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研究生:陳淑媛
研究生(外文):Shu-Yuan Chen
論文名稱:工作實境預覽、認知失調與新進員工組織承諾及離職傾向之關連性研究
論文名稱(外文):The Relationship among Realistic Job Previews, Cognitive Dissonance, New Employees’ Employee Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intentions
指導教授:溫金豐溫金豐引用關係吳淑鈴吳淑鈴引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jin-feng, UenShu-Ling Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:124
中文關鍵詞:離職傾向組織承諾認知失調工作實境預覽招募資訊
外文關鍵詞:Realistic job previewturnover intentions.organizational commitmentcognitive dissonancerecruiting information
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近幾年來,愈來愈多的組織致力於提升整體招募績效,以求找到最適合的員工。而隨著科技的進步與發展,不同的招募管道也隨之衍生。而這些招募管道是否能為公司引進高績效的員工仍有待進一步的研究驗證 (Taylor, 1988)。 為了進一步了解工作實境預覽(RJPs)的實際效果及驗證最佳工作實境預覽的形式及實行工作實境預覽的時機,我們延續過去許多學者所進行之工作實驗預覽之研究,以釐清相關影響之因素。此外,新進員工在招募過程中所獲得真實招募資訊的多寡也將在本研究中進行討論。在一研究中,我們延用過去只用於行銷領域的「認知失調」概念於組織議題中,欲藉由此一研究驗證此一概念應用於組織議題中的可行性。此一研究目的是為了了解目前在台灣工作實境預覽及招募管道之現況以及新進員工在招募過程中所獲得資訊的多寡,是否造成其對該組織資訊瞭解程度上認知失調的高低,並造成新進員工進入組織之後,對組織承諾及離職傾向高低等相關因素之研究。
本研究針對台灣25家公司目前工作年資一年以下的新進員工為樣本,一共發放280份問卷,共回收237份問卷,剔除無效問卷後,最後有效分析樣本為217份。使用One Way ANOVA及直線迴歸進行研究分析,研究結果發現摘要如下:
1. 根據研究結果指出,近來應徵者最常使用的管道為利用網路介面進行求職及應徵等動作。將近九成的求職者透過面談的形式了解該公司與職務的情況。有超過一半的新進員工表示他們是進入公司後才獲得與該工作或公司的實際資訊,顯示大部分的求才公司都未能在招募階段做好工作實境預覽。
2. 工作實境預覽將影響應徵者進入公司後所產生認知失調之程度。其中工作實際預覽中使用書面資訊作為資訊傳遞媒介者,爾後造成求職者認知失調程度最高。負責面試人員的職位也顯示與求職者爾後的認知失調程度有關。根據研究結果指出,相對於其他職位,若負責面試人員與新進人員為同事關係,將造成較高的認知失調程度。
3. 工作實境預覽與新進員工之社會化結果(組織承諾、離職傾向)相關。 研究結果顯示,求才公司提供工作實境預覽的時間點與新進員工之組織承諾與離職傾向有關聯性。
4. 招募資訊與新進員工之認知失調程度相關。研究結果指出招募資訊的多寡與新進員工的認知失調程度有高度相關性,同時招募資訊的真實度與新進員工的認知失調程度、離職傾向有負向相關而與新進員工的組織承諾有正向相關性。
5. 新進員工的認知失調程度與其組織承諾有負向相關性而與離職傾向有正向相關性。
6. 新進員工之認知失調程度對於招募資訊及新進員工之組織承諾及離職傾向有部份中介效果。
Nowadays, more and more organizations put efforts on recruitment process in order to find the right employees. With the new technology development, the various recruitment sources yield. The differential effectiveness of the various sources through which outside applicants hear of employment opportunities at a particular organization needs further research to identify which sources yield stable, reliable, and high-performing employees (Taylor, 1988). In this study, we also adapt the concept of cognitive dissonance which has been never used in organizational issues to see its availability on organizational issues. In order to know how realistic job previews (RJPs) can be functioned effectively and when and in what forms the realistic job previews messages are processed most effectively by new comers during recruitment process, we need to extend the realistic job previews prior research and try to understand the factors that influence an realistic job preview message as well as how realistic job previews operate to influence socialization outcomes. Besides, how effective the new comers acquire the realistic job preview messages (information) is also an important issue that will be emphasized in this study. This study contributed to understand the current situation of realistic job previews which recruiters provide during recruitment procedure and the relationship between RJPs, cognitive dissonance and socialization outcomes.
