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研究生:楊文玲
研究生(外文):Yang, Wen-Ling
論文名稱:出尾蟲授粉對番荔枝(大目種)著果之影響
論文名稱(外文):Carpophilus humerlis(Fabricius)as pollinator and its effects on the fruit set of the sugar apple, Annona squamosa L. cv. Da-Mo
指導教授:賴博永賴博永引用關係張念台
指導教授(外文):Po-Yung Lai, Ph. D.Niann-Tai Chang, Ph. D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業暨國際合作系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:55
中文關鍵詞:出尾蟲傳粉番荔枝夜間燈照人工授粉
外文關鍵詞:nitidulid beetlepollinationsugar applenight lightingartificial pollination
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論文摘要內容:
番荔枝為台東重要特產經濟果樹,其栽植面積為5,319公頃。近年推廣人工異花授粉,以穩定產量與提升品質,但人工授粉之勞力成本負荷較高,故為減輕人力負荷,簡化授粉作業,本研究以番荔枝開花期間利用甲蟲(Carpophilus humerlis (Fabricius))協助授粉。調查比較以出尾蟲傳粉、人工授粉及夜間燈照對著果的影響,期能以更有效的處理方法降低成本,提升釋迦之市場競爭力。實驗以`大目種'番荔枝之夏期果在開花季節的高峰期,擬室外罩網內放825隻/24m2 出尾蟲,共放2,475隻出尾蟲;第二次試驗於室外罩網內放1,100隻/24m2 出尾蟲,共放3,300隻出尾蟲,但不放置鳳梨,避免受測蟲只在鳳梨內而不拜訪花朵。結果顯示夜間燈照區的花數較出尾蟲釋放區、人工授粉區及對照組均顯著較多,夜間燈照的費用除共同費用外,另增加30.6%的額外成本。在著果數上,人工授粉區(15.4顆)較夜間燈照區、出尾蟲釋放區及對照組顯著較多。而在平均果徑上,人工授粉區(92.3mm)較夜間燈照區、出尾蟲釋放區及對照組亦顯著較大,且以人工授粉有顯著較多著果數(139顆)及品質較好(完整89%,不完整11%),人工授粉的費用除共同費用外,另增加11.7%的額外成本。
The Content of Abstract in The Thesis:
The sugar apple, Annona squamosa L. cv. Da-Mo, is an important economic fruit crop in Taitung and its cultivated area was estimated at 5,319 ha. Recently artificial pollination was widely used to stabilize productivity and to enhance fruit quality. However, the labor cost for the artificial pollination is additional to the common costs in the sugar apple production. Therefore, to minimize the burden of the added labor cost and to simplify production process, this study utilized Carpophilus humeralis (Fabricius) to assist in pollination at time of flowering. This study also compared the effects of different treatment methods, i.e., insect pollination, artificial pollination and lighting at night, on the number of fruit set to identify a more efficient and effective treatment method to reduce the overall costs and enhance the sugar apple’s market competitiveness. This study was conducted at the flowering period for the summer fruits of the sugar apple by releasing 1,100 ea C. humeralis/ 24m2 of a net house with a total of 3,300 ea C. humeralis released in 3 net houses in the field. No pineapple plants were placed in the net to prevent the released insects from being attracted by the plants. Results of the study showed that the number of flowers in the night lighting treatment area was significantly more than that in other treatment areas of insect release, artificial pollination and check. However, an extra 30.6% of the cost was added to the night lighting treatment area besides the commonly shared costs. The number of fruits set in the artificial pollination treatment area was significantly more than that in other treatment areas of night lighting, insect release and check. The mean diameter of fruits in the artificial pollination treatment area was also larger than that in other treatment areas of night lighting, insect release and check. On the average number of fruits set, artificial pollination area (15.4 fruits) was significantly more than that of the night lighting, insect releasing and check areas. On the mean diameter of each fruit produced, artificial pollination area (92.3mm) was significantly larger than that of the night lighting, insect releasing and check areas. The artificial pollination area (139 fruits) had significantly the most total number of fruits set and the best fruit quality (89% normal fruits and 11% abnormal fruits). However, the labor cost for the artificial pollination was 11.7% over and above the total material and labor costs shared by all other treatments.
目 錄
摘要-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅰ
Abstract---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅲ
謝誌-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IV

