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研究生:張舒婷
研究生(外文):Shu-ting Chang
論文名稱:德瑞克渥克特之《海地三部曲》中之擬仿,多重聲音,與文化認同的建構
論文名稱(外文):Mimicry, Multiple Voices and the Construction of Cultural Identity in Derek Walcott''s The Haitian Trilogy
指導教授:王儀君王儀君引用關係
指導教授(外文):I-chun Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:海地之陸戰鼓與膚色克里斯多菲海地三部曲渥克特擬仿多重聲音文化認同
外文關鍵詞:Derek WalcottThe Haitian TrilogyHenri ChristopheDrums and ColoursThe Haitian Earthmultiple voicescultural identitymimicry
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本論文嘗試探討德瑞克.渥克特《海地三部曲》中所建構出的加勒比海地區之文化認同,而這三部曲的劇本分別為《亨利•克里斯多菲》、《戰鼓與膚色》、與《海地之陸》。藉由後殖民批評家以及文化評論家對於擬仿以及多重聲音的研究,文化認同的建構可以當作是一種承轉的過程以期達到最終認同所生長之土地而建立起的文化認同。加勒比海地區在被殖民的歷史背景以及後殖民當下現況的雙重影響之下,並結合其多元的種族組成,此地區常為認同建構所困。德瑞克.渥克特從如此複雜多樣的環境汲取寫作的靈感,並以其不斷的敏銳觀察和深入探討來再現認同之建構。本論文的引言從歷史背景和文學發展之雙重面向來引介加勒比海作家以歷史和文化作為其共同對此區域關注與研究的主題;也因為如此,在加勒比海作家的作品之中,文化認同建構之爭議可說是佔了極重要的地位。而其中海地革命在加勒比海的文學寫作之中扮演了關鍵性的角色,因為這場革命是承繼被殖民時期以及開啟後殖民時代的分水嶺,而不斷地回顧海地革命也啟發了加勒比海作家在為自己所處的歷史記憶來發聲,由身為後殖民的觀點來為過去的事件做出屬於自身觀點的紀錄與發言。德瑞克.渥克特的《海地三部曲》的完成並不是計畫式的接續書寫,而是德瑞克.渥克特在其寫作生涯中不斷地回顧以及書寫,並從重複書寫之中呈現更多元的角度來定義所謂的文化認同建構,其基礎是在於對於每個人所生長的土地的歸屬感以及認同這塊土的所屬的歷史記憶,進而創建由自我自覺而建構的文化認同。論文的第一章由《海地三部曲》之首部《亨利•克里斯多菲》開始,此劇本呈現的是以擬仿作為鬆動殖民與被殖民之間的權力關係。而如此的權力關係鬆動,啟發第二章《戰鼓與膚色》裡,德瑞克.渥克特擴大海地革命的書寫,將其年代橫跨近四百年來並陳加勒比海的殖民背景與來自於不同階級人民的聲音,並以此為據呈現後殖民相對於殖民的多元風貌。第三章《海地之陸》承繼前兩個劇本在建構文化認同之努力,為加勒比海地區的文化認同建構找到最佳註解,文化認同之建構來自於生長之於這塊土地的人民認知與認同這土地的歷史記憶,更甚於囿於苦難殖民背景之悲痛。結論闡明德瑞克.渥克特《海地三部曲》之書寫歷史建立文化認同,是一累進持續發展和省思的歷程而所建構出的文化認同,而此更可闡釋於與加勒比海地區有相似殖民過去的其他土地。
This thesis aims to interpret the construction of cultural identity of the Caribbean islands in Derek Walcott’s The Haitian Trilogy: Henri Christophe, Drums and Colours, and The Haitian Earth. To rely on the postcolonial and cultural critics’ study on mimicry, multiple voices and identity construction, I take the construction of cultural identity as a transitional process to fabricate a way to identify with the land that people live on. The colonial background and the postcolonial exploration in the Caribbean islands combined with its diverse racial components, the Caribbeans always experience the predicament in identity construction. Derek Walcott composes his writings from this complex environment and represents the identity formation through continuing observation and exploration. In Introduction, the historical context and the literary development in the Caribbean islands introduce the theme of history and cultural as the common consideration of Caribbean writers; therefore, among their writings, the construction of cultural identity situates a significant position in their writings. The Haitian Revolution plays a significant role in the cultural identity formation in the Caribbean literary writings, since it is the turning point to lead this area from colonization to postcolonial situation, and it inspires writers to review the historical incident and to rewrite the history that they, at this time, write by themselves. Derek Walcott’s The Haitian Trilogy comes not from a planned writing sequel, but from spontaneously reiterative consideration of the Haitian Revolution as a means to write the history of one’s own land and to construct the cultural identity from the self-articulation. Chapter Two—Henri Christophe examines the means of mimicry to loosen the colonial control over the colonized and furthermore subvert the colonial power. Chapter Three—Drums and Colours portrays the colonial and postcolonial subject relation by way of writing the colonial history and juxtaposing multiple voices of the different classes of characters. Chapter Four—The Haitian Earth aims to demonstrate the struggle to free from the colonization in order to construct the cultural identity from the identification with the land rather than with the remorse of the suffering past. The conclusion collocates the above discussion about the trilogy for the transitional process of the cultural identity formation and illuminates Walcott’s position on the construction of the cultural identity in the Caribbean islands and other similar areas.
Table of Contents
Chapter One—Introduction
The geographical and historical background of the Caribbean islands 1
The literary background of the Caribbean islands 6
Derek Walcott 10
The significance of the Haitian Revolution and plays 13

Chapter Two—Henri Christophe
The background of the Haitian Revolution 23
The play: Henri Christophe 26
The mimicry of General Jean Jacques Dessalines 27
The mimicry of General Henri Christophe 30

Chapter Three—Drums and Colours
The macroscopic historical writings of the play: Drums and Colours 46
The episode of Christopher Columbus 50
The episode of Walter Raleigh 54
The episode of the Haitian Revolution 59
The episode of George William Gordon 62

Chapter Four—The Haitian Earth
The retrospect of the Haitian Revolution: The Haitian Earth 67
The inner struggle and desire of generals: Dessalines and L’Ouverture 68
The suffering voices from smothered classes: Anton, Yette, and Pompey 71

Chapter Five—Conclusion 81
Appendix 91
Works Cited 93
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