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研究生:林韋仁
研究生(外文):Wei-Jen Lin
論文名稱:大氣微粒上不同型態金屬組成特性探討
論文名稱(外文):Characterization of different types of metals in atmospheric particulates
指導教授:陳瑞仁陳瑞仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shui-Jen Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:懸浮微粒不穩定性成分酸雨成分水溶性成分生物有效性成分每日吸入金屬吸收量
外文關鍵詞:PMLabile fractionAcid-rain fractionWater-soluble fractionBioaccessible fractionDaily Respiratory Uptakes (DRU)
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本研究於民國96年3月17~19日及9月3~5日,在屏東市台一線省道路旁(簡稱交通源)及屏東市中正國小3樓頂(簡稱都會區),以泛用型空氣採樣器,進行大氣粗(PM2.5-10)細(PM2.5)懸浮微粒採樣。此外於96年12月30日至97年1月1日在屏東科技大學環工系館三樓頂(簡稱郊區),以分道採樣器(簡稱Dichot),進行連續三天大氣粗(PM2.5-10)細(PM2.5)懸浮微粒採樣,以探討交通源、都會區及郊區大氣微粒上所分析17種金屬與S及Si各成分之總濃度(Total concentration)、不穩定性成分(Labile fraction)、酸雨成分(Acid-rain fraction)、水溶性成分(Water-soluble fraction)及生物有效性成分(Bioaccessible fraction)等不同型態成分之特性。
研究結果顯示:採樣期間交通源大氣PM2.5及PM2.5-10濃度均明顯地較都會區之值高(分別為1.7及2.6倍)。都會區大氣PM10上細微粒濃度佔之比例(PM2.5/PM10=0.80±0.04)較交通源之値(0.72±0.03)高。降雨後交通源及都會區其大氣粗細微粒濃度均較長時間晴天時之測值低。與9月份交通源及都會區測值相較,郊區12月底採樣期間,因受大陸沙塵暴影響,其大氣粗細微粒濃度雖然均明顯地分別比鄰近污染源之交通源及都會區之測值高,亦比都會區3月採樣時之值高;然因其懸浮微粒(PM10)中粗微粒(PM2.5-10)濃度之增加明顯地較細微粒(PM2.5)多,致在郊區其大氣PM2.5/PM10值(平均0.59±0.01)反而均較交通源及都會區之值低。
交通源與都會區大氣PM2.5及PM2.5-10上所測之17種金屬中各金屬之總濃度大致上均以Na、K、Mg、Al、Fe及Zn等6物種最多,而郊區則以Na、K、Mg、Al、Ca、Fe及Zn等為主要物種。交通源及都會區大氣PM2.5及PM2.5-10上所測之19項物種各存在成分(fraction)之濃度皆以S最高,而郊區則以Si最高。交通源、都會區及郊區大氣PM2.5及PM2.5-10上所測各物種存在成分含量大小之順序皆依序為:不穩定成分>酸雨成分>水溶性成分>生物有效性成分。
由於交通源路旁大氣粗細微粒上金屬之濃度均約為都會區測值之2倍,且交通源大氣粗細微粒上Zn、Mn、Ni及Pb等金屬每日之吸收量(Daily Respiratory Uptakes,簡稱DRU)均較都會區之值高,顯示:在交通源區,隨微粒吸入人體之金屬,其對人體健康之危害可能較都會區大。
This study investigated total, labile, acid-rain, water-soluble, and bioaccessible fractions of metals in atmospheric particles collected at three sites. Coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) particle samplings were performed using UAS during March 17-19 and September 3-5, 2007 beside a busy road (traffic site) and at the roof of a three-story building at the Chungcheng Elementary School (urban site) in the Pintung City. Furthermore, a continuous 3-day atmospheric PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 sampling, was conducted using Dichot from December 30, 2007 to January 1, 2008 at the roof of three-story Department of Environmental Engineering (rural site), National Pingtung University of Science and Technology.