In this study, the sample was distributed to the new employees whose tenure was less than one year. The total distributed samples were 280 and returned samples were 237. We excluded 20 invalid responses and final samples were 217. One Way ANOVA and Linear Regression were used to analyse the relationship between variables in this study. The result can be summarized as follows:
1. As the result reported, most of applicants (66.8%) apply job through Internet. The result indicates that most of applicants today prefer web-based interface as they try to seek recruitment related information. Most applicants (85.7%) experience laboratory setting (e.g. interview) during recruitment process. Over half of new comers (56.2%) get realistic job information after they started the job. The result suggests that over half of applicants get whole realistic job preview after they accept the job offer.
2. As our result reported, greater use of medium, settings, and recruiters while realistic job previews are presented during recruitment process significantly influence new comers’ cognitive dissonance, especially for wisdom of making employment decision and concern over selection procedure. The result indicates that the medium of written, will lead the strongest influence to new comers’ cognitive dissonance during recruitment process. The position of recruiters who provide job information during recruitment process is reported to significantly influence wisdom of making employment decision and concern over selection procedure. The result of comparison between groups suggests that if line employees who are responsible to provide job information, the new comers will perceive a stronger influence on the degrees of cognitive dissonance comparing with the recruiters who are in other positions.
3. Great use of timing of realistic job previews presented during recruitment process is partially associated with new comers’ socialization outcomes.

4. Realistic job preview information presented during recruitment process is negatively associated with new comers’ cognitive dissonance, positively associated with organizational commitment and negatively associated with turnover intention after they get into an organization.
5. Cognitive dissonance except emotional, is negatively associated with organizational commitment and positively associated with turnover intention.
6. The mediating effect of cognitive dissonance between realistic job previews and socialization outcomes is noteworthy.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Overview 1
1.2 Aims and Objectives 2
1.3 Research Flow 2
Chapter 2 Literature Review and Hypotheses 5
2.1 Realistic Job Preview 5
2.1.1 Definition of Realistic Job Preview 5
2.1.2 Socialization Outcomes 9
2.1.2.1 Organizational Commitment 9
2.1.2.2 Turnover intention 11
2.1.3 Cognitive Dissonance during recruitment process 12
2.1.4 Medium 16
2.1.5 Timing 19
2.1.6 Setting 21
2.1.7 Recruitment Sources 23
2.1.8 Recruiter 29
2.1.9 Recruiting Information 33
Chapter 3 Methodology 38
3.1 Research Structure 38
3.2 Analyzing Method 39
3.3 Sample 42
3.4 Control variables 44
3.5 Measures 44
3.5.1 Realistic job preview information 45
3.5.2 Organizational commitment 47
3.5.3 Turnover intention 52
3.5.4 Cognitive dissonance 53
3.5.4.1 Emotional 56
3.5.4.2 Wisdom of Employment Decision 57
3.5.4.3 Concern over selection procedure 57
3.5.5 Social desirability 58
3.6 Sample Comparison 59
Chapter 4 Analyses and Result 64
4.1 Sample descriptive Analyses 64
4.2 Relationship between realistic job previews and cognitive dissonance 67
4.3 Relationship between realistic job previews and socialization outcomes 71
4.4 Relationship between realistic job preview information, cognitive dissonance and socialization outcomes 75
4.4.1 Realistic job preview information and cognitive dissonance 75
4.4.2 Realistic job preview information and socialization outcomes 79
4.5 Relationship between cognitive dissonance and socialization outcomes 82
4.6 Mediating effect analyses 85
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Suggestion 90
5.1 Discussion and Implication 90
5.1.1 Current situation of realistic job previews 90
5.1.2 Association between realistic job previews and cognitive dissonance 91
5.1.3 Association between realistic job previews and socialization outcomes 92
5.1.4 Association between recruitment information and cognitive dissonance 92
5.1.5 Association between recruitment information and socialization outcomes 92
5.1.6 Association between cognitive dissonance and socialization outcomes 93
5.1.7 Mediating effect of cognitive dissonance 93
5.2 Research Suggestions 94
5.2.1 Recruiters 94
5.2.2 Applicants (newcomers) 95
5.2.3 Future researchers 96
References 98
Appendix Questionnaire 109
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