目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- V

圖表目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------- VIII

1.前言------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1
2.前人研究----------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
2.1番荔枝開花著果的生物特性------------------------------------------ 2
2.1.1果樹的開花 -------------------------------------------------------- 2
2.1.2番荔枝的開花------------------------------------------------------ 2
2.1.3番荔枝的花期------------------------------------------------------ 4
2.2 出尾蟲對著果之影響-------------------------------------------------- 4
2.2.1 出尾蟲與釋迦花之關係----------------------------------------- 4
2.2.2 出尾蟲在傳粉與著果所扮演的角色-------------------------- 5
2.3人工授粉對著果之影響------------------------------------------------ 7
2.3.1成功的人工授粉-------------------------------------------------- 7
2.3.2人工授粉方法------------------------------------------------------ 7
2.3.3人工授粉對著果之影響------------------------------------------ 8
2.4夜間燈照對著果之影響------------------------------------------------ 9
3.材料與方法-------------------------------------------------------------------- 11
3.1試驗材料------------------------------------------------------------------ 11
3.2試驗方法------------------------------------------------------------------ 11
3.2.1番荔枝開花的生物特性------------------------------------------ 14
3.2.2 出尾蟲對著果之影響-------------------------------------------- 15
3.2.3人工授粉對著果之影響------------------------------------------ 15
3.2.4夜間燈照對著果之影響------------------------------------------ 15
3.2.5 四處理區的成本調查-------------------------------------------- 17
3.3第二次出尾蟲釋放區試驗--------------------------------------------- 17
4.結果----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19
4.1番荔枝開花的生物特性------------------------------------------------ 19
4.2出尾蟲與人工授粉對著果之影響------------------------------------ 19
4.2.1出尾蟲釋放區的著果-------------------------------------------- 19
4.2.2人工授粉區的著果------------------------------------------------ 21
4.2.3 出尾蟲與人工授粉對著果之影響----------------------------- 22
4.3夜間燈照對著果之影響------------------------------------------------ 22
4.4四處理區的成本--------------------------------------------------------- 32
4.5 第二次出尾蟲釋放區試驗結果-------------------------------------- 34
5.討論----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 37
6.結論----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40
參考文獻-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 41
附錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45
作者簡介-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 55


圖表目錄
圖1.出尾蟲釋放區------------------------------------------------------------- 12
圖2.夜間燈照區---------------------------------------------------------------- 12
圖3.試驗區圖------------------------------------------------------------------- 13
圖4.花瓣發育之型態變化---------------------------------------------------- 14
圖5.出尾蟲試驗區圖---------------------------------------------------------- 18
圖6.瓣開期花上的出尾蟲---------------------------------------------------- 19
圖7.解剖顯微鏡下的出尾蟲(左:雌蟲,右:雄蟲)---------------- 20
圖8.解剖顯微鏡下攜粉的出尾蟲------------------------------------------- 20
圖9.出尾蟲釋放區番荔枝收成的果實大小和形態-------------------- 30
圖10.人工授粉區番荔枝收成的果實大小和形態---------------------- 30
圖11.對照組番荔枝收成的果實不完整大小和形態-------------------- 31
圖12.夜間燈照區番荔枝收成的果實大小和形態---------------------- 31
表1.夜間燈照區的照度------------------------------------------------------- 16
表2.人工授粉花數------------------------------------------------------------ 21
表3.番荔枝大目種授粉前花數之調查(2007.5.21)---------------- 24
表4.番荔枝大目種授粉期花數之調查(第一週)--------------------- 25
表5.番荔枝大目種授粉期花數之調查(第二週)--------------------- 26
表6.番荔枝大目種授粉期花數之調查(第三週)-------------------- 27
表7.番荔枝大目種授粉期花數之調查(第四週)-------------------- 28
表8.四處理區番荔枝大目種著果數及果實形態----------------------- 29
表9.四處理區之共同費用及額外費用------------------------------------ 33
表10.第二次試驗出尾蟲釋放區番荔枝大目種花數之調查----------- 35
表11.第二次出尾蟲釋放區試驗番荔枝大目種著果數(2008.6.15) 36
附表一、番荔枝大目種授粉前不同處理區之花數(2007.5.21)------- 45
附表二、番荔枝大目種授粉期第一週不同處理區之花數--------------- 47
附表三、番荔枝大目種授粉期第二週不同處理區之花數-------------- 49
附表四、番荔枝大目種授粉期第三週不同處理區之花數-------------- 51
附表五、番荔枝大目種授粉期第四週不同處理區之花數-------------- 53
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