The results show that the concentrations of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 at the traffic site were 1.7 and 2.6 times higher than those at the urban site, respectively. The PM2.5/PM10 ratio at the urban site (0.80 ± 0.04) was higher than that at the traffic site (0.72 ± 0.03). The coarse and fine particle concentrations at the urban and traffic sites were lower after raining when compared to the corresponding data on sunny days. In 2007, because of the impact of Asian dust storm, the coarse and fine particle concentrations at the rural site in December were higher than those at the urban and traffic sites in September and March. However, the increase of coarse particle concentration was significantly higher than that of fine particle concentration; therefore, the PM2.5/PM10 ratio at the rural (0.59±0.01) in December, 2007 was lower than those at the urban and traffic sites.
Among 17 analyzed metals, the main metal species in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 at both the traffic and urban sites were Na, K, Mg, Al, Fe, and Zn, while the dominate species at the rural site were Na, K, Mg, Al, Ca, Fe, and Zn. According to the nineteen-species composition analysis, the most abundant element in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 at both urban and traffic sites was S. However, the major species of atmospheric particles was Si at the rural site. For the metals in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 at the three sites, the metal fraction concentrations exhibited the order of labile fraction > acid-rain fraction > water-soluble fraction > bioaccessible fraction.
The metal concentrations of coarse and fine particles at the traffic site were about 2 times that of the urban site. Furthermore, the Daily Respiratory Uptakes (DRU) of Zn, Mn, Ni, and Pb from traffic coarse and fine particles were all higher than those of urban background, indicating that the adverse health effect form the inhalation of traffic-related particle-bound metals is higher in the near-traffic location than in the urban site.
目錄
摘要 I
Abstract III
謝誌 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第1章 前言 1
1.1研究緣起 1
1.2研究目的 2
1.3研究目標 2
第2章 文獻回顧 3
2.1大氣微粒特性 3
2.1.1微粒形成機制及來源 3
2.1.2微粒之粒徑分佈 7
2.1.3不同粒徑微粒之研究 8
2.2大氣微粒上金屬元素特性 10
2.2.1微粒上金屬成分及來源 10
2.2.2金屬之汙染特性 14
2.3環境中金屬元素之遷移 16
2.4微粒對健康之影響 17
2.4.1微粒沉積機制 17
2.4.2微粒對健康之危害 19
2.4.3微粒上金屬元素之毒害性 22
第3章 研究方法 25
3.1採樣規劃 25
3.1.1採樣地點描述 25
3.1.2採樣時間 28
3.1.3採樣設備 28
3.2濾紙前處理與成分分析 32
3.2.1濾紙前處理 32
3.2.2金屬成分分析 32
3.3品質保證與品質管制 37
3.3.1採樣方法之品保與品管 37
3.3.2分析方法之品保與品管 38
第4章 結果與討論 43
4.1大氣微粒濃度與比值 43
4.1.1大氣微粒質量濃度 43
4.1.2大氣微粒濃度比值 46
4.2大氣微粒上金屬、S及Si總濃度 48
4.2.1交通源大氣微粒上金屬、S及Si總濃度 48
4.2.2都會區大氣微粒上金屬、S及Si總濃度 51
4.2.3郊區大氣微粒上金屬、S及Si總濃度 53
4.2.4各測點大氣微粒上金屬、S及Si總濃度比較 55
4.3微粒上各物種不同成分之濃度與所佔百分比 56
4.3.1微粒上各物種之Labile fraction濃度與所佔百分比 56
4.3.2微粒上各物種之Acid-rain fraction濃度與所佔百分比 62
4.3.3微粒上各物種之Water-soluble fraction濃度與所佔百分比 68
4.3.4微粒上各物種之Bioaccessible fraction濃度與所佔百分比 74
4.3.5微粒上各物種不同成分之比較 80
4.4人體肺部每日吸入金屬之吸收量 81
4.4.1每日吸入金屬吸收量之估算 81
4.4.2大氣微粒上金屬之DRU 82
第5章 結論與建議 86
5.1結論 86
5.2建議 88
參考文獻 89
附錄 99
作者簡介 106
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