影響…………………………………………………………102
四、藥劑處理對荔枝果實品質及果皮褐化之影響.........103
五、抑菌處理對荔枝果實腐敗及品質之影響............107
陸、 結論........................................109
參考文獻 ..........................................111
作者簡介 ..........................................122
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